Maratha Empire

Maratha Empire
1674–1818
Coat of arms of Maratha
Coat of arms
Motto: हर हर महादेव
"Har Har Mahadev"
(English: "Praises to Shiva")
Maratha Empire at its peak in 1760 (Yellow)
Maratha Empire at its peak in 1760 (Yellow)
Capital
Official languagesMarathi (court language, literature), Sanskrit (religious)
Common languagesOther South Asian languages
Religion
Hinduism
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy (1674–1731)
Oligarchy with restricted monarchial figurehead (1731–1818)
Chhatrapati 
• 1674-1680
Shivaji (first)
• 1808–1818
Pratap Singh (last)
Peshwa 
• 1674–1683
Moropant Pingle (first)
• 1803–1818
Baji Rao II (last)
• Titular
Nana Saheb (titular)
LegislatureAshta Pradhan
History 
1674
1680–1707
1758–1761
1763-1799
1775–1782
1803–1805
1818
Area
• 1760.
2,500,000[2] km2 (970,000 sq mi)
CurrencyRupee, Paisa, Mohur, Shivrai, Hon
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Mughal Empire
Bijapur Sultanate
Sikh Empire
Company rule in India
Satara state
Today part of

Maratha Empire, or the Maratha Confederacy, was an early modern Indian confederation that came to dominate much of the Indian subcontinent in the 18th century. Maratha rule formally began in 1674[note 1] with the coronation of Shivaji as the Chhatrapati (Marathi: "Keeper of the Umbrella"). Although Shivaji came from the Maratha caste, the Maratha empire also included warriors, administrators and other notables from Maratha and several other castes from Maharashtra.[5] They were responsible for weakening the Mughal control over the Indian subcontinent and establishing the Maratha Empire.[6][7][8][9]Maratha rule officially ended in 1818 with the defeat of Peshwa Bajirao II surrendered to the English East India Company in Third Anglo-Maratha War.

The Marathas were a Marathi-speaking warrior group from the western Deccan Plateau (present-day Maharashtra) who rose to prominence by establishing Hindavi Swarajya (meaning "self-rule of Hindus").[10][11] The Marathas became prominent in the 17th century under the leadership of Shivaji, who revolted against the Adil Shahi dynasty, and the Mughals to carve out a kingdom with Raigad as his capital.

His father, Shahaji, had earlier conquered Thanjavur which Shivaji's half-brother, Venkoji Rao (alias Ekoji) inherited. This kingdom was known as the Thanjavur Maratha kingdom. Bangalore which was established in 1537 by a vassal of the Vijayanagara Empire, Kempe Gowda I who declared independence, was captured in 1638 by a large Adil Shahi Bijapur army led by Ranadulla Khan who, accompanied by his second in command Shahaji, defeated Kempe Gowda III. As a result, Bangalore was given to Shahaji as a jagir (feudal estate). Known for their mobility, the Marathas were able to consolidate their territory during the Mughal–Maratha Wars and later controlled a large part of the Indian subcontinent.

Upon his release from Mughal captivity, Shahu became the Maratha ruler after a brief struggle with his aunt Tarabai, with the help of Balaji Vishwanath. Pleased by his help, Shahu appointed Balaji and later, his descendants, as the Peshwas or prime ministers of the empire.[12] Balaji and his descendants played a key role in the expansion of Maratha rule. The empire at its peak stretched from Tamil Nadu[13] in the south, to Peshawar (modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan[14]) in the north, and Orissa & West Bengal up to the Hooghly River,[15] in the east. The Marathas discussed abolishing the Mughal throne and placing Vishwas Rao on it in Delhi.

In 1761, the Maratha Army lost the Third Battle of Panipat, which halted their imperial expansion into Afghanistan. Ten years after Panipat, the young Peshwa Madhav Rao I's Maratha Resurrection reinstated Maratha authority over North India.

To effectively manage the large empire, Madhav Rao gave semi-autonomy to the strongest of the knights, creating a confederacy of Maratha states. These leaders became known as the Gaekwads of Baroda, the Holkars of Indore and Malwa, the Scindias of Gwalior and Ujjain, the Bhonsales of Nagpur, the Jadhavs of Vidarbha, the Dabhades of Gujarat, the Puars of Dhar and Dewas. In 1775, the East India Company intervened in a Peshwa family succession struggle in Pune, which led to the First Anglo-Maratha War in which the Marathas emerged victorious.[16] The Marathas remained the pre-eminent power in India until their defeat in the Second and Third Anglo-Maratha Wars (1805–1818), which resulted in the East India Company seizing control of most of the Indian subcontinent.[citation needed]

A large portion of the Maratha empire was coastline, which had been secured by the potent Maratha Navy under commanders such as Kanhoji Angre. He successfully kept foreign naval ships at bay, particularly those of the Portuguese and British.[17] Securing the coastal areas and building land-based fortifications were crucial aspects of the Maratha's defensive strategy and regional military history.

Nomenclature[]

The Maratha Empire is also referred to as the Maratha Confederacy. The historian Barbara Ramusack says that the former is a designation preferred by Indian nationalists, while the latter was that used by British historians. She notes, "neither term is fully accurate since one implies a substantial degree of centralisation and the other signifies some surrender of power to a central government and a longstanding core of political administrators".[18]

Although at present, the word Maratha refers to a particular caste of warriors and peasants, in the past the word has been used to describe all Marathi people.[19][20]

History[]

The empire had its head in the Chhatrapati as de jure, but the de facto governance was in the hands of the Peshwas after Chhatrapati Shahu I's reign.[21] After his death and with the death of Peshwa Madhavrao I, various chiefs played the role of the de facto rulers in their regions.[22]

Shivaji and his descendants[]

Early Maratha conquests, in Shivaji's and Shahji's time
A portrait of Shivaji Maharaj

Shivaji (1630–1680) was a Maratha aristocrat of the Bhosale clan who is the founder of the Maratha empire.[6] Shivaji led a resistance to free the people from the Sultanate of Bijapur in 1645 by winning the fort Torna, followed by many more forts, placing the area under his control and establishing Hindavi Swarajya (self-rule of Hindu people[11]). He created an independent Maratha kingdom with Raigad as its capital[23] and successfully fought against the Mughals to defend his kingdom. He was crowned as Chhatrapati (sovereign) of the new Maratha kingdom in 1674.

The Maratha dominion under him comprised about 4.1% of the subcontinent, but it was spread over large tracts. At the time of his death,[6] it was reinforced with about 300 forts, and defended by about 40,000 cavalries, and 50,000 soldiers, as well as naval establishments along the west coast. Over time, the kingdom would increase in size and heterogeneity;[24] by the time of his grandson's rule, and later under the Peshwas in the early 18th century, it was a full-fledged empire.[25]

Sambhaji Bhosale was the eldest son of Shivaji
Sambhaji, eldest son of Shivaji

Shivaji had two sons: Sambhaji and Rajaram, who had different mothers and were half-brothers. In 1681, Sambhaji succeeded to the crown after his father's death and resumed his expansionist policies.Sambhaji also called as Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj was a genius military commander like his father.Sambhaji fought his first battle [battle of vikramgad] against mughals at the age of 15 years as a prince where he defeated outnumbered mughals.after that Sambhaji fought many victorious battles in his short life. Sambhaji managed to defend the Maratha Empire against the overwhelmingly strong Mughal Empire. Sambhaji had earlier defeated the Portuguese and Chikka Deva Raya of Mysore. To nullify the alliance between his rebel son, Akbar, and the Marathas,[26] Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb headed south in 1681. With his entire imperial court, administration and an army of about 500,000 troops, he proceeded to expand the Mughal empire, gaining territories such as the sultanates of Bijapur and Golconda. During the eight years that followed, Sambhaji led the Marathas successfully against the Mughals.[citation needed]

In early 1689, Sambhaji called his commanders for a strategic meeting at Sangameshwar to consider an onslaught on the Mughal forces. In a meticulously planned operation, Ganoji and Aurangzeb's commander, Mukarrab Khan, attacked Sangameshwar when Sambhaji was accompanied by just a few men. Sambhaji was ambushed and captured by the Mughal troops on 1 February 1689. He and his advisor, Kavi Kalash, were taken to Bahadurgad by the imperial army, where they were executed by the Mughals on 21 March 1689.Upon Sambhaji's death, his half-brother Rajaram ascended the throne. The Mughal siege of Raigad continued, and he had to flee to Vishalgad and then to Gingee for safety. From there, the Marathas raided Mughal territory, and many forts were recaptured by Maratha commanders such as Santaji Ghorpade, Dhanaji Jadhav, Parshuram Pant Pratinidhi, Shankaraji Narayan Sacheev and Melgiri Pandit. In 1697, Rajaram offered a truce but this was rejected by Aurangzeb. Rajaram died in 1700 at Sinhagad. His widow, Tarabai, assumed control in the name of her son, Ramaraja (Shivaji II).[citation needed]

After Aurangzeb died in 1707, Shahu, the son of Sambhaji (and grandson of Shivaji), was released by Bahadur Shah I, the new Mughal emperor. However, his mother was kept a hostage of the Mughalsto ensure that Shahu adhered to the release conditions. Upon release, Shahu immediately claimed the Maratha throne and challenged his aunt Tarabai and her son. The spluttering Mughal-Maratha war became a three-cornered affair. This resulted in two rival seats of government being set up in 1707 at Satara and Kolhapur by Shahu and Tarabai respectively. Shahu appointed Balaji Vishwanath as his Peshwa.[27] The Peshwa was instrumental in securing Mughal recognition of Shahu as the rightful heir of Shivaji and the Chhatrapati of the Marathas.[27] Balaji also gained the release of Shahu's mother, Yesubai, from Mughal captivity in 1719.[28]

During Shahu's reign, Raghoji Bhosale expanded the empire Eastwards, reaching present-day Bengal. Khanderao Dabhade and later his son, Triambakrao, expanded it Westwards into Gujarat.[29] Peshwa Bajirao and his three chiefs, Pawar (Dhar), Holkar (Indore), and Scindia (Gwalior), expanded it northwards up to Peshawar. He also expanded it up to Kaveri river.

Peshwa era[]

Shaniwar Wada palace fort in Pune, it was the seat of the Peshwa rulers of the Maratha Empire until 1818.

During this era, Peshwas belonging to the Bhat family controlled the Maratha Army and later became de facto rulers of the Maratha Empire till 1772. In due course of time, the Maratha Empire dominated most of the Indian subcontinent.

Shahu appointed Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath in 1713. From his time, the office of Peshwa became supreme while Shahu became a figurehead.[27] His first major achievement was the conclusion of the Treaty of Lonavala in 1714 with Kanhoji Angre, the most powerful naval chief on the Western Coast. He later accepted Shahu as Chhatrapati. In 1719, Marathas marched to Delhi after defeating Sayyid Hussain Ali, the Mughal governor of Deccan, and deposed the Mughal emperor. The Mughal Emperors became puppets in the hands of their Maratha overlords from this point on.[30]

Peshwa Baji Rao I

After Balaji Vishwanath's death in April 1720, his son, Baji Rao I, was appointed Peshwa by Shahu. Bajirao is cred with expanding the Maratha Empire tenfold from 3% to 30% of the modern Indian landscape during 1720–1740. He fought over 41 battles before his death in April 1740 and is reputed to have never lost any.[31] The Battle of Palkhed was a land battle that took place on 28 February 1728 at the village of Palkhed, near the city of Nashik, Maharashtra, India between Baji Rao I and Qamar-ud-din Khan, Asaf Jah I of Hyderabad. The Marathas defeated the Nizam. The battle is considered an example of the brilliant execution of military strategy.[30] In 1737, Marathas under Bajirao I raided the suburbs of Delhi in a blitzkrieg in the Battle of Delhi (1737).[32][33] The Nizam set out from the Deccan to rescue the Mughals from the invasion of the Marathas, but was defeated decisively in the Battle of Bhopal.[34][35] The Marathas extracted a large tribute from the Mughals and signed a treaty which ceded Malwa to the Marathas.[36] The Battle of Vasai was fought between the Marathas and the Portuguese rulers of Vasai, a village lying on the northern shore of Vasai creek, 50 km north of Mumbai. The Marathas were led by Chimaji Appa, brother of Baji Rao. The Maratha victory in this war was a major achievement of Baji Rao's time in office.[34]

Baji Rao's son, Balaji Bajirao (Nanasaheb), was appointed as the next Peshwa by Shahu despite the opposition of other chiefs. In 1740, the Maratha forces, under Raghoji Bhosale, came down upon Arcot and defeated the Nawab of Arcot, Dost Ali, in the pass at Damalcherry. In the war that followed, Dost Ali, one of his sons Hasan Ali, and a number of other prominent persons lost their lives. This initial success at once enhanced Maratha prestige in the south. From Damalcherry, the Marathas proceeded to Arcot, which surrendered to them without much resistance. Then, Raghuji invaded Trichinopoly in December 1740. Unable to resist, Chanda Sahib surrendered the fort to Raghuji on 14 March 1741. Chanda Saheb and his son were arrested and sent to Nagpur.[37] Rajputana also came under Maratha domination during this time.[38] In June 1756 Luís Mascarenhas, Count of Alva (Conde de Alva), the Portuguese Viceroy was killed in action by the Maratha Army in Goa.

After the successful campaign of Karnataka and the Trichinopolly, Raghuji returned from Karnataka. He undertook six expions into Bengal from 1741 to 1748. [39] The resurgent Maratha Empire launched brutal raids against the prosperous Bengali state in the 18th century, which further added to the decline of the Nawabs of Bengal. During their invasions and occupation of Bihar[40] and western Bengal up to the Hooghly River,[15]

Raghuji was able to annex Odisha to his kingdom permanently as he successfully exploited the chaotic conditions prevailing in Bengal after the death of its governor Murshid Quli Khan in 1727. Constantly harassed by the Bhonsles, Odisha, Bengal and parts of Bihar were economically ruined. Alivardi Khan, the Nawab of Bengal made peace with Raghuji in 1751 ceding Cuttack (Odisha) up to the river Subarnarekha, and agreeing to pay Rs. 1.2 million annually as the Chauth for Bengal and Bihar.[38]

During their occupation of western Bengal, the Marathas perpetrated atrocities against the local population.[15] The Maratha atrocities were recorded by both Bengali and European sources, which reported that the Marathas demanded payments, and tortured and killed anyone who couldn't pay. Dutch sources estimate a total of 400,000 people in Bengal were killed by the Marathas. According to Bengali sources, the atrocities led to much of the local population opposing the Marathas and developing support for the Nawabs.[15]

Balaji Bajirao encouraged agriculture, protected the villagers and brought about a marked improvement in the state of the territory. Raghunath Rao, brother of Nanasaheb, pushed into the wake of the Afghan withdrawal after Ahmed Shah Abdali's plunder of Delhi in 1756. Delhi was captured by the Maratha army under Raghunath Rao in August 1757, defeating the Afghan garrison in the Battle of Delhi. This laid the foundation for the Maratha conquest of North-west India. In Lahore, as in Delhi, the Marathas were now major players.[41] After the 1758 Battle of Attock, the Marathas captured Peshawar defeating the Afghan troops in the Battle of Peshawar on 8 May 1758.[14]

Just prior to the battle of Panipat in 1761, the Marathas looted "Diwan-i-Khas" or Hall of Private Audiences in the Red Fort of Delhi, which was the place where the Mughal emperors used to receive courtiers and state guests, in one of their expions to Delhi.

The Marathas who were hard pressed for money stripped the ceiling of Diwan-i-Khas of its silver and looted the shrines dedicated to Muslim maulanas.[42]

During the Maratha invasion of Rohilkhand in the 1750s

The Marathas defeated the Rohillas, forced them to seek shelter in hills and ransacked their country in such a manner that the Rohillas dreaded the Marathas and hated them ever afterwards.[42]

In 1760, the Marathas under Sadashivrao Bhau (referred to as the Bhau or Bhao in sources) responded to the news of the Afghans' return to North India by sending a large army north. Bhau's force was bolstered by some Maratha forces under Holkar, Scindia, Gaikwad and Govind Pant Bundele. The combined army of over 50,000 regular troops re-captured the former Mughal capital, Delhi, from an Afghan garrison in August 1760.[43]

Delhi had been reduced to ashes many times due to previous invasions, and there was an acute shortage of supplies in the Maratha camp. Bhau ordered the sacking of the already depopulated city.[42][44] He is said to have planned to place his nephew and the Peshwa's son, Vishwasrao, on the Mughal throne. By 1760, with defeat of the Nizam in the Deccan, Maratha power had reached its zenith with a territory of over 2,500,000 square kilometres (970,000 sq mi).[3]

Maratha Helmet
Signature Maratha helmet with curved back, front view
Maratha Armor
Signature Maratha helmet with curved back, side view
Maratha armour from Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia

Ahmad Shah Durrani called on the Rohillas and the Nawab of Oudh to assist him in driving out the Marathas from Delhi.[citation needed] Huge armies of Muslim forces and Marathas collided with each other on 14 January 1761 in the Third Battle of Panipat. The Maratha Army lost the battle, which halted their imperial expansion. The Jats and Rajputs did not support the Marathas. Historians have criticised the Maratha treatment of fellow Hindu groups. Kaushik Roy says "The treatment of Marathas with their co-religionist fellows – Jats and Rajputs was definitely unfair and ultimately they had to pay its price in Panipat where Muslim forces had united in the name of religion."[41] After the battle, Malhar Rao Holkar attacked the Rajputs and defeated them at the battle of Mangrol. This largely restored Maratha power in Rajasthan.[45]

The Marathas had antagonised the Jats and Rajputs by taxing them heavily, punishing them after defeating the Mughals and interfering in their internal affairs.[citation needed] The Marathas were abandoned by Raja Suraj Mal of Bharatpur, who quit the Maratha alliance at Agra before the start of the great battle and withdrew their troops as Maratha general Sadashivrao Bhau did not heed the advice to leave soldier's families (women and children) and pilgrims at Agra and not take them to the battle field with the soldiers, rejected their co-operation. Their supply chains (earlier assured by Raja Suraj Mal) did not exist.[citation needed]

Peshwa Madhavrao I was the fourth Peshwa of the Maratha Empire. It was during his tenure that the Maratha Resurrection took place. He worked as a unifying force in the Maratha Empire and moved to the south to subdue Mysore and the Nizam of Hyderabad to assert Maratha power. He sent generals such as Bhonsle, Scindia and Holkar to the north, where they re-established Maratha authority by the early 1770s.[citation needed] Madhav Rao I crossed the Krishna River in 1767 and defeated Hyder Ali in the battles of Sira and Madgiri. He also rescued the last queen of the Keladi Nayaka Kingdom, who had been kept in confinement by Hyder Ali in the fort of Madgiri.[46]

In early 1771, ten years after the collapse of Maratha authority over North India following the Third Battle of Panipat, Mahadji recaptured Delhi and installed Shah Alam II as a puppet ruler on the Mughal throne[47] receiving in return the title of deputy Vakil-ul-Mutlak or vice-regent of the Empire and that of Vakil-ul-Mutlak being at his request conferred on the Peshwa. The Mughals also gave him the title of Amir-ul-Amara (head of the amirs).[48] After taking control of Delhi, the Marathas sent a large army in 1772 to punish Afghan Rohillas for their involvement in Panipat. Their army devastated Rohilkhand by looting and plundering as well as taking members of the royal family as captives.[47]Madhav Rao died in 1772, at the age of 27. His death is considered to be a fatal blow to the Maratha Empire and from that time Maratha power started to move on a downward trajectory, less an empire than a confederacy.[citation needed]

Confederacy era[]

Mahadaji Shinde restored the Maratha domination of northern India

In a bid to effectively manage the large empire, Madhavrao Peshwa gave semi-autonomy to the strongest of the aristocracy.[citation needed] After the death of Peshwa Madhavrao I, various chiefs and jagirdars became de facto rulers and regents for the infant Peshwa Madhavrao II.[citation needed] Under the leadership of Mahadji Shinde, the ruler of the state of Gwalior in central India, the Marathas defeated the Jats, the Rohilla Afghans and took Delhi which remained under Maratha control for the next three decades.[49] His forces conquered modern day Haryana.[50] Shinde was instrumental in resurrecting Maratha power after the débâcle of the Third Battle of Panipat, and in this he was assisted by Benoît de Boigne.

After the growth in power of feudal lords like Malwa sardars, landlords of Bundelkhand and Rajput kingdoms of Rajasthan, they refused to pay tribute to Mahadji, so he sent his army to conquer the states such as Bhopal, Datiya, Chanderi, Narwar, Salbai and Gohad. However, he launched an unsuccessful expion against the Raja of Jaipur, but withdrew after the inconclusive Battle of Lalsot in 1787.[51] The Battle of Gajendragad was fought between the Marathas under the command of Tukojirao Holkar (the adopted son of Malharrao Holkar) and Tipu Sultan from March 1786 to March 1787 in which Tipu Sultan was defeated by the Marathas. By the victory in this battle, the border of the Maratha territory extended till Tungabhadra river.[52] The strong fort of Gwalior was then in the hands of Chhatar Singh, the Jat ruler of Gohad. In 1783, Mahadji besieged the fort of Gwalior and conquered it. He delegated the administration of Gwalior to Khanderao Hari Bhalerao. After celebrating the conquest of Gwalior, Mahadji Shinde turned his attention to Delhi again.[53]

In 1788, Mahadji's armies defeated Ismail Beg, a Mughal noble who resisted the Marathas.[54] The Rohilla chief Ghulam Kadir, Ismail Beg's ally, took over Delhi, capital of the Mughal dynasty and deposed and blinded the king Shah Alam II, placing a puppet on the Delhi throne. Mahadji intervened and killed him, taking possession of Delhi on 2 October restoring Shah Alam II to the throne and acting as his protector.[55] Jaipur and Jodhpur, the two most powerful Rajput states, were still out of direct Maratha domination. So, Mahadji sent his general Benoît de Boigne to crush the forces of Jaipur and Jodhpur at the Battle of Patan.[56] Marwar was also captured on 10 September 1790. Another achievement of the Marathas was their victories over the Nizam of Hyderabad's armies including in the Battle of Kharda.[57][58]

Maratha–Mysore Wars[]

The Marathas came into conflict with Tipu Sultan and his Kingdom of Mysore, leading to the Maratha–Mysore War in 1785. The war ended in 1787 with the Marathas being defeated by Tipu Sultan.[59] The Maratha-Mysore war ended in April 1787, following the finalizing of the treaty of Gajendragad, as per which, Tipu Sultan of Mysore was obligated to pay 4.8 million rupees as a war cost to the Marathas, and an annual tribute of 1.2 million rupees, in addition to returning all the territory captured by Hyder Ali,[60][61] In 1791–92, large areas of the Maratha Confederacy suffered massive population loss due to the Doji bara famine.[62]

In 1791, irregulars like lamaans and pindaris of the Maratha army raided and looted the temple of Sringeri Shankaracharya, killing and wounding many people including Brahmins, plundering the monastery of all its valuable possessions, and desecrating the temple by displacing the image of goddess Sāradā.[citation needed] The incumbent Shankaracharya petitioned Tipu Sultan for help. A bunch of about 30 letters written in Kannada, which were exchanged between Tipu Sultan's court and the Sringeri Shankaracharya were discovered in 1916 by the Director of Archaeology in Mysore. Tipu Sultan expressed his indignation and grief at the news of the raid:[63]

People who have sinned against such a holy place are sure to suffer the consequences of their misdeeds at no distant date in this Kali age in accordance with the verse: "Hasadbhih kriyate karma rudadbhir-anubhuyate" (People do [evil] deeds smilingly but suffer the consequences crying).[64]

Tipu Sultan immediately ordered the Asaf of Bednur to supply the Swami with 200 rahatis (fanams) in cash and other gifts and articles. Tipu Sultan's interest in the Sringeri temple continued for many years, and he was still writing to the Swami in the 1790s.[65]

The Maratha Empire soon allied with the British East India Company (based in the Bengal Presidency) against Mysore in the Anglo-Mysore Wars. After the British had suffered defeat against Mysore in the first two Anglo-Mysore Wars, the Maratha cavalry assisted the British in the last two Anglo-Mysore Wars from 1790 onwards, eventually helping the British conquer Mysore in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War in 1799.[66] After the British conquest, however, the Marathas launched frequent raids in Mysore to plunder the region, which they justified as compensation for past losses to Tipu Sultan.[67]

British intervention[]

A mural depicting the British surrender during the First Anglo-Maratha War. The mural is a part of the Victory Memorial (Vijay Stambh) located at Vadgaon Maval, Pune.

In 1775, the British East India Company, from its base in Bombay, intervened in a succession struggle in Pune, on behalf of Raghunathrao (also called Raghobadada), who wanted to become Peshwa of the empire. Marathas forces under Tukojirao Holkar and Mahadaji Shinde defeated a British expionary force at the Battle of Wadgaon, but the heavy surrender terms, which included the return of annexed territory and a share of revenues, were disavowed by the British authorities at Bengal and fighting continued. What became known as the First Anglo-Maratha War ended in 1782 with a restoration of the pre-war status quo and the East India Company's abandonment of Raghunathrao's cause.[68]

Peshwa Madhavrao II in his court in 1790, concluding a treaty with the British

In 1799, Yashwantrao Holkar was crowned King of the Holkars and he captured Ujjain. He started campaigning towards the north to expand his empire in that region. Yashwant Rao rebelled against the policies of Peshwa Baji Rao II. In May 1802, he marched towards Pune the seat of the Peshwa. This gave rise to the Battle of Poona in which the Peshwa was defeated. After the Battle of Poona, the flight of the Peshwa left the government of the Maratha state in the hands of Yashwantrao Holkar.(Kincaid & Pārasanīsa 1925, p. 194) He appointed Amrutrao as the Peshwa and went to Indore on 13 March 1803. All except Gaikwad, chief of Baroda, who had already accepted British protection by a separate treaty on 26 July 1802, supported the new regime. He made a treaty with the British. Also, Yashwant Rao successfully resolved the disputes with Scindia and the Peshwa. He tried to unite the Maratha Confederacy but to no avail. In 1802, the British intervened in Baroda to support the heir to the throne against rival claimants and they signed a treaty with the new Maharaja recognising his independence from the Maratha Empire in return for his acknowledgment of British paramountcy. Before the Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805), the Peshwa Baji Rao II signed a similar treaty. The defeat in Battle of Delhi, 1803 during the Second Anglo-Maratha War resulted in the loss of the city of Delhi for the Marathas.[69]

The Second Anglo-Maratha War represents the military high-water mark of the Marathas who posed the last serious opposition to the formation of the British Raj. The real contest for India was never a single decisive battle for the subcontinent. Rather, it turned on a complex social and political struggle for the control of the South Asian military economy. The victory in 1803 hinged as much on finance, diplomacy, politics and intelligence as it did on battlefield maneuver and war itself.[67]

Ultimately, the Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817–1818) resulted in the loss of Maratha independence. It left the British in control of most of the Indian subcontinent. The Peshwa was exiled to Bithoor (Marat, near Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh) as a pensioner of the British. The Maratha heartland of Desh, including Pune, came under direct British rule, with the exception of the states of Kolhapur and Satara, which retained local Maratha rulers (descendants of Shivaji and Sambhaji II ruled over Kolhapur). The Maratha-ruled states of Gwalior, Indore, and Nagpur all lost territory and came under subordinate alliances with the British Raj as princely states that retained internal sovereignty under British paramountcy. Other small princely states of Maratha knights were retained under the British Raj as well.[citation needed]

Peshwa Baji Rao II signing of the Treaty of Bassein with the British

The Third Anglo-Maratha War was fought by Maratha warlords separately instead of forming a common front and they surrendered one by one. Shinde and the Pashtun Amir Khan were subdued by the use of diplomacy and pressure, which resulted in the Treaty of Gwalior[70] on 5 November 1817.[citation needed] All other Maratha chiefs like Holkars, Bhonsles and the Peshwa gave up arms by 1818. British historian Percival Spear describes 1818 as a watershed year in the history of India, saying that by that year "the British dominion in India became the British dominion of India".[71][72]

The war left the British, under the auspices of the British East India Company, in control of virtually all of present-day India south of the Sutlej River. The famed Nassak Diamond was looted by the company as part of the spoils of the war.[73] The British acquired large chunks of territory from the Maratha Empire and in effect put an end to their most dynamic opposition.[74] The terms of surrender Major-general John Malcolm offered to the Peshwa were controversial amongst the British for being too liberal: The Peshwa was offered a luxurious life near Kanpur and given a pension of about 80,000 pounds.[citation needed]

Geography[]

The Maratha Empire, at its peak, encompassed a large area of the Indian sub-continent. The Maratha Empire at its zenith,expanded from Afghanistan in the north to Thanjavur in the south, Sindh in the west to Bengal in the east. It bordered Nepal and Afghanistan in the north. Apart from capturing various regions, the Marathas maintained a large number of tributaries who were bounded by agreements to pay a certain amount of regular tax, known as Chauth. The empire defeated the Sultanate of Mysore under Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan, the Nawab of Oudh, the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Nawab of Bengal, Nawab of Sindh and the Nawab of Arcot as well as the Polygar kingdoms of South India. They extracted chauth from the rulers in Delhi, Oudh, Bengal, Bihar, Odisha, Punjab, Kumaon, Garhwal, Hyderabad, Mysore, Uttar Pradesh, Sindh and Rajputana.[75][76] They built up the largest Hindu empire in India after the fall of the Gupta Empire on the 6th century.[citation needed]

The Marathas were requested by Safdarjung, the Nawab of Oudh, in 1752 to help him defeat the Afghani Rohillas. The Maratha force set out from Pune and defeated the Afghan Rohillas in 1752, capturing the whole of Rohilkhand (present-day northwestern Uttar Pradesh).[42] In 1752, the Marathas entered into an agreement with the Mughal emperor, through his wazir, Safdarjung, and the Mughals gave the Marathas the chauth of Punjab, Sindh and Doab in addition to the Subahdari of Ajmer and Agra.[77] In 1758, Marathas started their north-west conquest and expanded their boundary till Afghanistan. They defeated Afghan forces of Ahmed Shah Abdali, in what is now Pakistan, including Pakistani Punjab Province and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The Afghans were numbered around 25,000–30,000 and were led by Timur Shah, the son of Ahmad Shah Durrani. The Marathas massacred and looted thousands of Afghan soldiers and captured Lahore, Multan, Dera Ghazi Khan, Attock, Peshawar in the Punjab region and Kashmir.[78] They also made sporadic raids in Afghanistan.

During the confederacy era, Mahadji Shinde resurrected the Maratha domination on much of North India, which was lost after the Third battle of Panipat including the cis-Sutlej states (south of Sutlej) like Kaithal, Patiala, Jind, Thanesar, Maler Kotla and Faridkot. Delhi and much of Uttar Pradesh were under the suzerainty of the Scindhias of the Maratha Empire, but following the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803–1805, the Marathas lost these territories to the British East India Company.[48][79] The empire even after the defeat at Panipat expanded from Punjab in the north to Karnataka in the south.

Territorial evolution[]

Destruction and desecration[]

Main Article: Maratha Invasions of Bengal

During Maratha Invasions of Bengal

[80][81]There were a total of five invasions between 1742 and 1751. [82]According to the 18th-century Bengali text Maharashtra Purana written by Gangaram:[83] The Hindu Maratha warriors invaded and occupied western Bengal up to the Hooghly River.[83]During that period of invasion by the Marathas, warriors called as "Bargis", perpetrated atrocities against the local population of Bengalis and Biharis. As reported in Burdwan Kingdom's and European sources, the Bargis are said to have plundered villages[82]. Jan Kersseboom, chief of the Dutch East India Company factory in Bengal, estimated that perhaps 400,000 civilians in Western Bengal and Bihar tortured, gang rape, killed by Marathas Army.[84][83] Many of the Bengalis in western Bengal also fled to take shelter in East Bengal, fearing for their lives in the wake of the Maratha attacks.[85] Zamindars outside the affected districts and also from the districts that involved this conflict were affected by the Maratha raids[86]

They shouted over and over again, 'Give us money', and when they got no money they filled peoples' nostrils with water, and some they seized and drowned in tanks, and many died of suffocation. In this way they did all manner of foul and evil deeds. When they demanded money and it was not given to them, they would put the man to death. Those who had money gave it, those who had none were killed. During their occupation of western Bengal, the Marathas perpetrated atrocities against the local population. The Maratha atrocities were recorded by both Bengali and European sources, which reported that the Marathas demanded payments, and tortured and killed anyone who couldn't pay.[80] Dutch sources estimate a total of and Massacred 4,00,000 Bengali civilians gang rapes of women were also common by Maratha armies then killed by Marathas armies[80]. According to Bengali sources, the atrocities led to much of the local population opposing the Marathas and developing support for the Nawabs.[80]

The Bargi atrocities were corroborated by contemporary Dutch and British accounts.[83][84] The atrocities devastated Bengal's economy, as many of the people killed in the Bargi raids included merchants, textile weavers,[84] silk winders, and mulberry cultivators.[83] The Cossimbazar factory reported in 1742, for example, that the Bargis burnt down many of the houses where silk piece goods were made, along with weavers' looms.[84]

Baneswar Vidyalankar's text Chitrachampu attributed the victories of the Marathas to "the wonderfully fast horses they ride." Bharatchandra's Annadamangal attributed the attacks to a particular communal factor which was the destruction of temples at Bhubaneswar by Alivardi's soldiers.[86]

The further attacks took place in 1748 in Bihar, on Murshidabad in 1750, and in 1751 in Western Bengal.[87]

The internal fights within the Alivardi Khan's military also contributed to their losses. For example, in 1748 Pathan soldiers rebelled and seized Patna which they controlled for some time. Another example is the faujdar of Purnea who departed from Alivardi and created a small autonomous state[88]. Apart from territorial losses, the Nawab of Bengal also suffered severe economic losses. Industries such as agriculture and trade were dislocated and a large number of people migrated from Western Bengal to Northern and Eastern districts.[89] [90]Just prior to the battle of Panipat in 1761, the Marathas looted "Diwan-i-Khas" or Hall of Private Audiences in the Red Fort of Delhi, which was the place where the Mughal emperors used to receive courtiers and state guests, in one of their expions to Delhi.

The Marathas who were hard pressed for money stripped the ceiling of Diwan-i-Khas of its silver and looted the shrines dedicated to Muslim maulanas.[90]

During the Maratha invasion of Rohilkhand in the 1750s

The Marathas defeated the Rohillas, forced them to seek shelter in hills and ransacked their country in such a manner that the Rohillas dreaded the Marathas and hated them ever afterwards.[90]

During Maratha Invasions of Mysore Kingdom,

[91][92][93][94] Marathas were Hindus, yet they attacked Shringeri Math. It was towards the end of the 18th century when uncertainty loomed large over the Sub-continent. Mughals were reduced to titular rulers and their rule had slipped out of their hands from most parts of India. After the Third War of Panipat, there was no hope that Marathas would replace Mughals in controlling major parts of India, as the Afghans had badly mauled the Maratha power in that war. It was a clear indication that the Indian rulers were weakening while the British were gaining strength. During this period (around 1789), the Britishers had lured Marathas and Nizam of Hyderabad to their side in order to remove the last thorn (Tipu Sultan of Mysore) from their path to control India. It was Tipu Sultan who had perceived quite early the danger posed to the Indian rulers by the British East India Company.

Sri Vidyashankar Temple at Sringeri town. The Sringeri Mutt, among Hinduism's holiest sites, looted the monastery temples of its gold and copper, statues, and destroyed property by Peshwa Maratha soldiers and Restoration by Tipu Sultan in mid-1791 CE[95][96][97]

It was a period when Marathas and Tipu Sultan didn’t see eye to eye. Their enmity grew to such a level that they started fighting earlier than expected. First of all, Hyder Ali (Tipu’s father) snatched the fortress of Devan Hally (near Bangaluru) from the Marathas after a fierce struggle. The Marathas replied in 1791 through their leader, Raghunath Patvardhan, who attacked Bednoor. It was during this attack that the Marathas damaged the Shringeri Math. Marathas were in the habit of attacking and looting temples and Maths during their wars. An example was the Tirupati temple which they attacked in 1759 causing it much damage. The Shringeri temple and Math were no less significant. It was established by the Shankeracharya in the 8th century AD. He had established such Maths and mandirs in every corner of the country. Besides Shringeri, he established Joshi Math in the north, Dwarka in west and Puri in the east. This is the reason why Shringeri was so important. Tipu Sultan had close relations with this mandir/Math. He used to send gifts to the Math and had allotted a big chunk of land to the shrine so much so that he would call the Swamy of the Math as ‘Jagadguru’ (World teacher).

The fame of the Math signified its wealth and this attracted the Marathas. They looted all its property, killed many Brahmins living in the Math and dismantled the idol of Devi Sharda. The Swamy of the Math escaped from there. After the withdrawal of Marathas, the Swamy described to the Sultan the destruction caused by Marathas to the Math and the temple and asked for help to reestablish the idol. Tipu Sultan was very angry to hear about this attack and promised to punish the attackers, extended help to the Swamy to repair the temple and sent jewellery for its idol by Tipu Sultan.[93][94][92][91]

Destruction by Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao’s men in 1750s

[92][98][99]Haidar Ali’s rise to power was in a big part due to the Maratha raids. In 1750s, Marathas laid waste to farms and towns and forced Maharaja of Mysore to pay a ransom of Rs. 1 crore, according to contemporary writer Kirmani (3). Haidar Ali, who then was still subservient to the Maharaja, led resistance of Mysore Kingdom. Thanks to his efforts, a few towns, particularly the economically important Bengaluru, did not to fall into the hands of the Marathas.

After taking over the reign of Mysore Kingdom in early 1760s, Haidar Ali built village defenses in the kingdom. For example at Nagapuri village in present day Hassan District, Karnataka state, he built a fort amidst hills and moved the village population into it.[92][98][99]

Destruction by Peshwa Madhava Rao’s men in 1770s

[94][92][98][99][100]Haidar Ali was fresh from his victory over the English after the First Anglo Mysore War. The treaty that ended the war in 1769 promised mutual support to each other in case of invasion by an external force. When Maratha Peshwa Madhava Rao attacked Mysore Kingdom in 1770, the British didn’t adhere to the treaty’s terms. After the rout of the Mysorean armies at Moti Talab (Tonnur Kere) near Srirangapatna, Tipu fled the battle field dressed as a Fakir or a holy man. As Haidar and Tipu’s defense failed, the Peshwa’s men moved about a dozen miles north of the battle site to the Hindu holy town of Melukote. There they looted and burnt its many Hindu temples.

British traveler Francis Buchanan (4) during his travel in 1800-1801 across Mysore Kingdom noted how many settlements were affected by the Maratha invasions over the decades. On 29 August 1800, he visited Melukote and wrote that the town had not yet recovered from the Maratha invasions.[92][98][99][100][94]

Destruction by Parasuram Bahu & Hari Pant led Maratha Armies in 1790s

[98][93][94][92][100][99]The Third Anglo Mysore War (1790-92) saw large scale invasion of Mysore Kingdom from all sides by the British, Marathas and the Hyderabad Nizam. Contemporary sources speak of the misery of inhabitants of Mysore Kingdom. Maratha General Parasuram Bahu’s name appears numerous times in these sources associated with burning, looting, plundering, mass-murders, rapes, abduction of young girls, particularly the lower caste Hindus or Shudras as they were referred to by these sources.

Edward Moor was part of Captain Little’s detachment that supported Parasuram Bahu’s invasion of Mysore Kingdom in 1790-92. He documented the destruction of over 22 towns and Hindu temples (5). At Shivamogga town which was looted and burnt, a Dalit’s wife was raped and killed by an accomplice of Bahu. Moor also witnessed 10 villages burning at a single time near Channageri (in present day Davanagere District). He wrote that ‘A number of small towns and villages in the vicinity of Dharwar‘ were ‘razed‘. Apart from this, mulberry cultivation of the farmers was destroyed by the Grand Army that comprised of the Marathas, English and their allies.

Other eyewitness account of the war comes from another English soldier Major Dirom in 1793 (6). Buchanan also documented the destruction by Maratha armies carried out between 1791 and 92. He lists at least 28 villages and towns that were destroyed.

Now, what did Tipu do protect his subjects during this war? Stretched and clearly unable to protect every inch of their territory, forces of Mysore Kingdom concentrated on protecting big towns and fortifications. There were many tales of Mysorean bravery against the invaders led by none other than Charles Cornwallis, a man who was second in command of British forces in America and who fought the might of George Washington. Bahadur Khan, killedar of Bangalore fort died after a heroic struggle of three weeks and was honoured by Cornwallis for his bravery. Badruzzaman held off the combined forces of Marathas and Bombay Army at Dharwar fort for six months. The brave unnamed killedar of Hutridurga fort, Tumkur District refused to surrender having famously said ‘I have eaten Tipu’s salt and will not surrender till he does’. Banke Nawab or General Reza Khan followed the scorch earth policy and burnt the fodder of Cornwalis’ army and forced him to burst his big guns and retreat from Srirangapatna. But the Cornwallis finally prevailed as Maratha Armies joined him. Maratha armies swept through the region and repeated on a mass scale what they had done to Kannadigas since Shivaji’s burning and plundering of Karnataka’s towns and markets in mid 17th century. They did not spare Hindu temples. They looted the mutts of Sringeri and Kudli. At the later place they massacred all non-Brahmins[98][93][94][92][100][99].

Later British sources

Chief Commissioner of Mysore Province and Coorg, Lewin Bowring wrote in 1871 about the destruction by the Maratha Army in 1790-91 (7). While Buchanan visited many towns and farms 10 years after Bahu’s destructive campaign and claimed they had not recovered, it is interesting to note that Bowring observed that even 80 years later, many towns like Shivamogga Town had still not recovered from the ravages.

Writing in 1897, BL Rice observed that Madhugiri town, which was besieged for 3 months in 1791 by Maratha Army led by Balavant Rao, had still not recovered from the destruction, over a century later (8). [98][93][94][92][100][99]

Reference-[92][98][100][99]

Government and military[]

Administration[]

Pratapgad fort, one of the earliest forts administered by Shivaji.
Maratha darbar or court.
Gold coins minted during Shivaji's era, 17th century.

The Ashtapradhan (The Council of Eight) was a council of eight ministers that administered the Maratha empire. This system was formed by Shivaji.[101] Ministerial designations were drawn from the Sanskrit language and comprised:[citation needed]

With the notable exception of the priestly Panditrao and the judicial Nyayadisha, the other pradhans held full-time military commands and their deputies performed their civil duties in their stead. In the later era of the Maratha Empire, these deputies and their staff constituted the core of the Peshwa's bureaucracy.[citation needed]

The Peshwa was the titular equivalent of a modern Prime Minister. Shivaji created the Peshwa designation in order to more effectively delegate administrative duties during the growth of the Maratha Empire. Prior to 1749, Peshwas held office for 8–9 years and controlled the Maratha Army. They later became the de facto herary administrators of the Maratha Empire from 1749 till its end in 1818.[citation needed]

Under the administration of the Peshwas and with the support of several key generals and diplomats (listed below), the Maratha Empire reached its zenith, ruling most of the Indian subcontinent. It was also under the Peshwas that the Maratha Empire came to its end through its formal annexation into the British Empire by the British East India Company in 1818.

The Marathas used a secular policy of administration and allowed complete freedom of religion.[103]

Shivaji was an able administrator who established a government that included modern concepts such as d military administration. He believed that there was a close bond between the state and the citizens. He is remembered as a just and welfare-minded king. Cosme da Guarda says of him that:[57]

Such was the good treatment Shivaji accorded to people and such was the honesty with which he observed the capitulations that none looked upon him without a feeling of love and confidence. By his people he was exceedingly loved. Both in matters of reward and punishment he was so impartial that while he lived he made no exception for any person; no merit was left unrewarded, no offence went unpunished; and this he did with so much care and attention that he specially charged his governors to inform him in writing of the conduct of his soldiers, mentioning in particular those who had distinguished themselves, and he would at once order their promotion, either in rank or in pay, according to their merit. He was naturally loved by all men of valor and good conduct.

The Marathas carried out a number of sea raids, such as plundering Mughal Naval ships and European trading vessels. European traders described these attacks as piracy, but the Marathas viewed them as legitimate targets because they were trading with, and thus financially supporting, their Mughal and Bijapur enemies. After the representatives of various European powers signed agreements with Shivaji or his successors, the threat of plundering or raids against Europeans began to reduce.

Military[]

The Maratha army under Shivaji was a national army consisting of personnel drawn mainly from Maharashtra. It was a homogeneous body commanded by a regular cadre of officers, who had to obey one supreme commander. With the rise of the Peshwas, however, this national army had to make room for a feudal force provided by different Maratha sardars.[104] This new Maratha army was not homogenous, but employed soldiers of different backgrounds, both locals and foreign mercenaries, including large numbers of Arabs, Sikhs, Rajputs, Sindhis, Rohillas, Abyssinians, Pathans, Topiwalas and Europeans. The army of Nana Fadnavis, for example, included 5,000 Arabs.[105]

A painted scroll depicting different types of ships of the Marathan Navy including some captured English ships.

Some historians have cred the Maratha Navy for laying the foundation of the Indian Navy and bringing significant changes in naval warfare. A series of sea forts and battleships were built in the 17th century during the reign of Shivaji. It has been noted that vessels built in the dockyards of Konkan were mostly indigenous and constructed without foreign aid.[106] Further, in the 18th century, during the reign of Admiral Kanhoji Angre, a host of dockyard facilities were built along the entire western coastline of present-day Maharashtra. The Marathas fortified the entire coastline with sea fortresses with navigational facilities.[107] Nearly all the hill forts, which dot the landscape of present-day western Maharashtra were built by the Marathas. The renovation of Gingee fortress in Tamil Nadu, has been particularly applauded, according to the contemporary European accounts, the defence fortifications matched the European ones.[108]

Afghan accounts[]

Maratha Gurabs ships attacking a British East India Company ship

The Maratha army, especially its infantry, was praised by almost all the enemies of the Maratha Empire, ranging from the Duke of Wellington to Ahmad Shah Abdali.[citation needed] After the Third Battle of Panipat, Abdali was relieved as the Maratha army in the initial stages were almost in the position of destroying the Afghan armies and their Indian Allies, the Nawab of Oudh and Rohillas. The grand wazir of the Durrani Empire, Sardar Shah Wali Khan was shocked when Maratha commander-in-chief Sadashivrao Bhau launched a fierce assault on the centre of Afghan Army, over 10,000 Durrani soldiers were killed alongside Haji Atai Khan, one of the chief commander of Afghan army and nephew of wazir Shah Wali Khan. Such was the fierce assault of the Maratha infantry in hand-to-hand combat that Afghan armies started to flee and the wazir in desperation and rage shouted, "Comrades Whither do you fly, our country is far off".[109] Post battle, Ahmad Shah Abdali in a letter to one Indian ruler claimed that Afghans were able to defeat the Marathas only because of the blessings of almighty and any other army would have been destroyed by the Maratha army on that particular day even though the Maratha army was numerically inferior to the Afghan army and its Indian allies.[110] Though Abdali won the battle, he also had heavy casualties on his side. So, he sought immediate peace with the Marathas. Abdali wrote in his letter to Peshwa on 10 February 1761:

There is no reason to have animosity amongst us. Your son Vishwasrao and your brother Sadashivrao died in battle – it was unfortunate. Bhau started the battle, so I had to fight back unwillingly. Yet I feel sorry for his death. Please continue your guardianship of Delhi as before, to that I have no opposition. Only let Punjab until Sutlaj remain with us. Reinstate Shah Alam on Delhi's throne as you did before and let there be peace and friendship between us, this is my ardent desire. Please grant me that desire.[111]

European accounts[]

Arms of Maratha

Similarly, the Duke of Wellington, after defeating the Marathas, noted that the Marathas, though poorly led by their Generals, had regular infantry and artillery that matched the level of that of the Europeans and warned other British officers from underestimating the Marathas on the battlefield. He cautioned one British general: "You must never allow Maratha infantry to attack head on or in close hand-to-hand combat as in that your army will cover itself with utter disgrace".[112] Even when Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, became the Prime Minister of Britain, he held the Maratha infantry in utmost respect, claiming it to be one of the best in the world. However, at the same time, he noted the poor leadership of Maratha Generals, who were often responsible for their defeats.[112] Charles Metcalfe, one of the ablest of the British Officials in India and later acting Governor-General, wrote in 1806:

India contains no more than two great powers, British and Mahratta, and every other state acknowledges the influence of one or the other. Every inch that we recede will be occupied by them.[113][114]

Norman Gash says that the Maratha infantry was equal to that of British infantry. After the Third Anglo-Maratha war in 1818, Britain listed the Marathas as one of the Martial Races to serve in the British Indian Army.[115] The 19th-century diplomat Sir Justin Sheil commented about the British East India Company copying the French Indian army in raising an army of Indians:

It is to the military genius of the French that we are indebted for the formation of the Indian army. Our warlike neighbours were the first to introduce into India the system of drilling native troops and converting them into a regularly disciplined force. Their example was copied by us, and the result is what we now behold. The French carried to Persia the same military and administrative faculties, and established the origin of the present Persian regular army, as it is styled. When Napoleon the Great resolved to take Iran under his auspices, he dispatched several officers of superior intelligence to that country with the mission of General Gardanne in 1808. Those gentlemen commenced their operations in the provinces of Azerbaijan and Kermanshah, and it is said with considerable success.

— Sir Justin Sheil (1803–1871).[116]

Rulers, administrators and generals[]

Royal houses[]

Satara:

Kolhapur:

Peshwas[]

Peshwas from the Bhat family[]

From Balaji Vishwanath onwards, the actual power gradually shifted to the Bhat family of Peshwas based in Poona.

Federal houses of Maratha Confederacy[]

Thanjavur Marathas[]

The Thanjavur Marathas were the rulers of the Thanjavur Maratha kingdom in present day Tamil Nadu between the 17th and 19th centuries. Their native language was Thanjavur Marathi. Venkoji, Shahaji's son and Shivaji's half-brother, was the founder of the dynasty.[118] They were patrons of fine arts and their reign has been considered the golden period of Tanjore history. Art and culture reached new heights during their rule. They also considered themselves as representatives of Cholas referring themselves as Cholasimhasanathipathi.[119] They made significant contributions towards Sanskrit and Marathi literature,[120] Bharatanatyam (dance form), and Carnatic music.[121]

See also[]

References[]

Footnotes[]

  1. ^ Some historians[4] may consider 1645 as the founding of the empire because that was the year when the teenaged Shivaji captured a fort from the Adilshahi sultanate.

Citations[]

  1. ^ Hatalkar (1958).
  2. ^ Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D. (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires" (PDF). Journal of World-Systems Research. 12 (2): 222–223. ISSN 1076-156X. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 July 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  3. ^ a b Turchin, Adams & Hall (2006), p. 223.
  4. ^ Schmidt (2015), pp. 54-.
  5. ^ Kantak, M. R. (1978). "The Political Role of Different Hindu Castes and Communities in Maharashtra in the Foundation of the Shivaji's Swarajya". Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute. 38 (1): 44. JSTOR 42931051.
  6. ^ a b c Pearson (1976), pp. 221–235.
  7. ^ Capper (1997):This source establishes the Maratha control of Delhi before the British
  8. ^ Sen (2010), pp. 1941–:The victory at Bhopal in 1738 established Maratha dominance at the Mughal court
  9. ^ Duff, James Grant (1921), Stephen Meredyth Edwardes (ed.), A History of the Mahrattas, vol. 2, London: H. Milford, Oxford University Press, p. 513.
  10. ^ Pagdi (1993), p. 98: Shivaji's coronation and setting himself up as a sovereign prince symbolises the rise of the Indian people in all parts of the country. It was a bid for Hindavi Swarajya (Indian rule), a term in use in Marathi sources of history.
  11. ^ a b Jackson (2005), p. 38.
  12. ^ Ahmad & Krishnamurti (1962).
  13. ^ Mehta (2005), p. 204
  14. ^ a b Sen (2010), p. 16.
  15. ^ a b c d Marshall (2006), p. 72.
  16. ^ Naravane (2006), p. 63.
  17. ^ Pagdi (1993), p. 21.
  18. ^ Ramusack (2004), p. 35.
  19. ^ Jones (1974), p. 25.
  20. ^ Gokhale (1988), p. 112.
  21. ^ Thompson (2020), p. 293.
  22. ^ Reddy (November 2005). General Studies History 4 Upsc. ISBN 978-0-07-060447-6.
  23. ^ Vartak (1999), pp. 1126–1134.
  24. ^ Kantak (1993), p. 18.
  25. ^ Mehta (2005), p. 707:quote: It explains the rise to power of his Peshwa (prime minister) Balaji Vishwanath (1713–20) and the transformation of the Maratha kingdom into a vast empire, by the collective action of all the Maratha stalwarts.
  26. ^ Richards (1995), p. 12.
  27. ^ a b c Sen (2010), p. 11.
  28. ^ Mehta (2005), p. 81.
  29. ^ Mehta (2005), p. 101-103.
  30. ^ a b Sen (2010), p. 12.
  31. ^ Montgomery (1972), p. 132.
  32. ^ Mehta (2005), p. 117.
  33. ^ Sen (2006), p. 12.
  34. ^ a b Sen (2006).
  35. ^ Sen (2010), p. 23.
  36. ^ Sen (2010), p. 13.
  37. ^ Mehta (2005), p. 202.
  38. ^ a b Sen (2010), p. 15.
  39. ^ Sarkar (1991).
  40. ^ Chaudhuri (2006), p. 253. sfnp error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFChaudhuri2006 (help)
  41. ^ a b Roy (2004), pp. 80–81.
  42. ^ a b c d Agrawal (1983), p. 26. sfnp error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFAgrawal1983 (help)
  43. ^ Mehta (2005), p. 140.
  44. ^ Mehta (2005), p. 274
  45. ^ Stewart (1993), p. 157.
  46. ^ Mehta (2005), p. 458
  47. ^ a b Rathod (1994), p. 8
  48. ^ a b Farooqui (2011), p. 334.
  49. ^ Stewart (1993), p. 158.
  50. ^ Mittal (1986), p. 13.
  51. ^ Rathod (1994), p. 95
  52. ^ Sampath (2008), p. 238.
  53. ^ Rathod (1994), p. 30
  54. ^ Rathod (1994), p. 106
  55. ^ Kulakarṇī (1996).
  56. ^ Sarkar (1994).
  57. ^ a b Majumdar (1951b).
  58. ^ Barua (2005), p. 91.
  59. ^ Hasan (2005), pp. 105–107.
  60. ^ Naravane (2006), p. 175.
  61. ^ Anglo-Maratha relations, 1785-96
  62. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. III 1907, p. 502
  63. ^ Hasan (2005), p. 358.
  64. ^ Annual Report of the Mysore Archaeological Department 1916 pp 10–11, 73–6
  65. ^ Hasan (2005), p. 359.
  66. ^ Cooper (2003).
  67. ^ a b Cooper (2003), p. 69.
  68. ^ Battle of Wadgaon, Encyclopædia Britannica
  69. ^ Capper (1997), p. 28.
  70. ^ Prakash (2002), p. 300.
  71. ^ Nayar (2008), p. 64.
  72. ^ Trivedi & Allen (2000), p. 30.
  73. ^ United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals (1930), p. 121.
  74. ^ Black (2006), p. 77.
  75. ^ Lindsay (1967), p. 556.
  76. ^ Saini & Chand (n.d.), p. 97.
  77. ^ Sen (2006), p. 13.
  78. ^ Roy (2011), p. 103.
  79. ^ Chaurasia (2004), p. 13.
  80. ^ a b c d Daniyal, Shoaib. "Forgotten Indian history: The brutal Maratha invasions of Bengal". Scroll.in. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
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Bibliography[]

Serfoji, Tanjore Maharaja (1979). Journal of the Tanjore Maharaja Serfoji's Sarasvati Mahal Library.

Further reading[]