Wikipedia:Sock puppetry

toy puppets made from socks with buttons for eyes
The origin of the term sock puppet is a type of toy puppet.

On Wikipedia, sock puppetry, or socking, refers to the misuse of multiple Wikipedia accounts. To maintain accountability and increase community trust, ors are generally expected to use only one account. While there are some valid reasons for maintaining multiple accounts, it is improper to use multiple accounts to deceive or mislead other ors, disrupt discussions, distort consensus, avoid sanctions, evade blocks, or otherwise violate community standards and policies.

Sock puppetry takes various forms:

Misuse of multiple accounts is a serious breach of community trust. It may lead to:

An or using multiple accounts for valid reasons should, on each account's user page, list all the other accounts with an explanation of their purpose (see below). Optionally, the user and user talk pages of some of the accounts can be redirected to those of another. Editors who use unlinked alternative accounts, or who as an IP address or separate from their account, should carefully avoid any crossover on articles or topics because even innocuous activities such as copy ing, wikifying, or linking might be considered sock puppetry in some cases and innocuous intentions will not usually serve as an excuse.

Inappropriate uses of alternative accounts[]

Editors must not use alternative accounts to mislead, deceive, disrupt, or undermine consensus. This includes, but is not limited to:

Legitimate uses[]

Alternative accounts have legitimate uses. For example, ors who contribute using their real name may wish to use a pseudonym for contributions with which they do not want their real name to be associated, or long-term users might create a new account to better understand the ing experience from a new user's perspective. These accounts are not considered sockpuppets. If you use a legitimate alternative account, it is your responsibility to ensure that you do not use it in an illegitimate manner according to this policy.

Valid reasons for an alternative account include:

Alternative accounts should always be identified as such on their user pages, except where doing so would defeat the point of the account. Templates such as {{User alternative account}} or one of a selection of user boxes may be used for this purpose.

Editing while logged out[]

There is no policy against ing the encyclopedia while logged out, per se. This happens for many reasons, including not noticing that the login session had expired, changing computers, going to a Wikipedia page directly from a link, and forgetting passwords. Editors who are not logged in must not actively try to deceive other ors, such as by directly saying that they do not have an account or by using the session for the inappropriate uses of alternative accounts listed earlier in this policy. To protect their privacy, ors who have ed while logged out are never required to connect their usernames to their IP addresses on-wiki.

If you have concerns that an IP or is actually a user with an account who is ing while logged out in a way that is inappropriate, you can give the IP or notice of this policy ({{uw-login}} is available for this purpose), and if the behavior continues, you should contact a CheckUser privately and present the evidence to them.

Alternative account notification[]

Except when doing so would defeat the purpose of having a legitimate alternative account, ors using alternative accounts should provide links between the accounts. Links should ideally take the form of all three of the following:

  1. Similarities in the username (for example, User:Example might have User:Example public or User:Example bot).[3]
  2. Links on both the main and alternative account user pages, either informally or using the userbox templates made for the purpose. To link an alternative account to a main account, use the main account to tag any secondary accounts with {{User alternate acct | main account}} (using the main account shows it's genuine) or {{Public user}} if the account is being used to maintain security on public computers. The main account may be marked with {{User alternative account name|OtherName|...|OtherName[n]}}.
  3. Links in the alternative account signature: if not linking to both the alternative and main account, link to the alternative account, and if necessary provide a note there requesting contact be made via the main account, or simply redirect the user talk page.

Editors who have multiple accounts for privacy reasons should consider notifying a checkuser or members of the arbitration committee if they believe ing will attract scrutiny. Editors who heavily controversial material, those who maintain single purpose accounts, as well as ors considering becoming an administrator are among the groups of ors who attract scrutiny even if their ing behavior itself is not problematic or only marginally so. Concerned ors may wish to email the arbitration committee or any individual with checkuser rights. Editors who have abandoned an account and are ing under a new identity are required to comply with the clean start policy.


High-profile disputes on Wikipedia often bring new ors to the site. Some individuals may promote their causes by bringing like-minded ors into the dispute, including enlisting assistance off-Wiki. These ors are sometimes referred to as meatpuppets, following a common Internet usage. While Wikipedia assumes good faith, especially for new users, recruiting new ors to influence decisions on Wikipedia is prohibited. A new user who engages in the same behavior as another user in the same context, and who appears to be ing Wikipedia solely for that purpose, may be subject to the remedies applied to the user whose behavior they are joining. Sanctions have been applied to ors of longer standing who have not, in the opinion of Wikipedia's administrative bodies, consistently exercised independent judgment.

Wikipedia has processes in place to mitigate the disruption caused by an influx of single-purpose ors:

The term meatpuppet may be seen by some as derogatory and should be used with care, in keeping with Wikipedia:Civility. Because of the processes above, it may be counterproductive to directly accuse someone of being a "meatpuppet", and doing so will often only inflame the dispute.

Sharing an IP address[]

If two or more registered ors use the same computer or network connection, their accounts may be linked by a CheckUser. Editors in this position are advised to declare such connections on their user pages to avoid accusations of sockpuppetry. There are userboxes available for this; see {{User shared IP address}}.

Closely connected users may be considered a single user for Wikipedia's purposes if they with the same objectives. When ing the same articles, participating in the same community discussion, or supporting each other in any sort of dispute, closely related accounts should disclose the connection and observe relevant policies such as warring as if they were a single account. If they do not wish to disclose the connection, they should avoid ing in the same areas, particularly on controversial topics.

Handling suspected sock puppets[]

Sockpuppet investigations[]

Wikipedia:Signs of sock puppetry lists some of the signs that an account may be a sock puppet. If you believe someone is using sock puppets or meat puppets, you should create a report at Wikipedia:Sockpuppet investigations. In reporting suspected sock puppetry, you must obey the rules of WP:OUTING with regard to disclosure of personal or identifying information. Only blocked accounts should be tagged as Category:Suspected Wikipedia sockpuppets and only upon sufficient evidence that would stand up to scrutiny.


Editors with access to the CheckUser tool may consult the server log to see which IP addresses are linked to which accounts. CheckUser cannot confirm with certainty that two accounts are not connected; it can only show whether there is a technical link at the time of the check. In accordance with the Wikimedia Foundation's Privacy and Checkuser policies, checks are only conducted with good cause, and (subject to the exceptions in those policies) results are reported in such a way as to avoid or minimize disclosure of personal identifying information. Particularly, "fishing"—the use of CheckUser without good cause specific to a given user account—is prohibited.


If a person is found to be using a sock puppet, the sock puppet account(s) should be blocked indefinitely. The main account may be blocked at the discretion of any uninvolved administrator. IP addresses used for sock puppetry may be blocked, but are subject to certain restrictions for indefinite blocks.


Proving you are not a sock[]

Babel user information
Users by language

One possibility to prove that your account is not a sock puppet is the Personal acquaintances WikiProject. This project was started in 2008 in the German language Wikipedia and uses a WMF labs tool where users can confirm that they have met a real person operating one specific Wikipedia or Wikimedia account at a meetup in real life. The project and its tool meanwhile have been translated to several other languages and can be accessed with any account using the global single user login. Once you have registered as a participant of Personal acquaintances, you need to be confirmed by three other participants in good standing before you can start confirming other real life persons yourself. For further information go to the project page linked above. You can show other Wikipedians that you are a real person by displaying the userbox {{Template:User Personal acquaintances}} on your userpage or the link to your list of confirmations via the url " username/".[dead link]

List of role accounts[]

Category:Wikipedia contact role accounts

See also[]




  1. ^ Wikimedia Foundation privacy policy:
    "We hope that this never comes up, but we may disclose your personal information if we believe that it's reasonably necessary […] to protect our organization, employees, contractors, users, or the public. We may also disclose your personal information if we reasonably believe it necessary to detect, prevent, or otherwise assess and address potential spam, malware, fraud, abuse, unlawful activity, and security or technical concerns."
    Information under this policy is not gratuitously released, but may be made public at times in the context of detecting, confirming, preventing, and resolving issues related to actual or possible abuse.
  2. ^ See Wikipedia:Requests for arbitration/Privatemusings#Sockpuppetry.
  3. ^ Dissimilar names may cause confusion and create an impression of avoiding transparency; remember that the username appears in page histories even if you change the signature.
  4. ^ Wikipedia:Requests for arbitration/Regarding Ted Kennedy#Sockpuppets

External links[]