Bachelor of Economics

The Bachelor of Economics (BEc or BEcon),[1][2] or the Bachelor of Applied Economics, is a bachelor's degree awarded by many universities and colleges for completion of an undergraduate program in economics, econometrics, or applied economics; these are often paired with business, finance, or mathematics.[3][4][5][6][7][8] Specialized economics degrees are also offered as a "tagged" BA (Econ), BS (Econ) / BSc (Econ), BCom (Econ), and BSocSc (Econ) (or variants such as the "Bachelor of Economic Science"[9]). The curriculum is (substantially) more theoretical and mathematical than the major in economics available generally (BBA, general BCom or BA).


The BEcon and the specialized degrees [10][11][12] each have their own structure, differing by university. Generally, though, the curriculum is built around a core of theory, to which is added courses in the various branches, and areas of application; [13] see next section. In the US, a structured "program" is often offered within the College of Arts and Sciences. [14] [15] [13] [16] [17] In the Commonwealth, specialized BCom-Economics degrees are often offered through the commerce faculty. [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] The program is often available as a social science degree. [24][25] Several universities offer a separate 1 year Honours degree, [26] and the program then comprises "3 years plus 1"; often Honours (or Honors in the US) is included in the four year structure. [16] An Honours research-thesis will be required.

Under both specialized and general programs, economics is often combined with a second major in finance or management, [2] [27] [28] [11] [23] [8] or with other social sciences; [24][25] in the US, economics is often combined with a quantitative subject such as math or computer science.[29] The interdisciplinary "PPE" integrates philosophy and politics with economics. Some business schools offer a joint program with the economics department; [30] [31] similarly, joint-majors are commonly offered with the mathematics department. [32] [33] [34] [35]

Some universities allow that the degree as a whole may be further specialized; either in one of the applied areas, or, more common, in one of the major branches, often development economics,[36] econometrics / mathematical economics, [37] [38] [39] political economy,[40] or agricultural economics.[41] Others allow this specialization at the Honours degree level. Some universities offer a "Bachelor of Applied Economics" [42] or similar, [43] which will be career-focused. Degrees in Financial Economics, [44] [45] [10] [46] integrate finance into the economics program, as opposed to via a second major.


Typically, [13] [47] [48] [49] the core-degree comprises microeconomics, macroeconomics and econometrics; while mathematical economics is sometimes required.[21][50] Micro- and macroeconomics are taught through the "intermediate" level, preparing the student for the "advanced" postgraduate courses. Macroeconomics extends to a discussion of the more advanced models of the economy, differences here between schools, and the related policy analysis; microeconomics extends to general equilibrium, to an analytic approach to demand with curves derived from utility functions, and to game theory as applied to competition. Some programs then specify a course in microfoundations, where the macroeconomic models are derived by aggregating microeconomic models. Econometrics is intended to give empirical content to these economic relationships, and here focuses on the single-equation methods largely linear regression, and time series; students are trained on packages such as STATA, EViews and R.

Building on this core, are courses in the major branches of economics: monetary economics, international economics, development economics, labor economics, and welfare economics. Social science oriented degrees may emphasize economic statistics and political economy; and often do not require econometrics or mathematical economics. History of economic thought and economic history may be included in either variant.[17]

Electives [48][47] may be offered in the above branches, or in various areas of applied economics, such as agricultural economics, environmental economics, resource economics, managerial economics, and financial economics. Mathematical economics is often an elective; it is generally recommended for those intending graduate training in Economics. In the US, these students will often also study selected math-courses in multivariable calculus, differential equations, linear algebra, optimization, and sometimes analysis.[51] [52]

Co-requisite courses from outside of economics are invariably a program requirement. Common to all business programs are introductory or business statistics, and "quantitative techniques", comprising basic calculus, interest calculations, and sometimes matrix operations; the social science programs often include these, and may also require sociology and psychology. Some knowledge of accountancy or management may be assumed in the "applied courses"; crs in these are usually inherent in the business degree.

Most specialized programs require further "Mathematics for Economists", [53] essentially a (detailed) survey of the topics mentioned above re US students; [54] see Business mathematics § Undergraduate. Statistics is similarly extended,[55][20] often within the math course, as underpin to the econometrics coursework. The specialized BSc programs are often more math intensive than the BA programs.[12] Similarly, the Honors track will have additional math requirements.[16]

See also[]


  1. ^ "BACHELOR OF ECONOMICS". University of Sydney. Archived from the original on 2018-12-25. Retrieved 2017-04-27.
  2. ^ a b "Bachelor of Economics [BEcon]". University of Hong Kong. Archived from the original on 2018-10-16. Retrieved 2018-10-17.
  3. ^ "Concentrations". The Wharton School, The University of Pennsylvania. Archived from the original on 2020-12-12. Retrieved 2022-10-02.
  4. ^ "Undergraduate - FBE - HKU". Archived from the original on 2022-10-02. Retrieved 2022-10-02.
  5. ^ Queensland, The University of. "Bachelor of Economics - Study - The University of Queensland". Study. Archived from the original on 2022-07-05. Retrieved 2022-10-02.
  6. ^ "Bachelor of Economics | UDEM". Archived from the original on 2022-04-15. Retrieved 2022-10-02.
  7. ^ "北京大学经济学院本科项目". Peking University School of Economics. Archived from the original on 2021-11-24. Retrieved 2022-10-02.
  8. ^ a b "Economics, Management, Finance and the Social Sciences" Archived 2021-12-22 at the Wayback Machine, University of London
  9. ^ "Bachelor of Economic Science". Retrieved 2022-12-19.
  10. ^ a b "Economics Specialist" Archived 2020-05-21 at the Wayback Machine, University of Toronto
  11. ^ a b "Economics as an expanded subject" Archived 2020-02-15 at the Wayback Machine, Bar Ilan University
  12. ^ a b What can you do with an economics degree? Archived 2020-10-30 at the Wayback Machine, Times Higher Education
  13. ^ a b c Course Information Archived 2020-04-05 at the Wayback Machine, UCLA
  14. ^ Undergraduate Program Archived 2020-05-28 at the Wayback Machine, MIT
  15. ^ Undergraduate Program Archived 2020-05-24 at the Wayback Machine, Princeton University
  16. ^ a b c Concentration Requirements, Harvard
  17. ^ a b Degree Requirements, The New School
  18. ^ Economics Archived 2022-10-02 at the Wayback Machine, Victoria University of Wellington
  19. ^ Undergraduate study in Economics Archived 2021-07-09 at the Wayback Machine, University of Auckland
  20. ^ a b BCom (Economic Sciences) Archived 2020-05-30 at the Wayback Machine, Stellenbosch University
  21. ^ a b BCom Economics Archived 2022-10-02 at the Wayback Machine, University of the Witwatersrand
  22. ^ Bachelor of Commerce in Economics Archived 2020-07-23 at the Wayback Machine, University of South Africa
  23. ^ a b ECONOMICS Archived 2020-04-16 at the Wayback Machine, University of Western Australia
  24. ^ a b BA (Honours) Social Sciences (Economics) Archived 2020-03-15 at the Wayback Machine, Open University
  25. ^ a b Bachelor of Social Science Degree Majoring in Economics Archived 2018-08-21 at the Wayback Machine, University of Cape Town
  26. ^ Bachelor of Economics (Honours), Australian National University
  27. ^ Economics and Management Archived 2022-05-09 at the Wayback Machine, University of Oxford
  28. ^ Bachelor of Commerce, University of the South Pacific
  29. ^ Wendy A. Stock (2017). Trends in Economics and Other Undergraduate Majors Archived 2020-02-20 at the Wayback Machine. American Economic Review, vol. 107, no. 5, May 2017 (pp. 644-49)
  30. ^ BS in Economics Archived 2020-06-03 at the Wayback Machine, Wharton
  31. ^ BA(Hons) in Economics and Management Archived 2020-06-12 at the Wayback Machine, Saïd Business School
  32. ^ B.S. in Joint Mathematics-Economics Archived 2020-06-15 at the Wayback Machine, UCSD
  33. ^ Economics and Mathematics Archived 2022-10-02 at the Wayback Machine, Yale University
  34. ^ Mathematics and Economics BSc Archived 2020-06-15 at the Wayback Machine, University of Nottingham
  35. ^ Applied Math/Economics Archived 2020-08-12 at the Wayback Machine, Harvard
  36. ^ BSc Development Economics Archived 2020-09-28 at the Wayback Machine, SOAS
  37. ^ BSc Econometrics and Mathematical Economics, London School of Economics
  38. ^ BCom Honours Econometrics Archived 2021-04-12 at the Wayback Machine, University of Johannesburg
  39. ^ Major in Mathematical Economics Archived 2020-06-14 at the Wayback Machine, University of Kentucky
  40. ^ Bachelor in Political Economy Archived 2021-06-28 at the Wayback Machine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology
  41. ^ B.S. Agricultural Economics: Applied Economics Archived 2022-10-02 at the Wayback Machine, University of Idaho
  42. ^ Bachelor of Applied Economics Archived 2020-06-08 at the Wayback Machine, Massey University
  43. ^ Undergraduate Program in Applied Economics & Management Archived 2020-06-04 at the Wayback Machine, Dyson, Cornell
  44. ^ Financial Economics BSc (Hons) Archived 2020-05-21 at the Wayback Machine, City University - London
  45. ^ Financial Economics (BSc) Archived 2020-05-15 at the Wayback Machine, Birkbeck
  46. ^ Bachelor of Science in Financial Economics Archived 2020-05-21 at the Wayback Machine, UMBC
  47. ^ a b "Economics Major and Minor" Archived 2020-01-28 at the Wayback Machine, University of Pittsburgh
  48. ^ a b Economics Major Archived 2022-10-02 at the Wayback Machine, Stanford University
  49. ^ Bachelor of Economics - Degree Structure Archived 2020-05-19 at the Wayback Machine, University of Adelaide
  50. ^ BCom with specialisation in Economics Archived 2020-09-19 at the Wayback Machine, University of the Free State
  51. ^ Courses and Requirements: Economics Archived 2020-06-26 at the Wayback Machine, Hamilton College
  52. ^ BA Economics Major Archived 2022-07-07 at the Wayback Machine, University Of Colorado Boulder
  53. ^ An Open textbook is: Katherine Eyal (2014). Mathematics for Economists Archived 2021-10-23 at the Wayback Machine. University of Cape Town
  54. ^ See for example these sequences. UQ: i Archived 2020-06-12 at the Wayback Machine, ii Archived 2020-06-12 at the Wayback Machine, iii Archived 2020-06-12 at the Wayback Machine; UCT: i, ii, iii Archived 2020-09-24 at the Wayback Machine. The final in both cases is at masters level and includes analysis. Some universities - UJ, for example - title the sequence "Quantitative Economics".
  55. ^ BA Economics Archived 2020-09-27 at the Wayback Machine, SOAS