Cather achieved recognition as a novelist of the frontier and pioneer experience. She wrote of the spirit of those settlers moving into the western states, many of them European immigrants in the nineteenth century. Common themes in her work include nostalgia and exile. A sense of place is an important element in Cather's fiction: physical landscapes and domestic spaces are for Cather dynamic presences against which her characters struggle and find community.
Mary Cather had six more children after Willa: Roscoe, Douglass,[B] Jessica, James, John, and Elsie.:5–7 Cather was closer to her brothers than to her sisters whom, according to biographer Hermione Lee, she "seems not to have liked very much.":36
At the urging of Charles Cather's parents, the family moved to Nebraska in 1883 when Willa was nine years old. The farmland appealed to Charles' father, and the family wished to escape the tuberculosis outbreaks that were rampant in Virginia.:30 Willa's father tried his hand at farming for eighteen months, then moving the family into the town of Red Cloud, where he opened a real estate and insurance business, and the children attended school for the first time.:43 Some of Cather's earlier work was first published in the Red Cloud Chief, the city's local paper. Similarly, Cather read widely, having made friends with a Jewish couple, the Wieners, who offered her free access to their extensive library in Red Cloud. She made house calls with the local physician and decided to become a surgeon. For a time, she signed her name as William, but quickly abandoned the name for Willa.
Cather moved to Lincoln, Nebraska, in 1890 to enroll at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln. In her first year, her essay on Thomas Carlyle was published in the Nebraska State Journal without her knowledge. After this, she published columns for $1 apiece, saying that seeing her words printed on the page had "a kind of hypnotic effect," pushing her to continue writing. Following this experience, she became a regular contributor to the Journal. In addition to her work with the local paper, Cather served as the main or of The Hesperian, the university's student newspaper, and became a writer for the Lincoln Courier. While at the university, she learned mathematics from and was befriended by John J. Pershing, who later became General of the Armies and, like Cather, earned a Pulitzer Prize. She changed her plans from studying science to become a physician, instead graduating with a Bachelor of Arts in English in 1895.:71
Cather's time in Nebraska, still considered a frontier state, was a formative experience for her: She was moved by the dramatic environment and weather, the vastness of the prairie, and the various cultures of the immigrant and Native American families in the area.
Life and career
Cather in 1912, wearing a necklace from Sarah Orne Jewett
In 1896, Cather was hired to write for a women's magazine, Home Monthly, moving in the process to Pittsburgh. There, she wrote journalistic pieces, short stories, and poetry. A year later, after the magazine was sold, she became a telegraph or and critic for the Pittsburgh Leader and frequently contributed poetry and short fiction to The Library, another local publication. In Pittsburgh, she taught Latin, algebra, and English composition at Central High School for one year; she then taught English and Latin at Allegheny High School, where she came to head the English department.
Shortly after moving to Pittsburgh, Cather wrote short stories, including publishing "Tommy, the Unsentimental" in the Home Monthly, about a Nebraskan girl with a masculine name who looks like a boy and saves her father's bank business. Janis P. Stout calls this story one of several Cather works that "demonstrate the speciousness of rigid gender roles and give favorable treatment to characters who undermine conventions." Her first book, a collection of poetry called April Twilights, was published in 1903.[C] Shortly after this, in 1905, Cather's first collection of short stories, The Troll Garden, was published. It contained some of her most famous stories, such as "A Wagner Matinee," "The Sculptor's Funeral," and "Paul's Case."
After Cather was offered an orial position at McClure's Magazine in 1906, she moved to New York City. During her first year at McClure's, she ghostwrote a critical biography of the religious leader Mary Baker Eddy, cring freelance researcher Georgine Milmine instead. While Milmine had performed copious amounts of research, she did not have the resources to produce a manuscript independently, instead employing Cather. This biography was serialized in McClure's over the next eighteen months, and then published in book form. McClure's also serialized Cather's first novel, Alexander's Bridge (1912). While most reviews were favorable, such as The Atlantic calling the writing "deft and skillful", Cather herself soon saw the novel as weak and shallow.
Cather followed Alexander's Bridge with her three novels set on the prairies of the Great Plains, which eventually became both popular and critical successes: O Pioneers! (1913),The Song of the Lark (1915), and My Ántonia (1918), which are—taken together—sometimes referred to as her "Prairie Trilogy". It is this succession of plains-based novels for which Cather was celebrated for her use of plainspoken language about ordinary people.Sinclair Lewis, for example, praised her work for making Nebraska available to the wider world for the first time. After writing The Great Gatsby, F. Scott Fitzgerald lamented that it was a failure in comparison to My Ántonia.
Cather in Paris, 1920
As late as 1920, Cather became dissatisfied with the performance of her publisher Houghton Mifflin—My Ántonia received an advertising budget of only $300, they refused to pay for all of the illustrations she commissioned for the book from Władysław T. Benda, and the physical quality of the books were poor. That year, she turned to the young publishing house, Alfred A. Knopf, which had a reputation for supporting its authors through advertising campaigns. She also liked the look of its books and had been impressed with its ion of Green Mansions by William Henry Hudson. She so enjoyed their style that all her Knopf books of the 1920s—save for one printing of her short story collection Youth and the Bright Medusa—matched in design on their second and subsequent printings.
By this time, Cather had been firmly established as a major American writer, receiving the Pulitzer Prize in 1923 for her World War I-based novel, One of Ours. She followed this up with the popular Death Comes for the Archbishop in 1927, selling 86,500 copies in just two years, and which has been included on the Modern Library 100 Best Novels of the twentieth century. Two of her three other novels of the decade—A Lost Lady and The Professor's House—elevated her literary status dramatically. She was invited to give several hundred lectures to the public, earned significant royalties, and sold off the movie rights to A Lost Lady. Her other novel of the decade, the 1926 My Mortal Enemy, received no widespread acclaim—and in fact, neither she nor her partner, Edith Lewis, made significant mention of it later in their lives.
Despite her success, she was the subject of much criticism, particularly surrounding One of Ours. Her close friend, Elizabeth Shepley Sergeant, saw the novel as a betrayal of the realities of war, not understanding how to "bridge the gap between [Cather's] idealized war vision ... and my own stark impressions of war as lived." Similarly, Ernest Hemingway took issue with her portrayal of war, writing in a 1923 letter: "Wasn’t [the novel’s] last scene in the lines wonderful? Do you know where it came from? The battle scene in Birth of a Nation. I identified episode after episode, Catherized. Poor woman, she had to get her war experience somewhere."
Edith Lewis in 1920, with whom Cather lived in her later years
By the 1930s, an increasingly large share of critics began to dismiss her as overly romantic and nostalgic, unable to grapple with contemporary issues:Granville Hicks, for instance, charged Cather with escaping into an idealized past to avoid confronting these matters. And it was particularly in the context of the hardships of the Great Depression in which her work was seen as lacking social relevance. Similarly, critics—and Cather herself—were disappointed when her novel A Lost Lady was made into a film; the film had little resemblance to the novel.
Cather's lifelong conservative politics,[D] appealing to critics such as Mencken, Randolph Bourne, and Carl Van Doren, soured her reputation with younger, often left-leaning critics like Hicks and Edmund Wilson. Despite this critical opposition to her work, Cather remained a popular writer whose novels and short story collections continued to sell well; in 1931 Shadows on the Rock was the most widely read novel in the United States, and Lucy Gayheart became a bestseller in 1935.
While Cather made her last trip to Red Cloud in 1931 for a family gathering following her mother's death, she stayed in touch with her Red Cloud friends and sent money to Annie Pavelka and other families during the Depression years.:327 In 1932, Cather published Obscure Destinies, her final collection of short fiction, which contained "Neighbour Rosicky", one of her most highly regarded stories. That same summer, she moved into a new apartment on Park Avenue with Edith Lewis, and during a visit on Grand Manan, she probably began working on her next novel, Lucy Gayheart.[E]
Cather suffered two devastating losses in 1938. In June, her favorite brother, Douglass, died of a heart attack. Cather was too grief-stricken to attend the funeral.:478 Four months later, Isabelle McClung died. Cather and McClung had lived together when Cather first arrived in Pittsburgh, and while McClung eventually married and moved with her husband to Toronto, the two women remained devoted friends.[F] Cather wrote friends that Isabelle was the person she wrote all of her books for.
During the summer of 1940, Cather and Lewis went to Grand Manan for the last time, and Cather finished her final novel, Sapphira and the Slave Girl, a book much darker in tone and subject matter than her previous works.:483 While Sapphira is understood by readers as lacking a moral sense and failing to evoke empathy, the novel was a great critical and commercial success, with an advance printing of 25,000 copies. It was then adopted by the Book of the Month Club, which bought more than 200,000 copies. Her final story, "The Best Years", intended as a gift for her brother, was retrospective. It contained images or "keepsakes" from each of her twelve published novels and the short stories in Obscure Destinies.
Although an inflamed tendon in her hand hampered her writing, Cather managed to finish a substantial part of a novel set in Avignon, France. Her remaining papers reveal that she had titled the unfinished manuscript Hard Punishments and placed it in the 14th century during the papal reign of Antipope Benedict XIV.:371 She was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1943. That same year, she executed a will that prohibited the publication of her letters and dramatization of her works. In 1944, Cather received the gold medal for fiction from the National Institute of Arts and Letters, a prestigious award given for an author's total accomplishments.
Cather was diagnosed with breast cancer in December 1945 and had a mastectomy on January 14, 1946.:294–295 Probably by early 1947, her cancer metastasized to her liver, becoming stage IV cancer.:296 About a year later, on April 24, 1947, Cather died of a cerebral hemorrhage, at the age of 73, in her home at 570 Park Avenue in Manhattan. Following Cather's death, Edith Lewis destroyed the manuscript of Hard Punishments, according to Cather's instructions. She is buried at the southwest corner of the Old Burying Ground in Jaffrey, New Hampshire, alongside Edith Lewis—a place she had first visited when joining Isabelle McClung and her husband, violinist Jan Hambourg, at the Shattuck Inn, where she routinely visited later in life owing to its seclusion.
Scholars disagree about Cather's sexual identity. Some believe it impossible or anachronistic to determine whether she had same-sex attraction, while others disagree. Researcher Deborah Carlin suggests that denial of Cather being a lesbian is rooted in treating same-sex desire "as an insult to Cather and her reputation," rather than a neutral historical perspective. Melissa Homestead has argued that Cather was attracted to Edith Lewis, and in so doing, asked: "What kind of evidence is needed to establish this as a lesbian relationship? Photographs of the two of them in bed together? She was an integral part of Cather’s life, creatively and personally." Beyond her own relationships with women, Cather's reliance on male characters has been used to support the idea of her same-sex attraction.[G]
Isabelle McClung, an unidentified man, and Willa Cather aboard the SS Westernland, 1902
In any event, throughout Cather's adult life, her closest relationships were with women. These included her college friend Louise Pound; the Pittsburgh socialite Isabelle McClung, with whom Cather traveled to Europe and at whose Toronto home she stayed for prolonged visits; the opera singer Olive Fremstad; and most notably, the or Edith Lewis, with whom Cather lived the last 39 years of her life.
Cather's relationship with Lewis began in the early 1900s. They lived together in a series of apartments in New York City from 1908 until Cather's death in 1947. From 1913 to 1927, Cather and Lewis lived at No. 5 Bank Street in Greenwich Village. They moved when the apartment was scheduled for demolition during the construction of the Broadway–Seventh AvenueNew York City Subway line (now the 1, 2, and 3 trains). While Lewis was selected as the literary trustee for Cather's estate, she was not merely a secretary for Cather's documents but an integral part of Cather's creative process.
Beginning in 1922, Cather spent summers on the island of Grand Manan in New Brunswick, where she bought a cottage in Whale Cove on the Bay of Fundy. This is where her short story, "Before Breakfast," is set. She valued the seclusion of the island and did not mind that her cottage had neither indoor plumbing nor electricity. Anyone wishing to reach her could do so by telegraph or mail.:415 In 1940, she stopped visiting Grand Manan following Canada's entrance to World War II, as travel was considerably more difficult; she also began a long recuperation from gallbladder surgery in 1942 that restricted travel.:266–268
A resolutely private person, Cather had destroyed many old drafts, personal papers, and letters, asking others to do the same. While many complied, some did not. Her will restricted the ability of scholars to quote from the personal papers that remain. But in April 2013, The Selected Letters of Willa Cather—a collection of 566 letters Cather wrote to friends, family, and literary acquaintances such as Thornton Wilder and F. Scott Fitzgerald—was published, two years after the death of Cather's nephew and second literary executor, Charles Cather. Willa Cather's correspondence revealed the complexity of her character and inner world. The letters do not disclose any intimate details about Cather's personal life, but they do "make clear that [her] primary emotional attachments were to women." The Willa Cather Archive at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln works to digitize her complete body of writing, including private correspondence and published work. As of 2021, about 2,100 letters have been made freely available to the public, in addition to transcription of her own published writing.
Cather admired Henry James's use of language and characterization. While Cather enjoyed the novels of several women—including George Eliot, the Brontës, and Jane Austen—she regarded most women writers with disdain, judging them overly sentimental.:110 One contemporary exception was Sarah Orne Jewett, who became Cather's friend and mentor.[H] Jewett advised Cather of several things: to use female narrators in her fiction (even though Cather preferred using male perspectives), to write about her "own country" (O Pioneers! was dedicated in large part to Jewett), and to write fiction that explicitly represented romantic attraction between women.[I] Cather was also influenced by the work of Katherine Mansfield, praising in an essay Mansfield's ability "to throw a luminous streak out onto the shadowy realm of personal relationships."
Cather's high regard for the immigrant families forging lives and enduring hardships on the Nebraska plains shaped much of her fiction. As a child, she visited immigrant families in her area and returned home in "the most unreasonable state of excitement," feeling that she "had got inside another person's skin.":169–170 Following a trip to Red Cloud in 1916, Cather decided to write a novel based on the events in the life of her childhood friend Annie Sadilek Pavelka, a Bohemian girl who became the model for the title character in My Ántonia. Cather was likewise fascinated by the French-Canadian pioneers from Quebec who had settled in the Red Cloud area while she was a girl.
During a brief stopover in Quebec with Edith Lewis in 1927, Cather was inspired to write a novel set in that French-Canadian city. Lewis recalled: "From the first moment that she looked down from the windows of the [Chateau] Frontenac [Hotel] on the pointed roofs and Norman outlines of the town of Quebec, Willa Cather was not merely stirred and charmed—she was overwhelmed by the flood of memories, recognition, surmise it called up; by the sense of its extraordinary French character, isolated and kept intact through hundreds of years, as if by a miracle, on this great un-French continent.":414–15 Cather finished her novel Shadows on the Rock, a historical novel set in 17th-century Quebec, in 1931; it was later included in Life magazine's list of the 100 outstanding books of 1924–1944. The French influence is found in many other Cather works, including Death Comes for the Archbishop (1927) and her final, unfinished novel set in Avignon, Hard Punishments.
Literary style and reception
Willa Cather in the Mesa Verde wilds, c. 1915
Although Cather began her writing career as a journalist, she made a distinction between journalism, which she saw as being primarily informative, and literature, which she saw as an art form.:27 Cather's work is often marked by—and criticized for—its nostalgic tone and themes drawn from memories of her early years on the American plains. Consequently, a sense of place is integral to her work: notions of land, the frontier,[J] pioneering (and so, the nascent women's movement), and relationships with western landscapes are recurrent. While Cather is said to have significantly altered her literary approach in each of her novels, this stance is not universal; some critics have charged Cather with being out of touch with her times and failing to use more experimental techniques in her writing, such as stream of consciousness,:36 as well as defining her literary genre as nothing but romantic. At the same time, others have pointed out that Cather could follow no other literary path but her own:
She had formed and matured her ideas on art before she wrote a novel. She had no more reason to follow Gertrude Stein and James Joyce, whose work she respected, than they did to follow her. Her style solves the problems in which she was interested. She wanted to stand midway between the journalists whose omniscient objectivity accumulate more fact than any character could notice and the psychological novelist whose use of subjective point of view stories distorts objective reality. She developed her theory on a middle ground, selecting facts from experience on the basis of feeling and then presenting the experience in a lucid, objective style. Cather's style is not the accumulative cataloguing of the journalists, nor the fragmentary atomism of psychological associations.
In a 1920 essay on Willa Cather, H.L. Mencken apologized for suggesting that Cather was a talented but inconsequential imitator of Edith Wharton. He praised her for abandoning New England as a locale for the immigration, and describes My Ántonia as a sudden leap forward by Cather. "Here was a novel planned with the utmost skill, and executed in truly admirable fashion," he wrote. "Here, unless I err gravely, was the best piece of fiction ever done by a woman in America."
The English novelist A. S. Byatt observes that with each work, Cather reinvented the novel form to investigate the changes in the human condition over time. Particularly in her frontier novels, Cather wrote of both the beauty and terror of life. Like the exiled characters of Henry James, an author who had a significant influence on Cather, most of Cather's major characters live as exiled immigrants, identifying with the immigrants' "sense of homelessness and exile" following her own feelings of exile living on the frontier.Susan J. Rosowski wrote that Cather was perhaps the first to grant immigrants a respectable position in American literature.
^Sources are inconsistent on the date of Cather's birth, in large part because she fabricated—or as scholar Jean Schwind says, "chronically lied about"—the date. The 1873 date is confirmed by a birth certificate, an 1874 letter of her father's referring to her, university records, and Cather scholarship—both modern and historical. At the direction of the staff of McClure's Magazine, Cather claimed to be born in 1875. After 1920, she claimed 1876 as her birth year; this date has since been replicated in several scholarly sources. That is the date carved into her gravestone at Jaffrey, New Hampshire.
^According to Elsie, Douglass's real name was Douglas, but Willa wanted him to spell it as Douglass, so he spelled it that way to please her.
^This collection of poetry, while described as unremarkable, was republished several times by Cather over her life, although with significant alterations. Eleven of these poems were never again published after 1903. This early experience with traditional, sentimental verse—without alteration from this scheme—was the basis for the rest of her literary career; she remarked that one's earliest writing is formative. While Cather's success was primarily in prose, her republishing of her earliest poetry suggests she wished to be taken as a poet as well. But this is contradicted by Cather's own words, where in 1925, where she wrote, "I do not take myself seriously as a poet."
^Not all critics see her 1930s political views as conservative; Reynolds argues that while she was reactionary later in life, she subscribed to a form of rural populism and progressivism, built on the continuity of community, and Clasen views her as a progressive. Similarly, it has been suggested she was distinctly opaque, and that in terms of literary innovation, she was solidly progressive, even radical.
^Some sources indicate that Cather began writing Lucy Gayheart in 1933. Homestead argues instead that she truly began writing in the summer of 1932. Some sources agree with her. Others are imprecise or ambiguous. Her idea for the story may have been formed as early as the 1890s (using the name Gayhardt instead of Gayheart, based on a woman she met at a party), and it is possible she began writing as early as 1926 or 1927. While she intended to name the novel Blue Eyes on the Platte early on, she changed the title and made Lucy's eyes brown. Stout suggests mention of Blue Eyes on the Platte may have been facetious, only beginning to write and think about Lucy Gayheart in 1933. This is contradicted by Edith Lewis insisting that not only did she begin working on Blue Eyes on the Platte "several years before" 1933, but that it was the precursor to Lucy Gayheart. Regardless of which of these details are true, it is known that Cather reused images from her 1911 short story, "The Joy of Nelly Deane", in Lucy Gayheart. "The Joy of Nelly Deane" may be best understood as an earlier version of Lucy Gayheart altogether.
^Cather wrote hundreds of letters to McClung over her life, and most of them were returned to Cather by McClung's husband. Almost all of these were destroyed.
^Some sources describe the relationship using stronger language: as Cather being Jewett's protégé. Either way, Jewett's remarkable influence on Cather is evidenced not only by her commitment to regionalism, but also by Cather's (perhaps overstated) role in ing The Country of the Pointed Firs.
^Jewett wrote in a letter to Cather, "with what deep happiness and recognition I have read the "McClure" story,—night before last I found it with surprise and delight. It made me feel very near to the writer's young and loving heart. You have drawn your two figures of the wife and her husband with unerring touches and wonderful tenderness for her. It makes me the more sure that you are far on your road toward a fine and long story of very high class. The lover is as well done as he could be when a woman writes in the man’s character,—it must always, I believe, be something of a masquerade. I think it is safer to write about him as you did about the others, and not try to be he! And you could almost have done it as yourself—a woman could love her in that same protecting way—a woman could even care enough to wish to take her away from such a life, by some means or other. But oh, how close—how tender—how true the feeling is!"
^Between 1891 and Cather's publication of The Song of the Lark, there was a paucity of novels dealing with farm life. By the 1920s, however, literary interest in rural life and the frontier grew considerably.
^Schwind, Jean (1985). "Latour's Schismatic Church: The Radical Meaning in the Pictorial Methods of Death Comes for the Archbishop". Studies in American Fiction. 13 (1): 71–88. doi:10.1353/saf.1985.0024. S2CID161453359.
^Carpentier, Martha C. (2007). "The Deracinated Self: Immigrants, Orphans, and the "Migratory Consciousness" of Willa Cather and Susan Glaspell". Studies in American Fiction. 35 (2): 132. doi:10.1353/saf.2007.0001. S2CID162245931.
^Jewell, Andrew (2007). ""Curious Survivals": The Letters of Willa Cather". New Letters. 74 (1): 154–175.
^Romines, Ann (2000). "Introduction: Willa Cather's southern connections". In Romines, Ann (ed.). Willa Cather's southern connections : new essays on Cather and the South. University Press of Virginia. ISBN0813919606.
^Overton, Grant (1928). The women who make our novels. Dodd, Mead. p. 77.
^ abBennett, Mildred. The World of Willa Cather. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1961
^Hamner, Eugenie Lambert (December 1984). "The unknown, well‐known child in Cather's last novel". Women's Studies. 11 (3): 347–358. doi:10.1080/00497878.1984.9978621.
^Castor, Laura (2008). "Willa Cather, Alexander's Bridge Historical essay and explanatory notes by Tom Quirk, textual essay and ing by Frederick M. Link". American Studies in Scandinavia. 40 (1–2): 167–170. doi:10.22439/asca.v40i1-2.4688.
^Old, James Paul (September 2018). "Wandering over Boundless Fields: The Fiction of Willa Cather and the Reformation of Communal Memory". American Political Thought. 7 (4): 565–587. doi:10.1086/699908. S2CID158530806.
^Vanderlaan, Kim (2011). "Sacred Spaces, Profane "Manufactories": Willa Cather's Split Artist in The Professor's House and My Mortal Enemy". Western American Literature. 46 (1): 4–24. doi:10.1353/wal.2011.0035. S2CID144199893.
^Randall, John Herman (1960). The landscape and the looking glass; Willa Cather's search for value. Houghton Mifflin. p. 353.
^Edel, Leon (1960). Willa Cather, the paradox of success; a lecture delivered under the auspices of the Gertrude Clarke Whittall Poetry and Literature Fund in the Coolidge Auditorium. Library of Congress. p. 13.
^ abStout, Janis P. (2019). Cather among the moderns. University of Alabama Press. p. 68. ISBN9780817320140.
^Cather, Willa (May 6, 1941). "Mary Willard (May 6, 1941) | Willa Cather Archive". cather.unl.edu. I have waited for some days to turn to you, because I seemed unable to utter anything but a cry of grief and bitter disappointment. Only Isabelle's death and the death of my brother Douglass have cut me so deep. The feeling I have, all the time, is that so much of my life has been cut away.
^"MISS CATHER WINS INSTITUTE AWARD". The New York Times. January 28, 1944. p. 13.
^ abcHomestead, Melissa J. (2021). The Only Wonderful Things: The Creative Partnership of Willa Cather and Edith Lewis. Oxford University Press.
^"Author of Lost Lady Won the Pulitzer Prize in 1922 for Writing One of Ours". The New York Times. April 25, 1947. Retrieved January 18, 2014. Willa Sibert Cather, noted American novelist, died at 4:30 P.M. yesterday in her home at 570 Park Avenue. After Miss Cather's death a secretary, who was with her at the time, was too upset to talk about it. It was reported that death was due to a cerebral hemorrhage. The author was 70 years old in December.
^Mulligan, Hugh A. (February 13, 1980). "Visiting Willa Cather: Sabbatical of the Heart". The Shreveport Journal. Associated Press. p. 52.
^Cather, Willa (2004). Curtin, William M. (ed.). The World and the Parish: Willa Cather's Articles and Reviews, 1893-1902 ([Repr. of the 1970] ed.). University of Nebraska Press. p. 248. ISBN0803215444.
^Donovan, Josephine (1979). "The Unpublished Love Poems of Sarah Orne Jewett". Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies. 4 (3): 26–31. doi:10.2307/3346145. ISSN0160-9009. JSTOR3346145. In fact, Jewett was quite aware of the temptation to fictionally disguise female-female relationships as heterosexual love stories, and consciously rejected it. One of her most pointed critical comments to the young Willa Cather was to advise her against doing this kind of "masquerading" in her future work.