Volhynian Bloody Sunday

On Sunday July 11, 1943, the OUN-UPA death squads aided by the local Ukrainian peasants simultaneously attacked at least 99 Polish settlements within the Wołyń Voivodeship of the prewar Second Polish Republic under the German occupation.[1] It was a well-orchestrated attack on people gathered for a Sunday mass at Catholic churches. The towns affected included Kisielin (Kisielin massacre), Poryck (Poryck Massacre), Chrynów (Chrynów massacre), Zabłoćce, Krymn, with dozens of other towns attacked at different dates with tens of churches and chapels burned to the ground. The Volhynian massacres spread over four prewar voivodeships including Wołyń with 40,000- 60,000 victims, as well as Lwów, Stanisławów and Tarnopol in Lesser Poland with 30,000- 40,000 Poles murdered for the total of 100,000 Polish victims of UPA terror.[2] The Bloody Sunday of July 11, 1943 is not to be confused with the Stanisławów Ghetto Bloody Sunday massacre of 10,000 to 12,000 Polish Jews on October 12, 1941, before the Stanisławów Ghetto announcement.[3]

Location of powiaty Włodzimierz (top left) and Horochów (lower centre) in Tarnopol Voivodeship of the Second Polish Republic with neighbouring administrative units; the epicentre of the UPA massacres of July 11, 1943

The month of July 1943 proved particularly tragic, with the Sunday of July 11, 1943 being especially bloody. At the crack of dawn that day UPA detachments (often actively supported by local Ukrainians) simultaneously surrounded and attacked 99 Polish villages in the Kowel, Włodzimierz Wołyński, and Horochów counties, as well as in a part of Łuck county. Ukrainians ruthlessly slaughtered Polish civilians and destroyed their homes. Villages were burned to the ground and property was looted. Researchers estimate that on that day alone the number of Polish victims may have amounted to some 8,000 people — mostly women, children, and the elderly. The perpetrators used bullets, axes, pitchforks, knives, and other weapons. Many Poles were killed in churches. — Institute of National Remembrance [4]

Selected locations of the Volhynian Bloody Sunday massacres[]

Below is the list of selected locations of the OUN-UPA mass killing raids targeting Polish Catholics, with the confirmed number of victims from July 11, 1943 exceeding one dozen men, women and children, according to compendium of Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia written by Władysław Siemaszko and Ewa Siemaszko. Existing settlements which have been attacked, but whose number of Polish victims remained undetermined at the time when the information was collected, are not listed here.[5]

Powiat
(county)
Gmina
(commune)
Name of
settlement
Number of
dead victims
Notes
horochowski Chorów (pl) Bakonówka more than 21 Polish farmhouses burned down
Janin estate around 50 From Janin, departure for a raid on Zamlicz
Zachorów Nowy 30 Perpetrated by SB-OUN led by Wasyl Melnyk
Zamlicze village and estate 118 Separate article (pl)
Kisielin (pl) Kisielin 90 Kisielin massacre [6]
Podberezie (pl) Koziatyn (pl) (uk) 21 16 killed on site & 5 attempting to flee
Zagaje village 260–350 Zagaje massacre, July 11 or 12 [7]
Skobełka (pl) Musin (Marianówka) all Eradicated village
Świniuchy (pl) Liniów (pl) (uk) 70
Sienkiewicze all Eradicated village, July 11 or 12
kowelski (pl) Krymno (pl) Krymno 40 Massacre at a church
włodzimierski Chotiaczów (pl) Bużanka (pl) (uk) 14
Nowojanka [8] at least 12 Polish farmhouses burned down, July 11 or 12
Suchodoły estate [9] 80
Suchodoły village (uk) all Poles
Grzybowica (pl) Chrynów (pl) 150 Chrynów massacre
Franopol [10] 9
Grzybowica more than 34
Gucin 147 Separate article (pl)
Gurów 202 Gurów massacre
Kropiwszczyzna (pl) more than 20
Nowiny ~ 80
Sądowa 160 Separate article (pl)
Sądowa area 13
Stasin 105 Separate article (pl)
Wygranka 150 Separate article (pl)
Zabłoćce (pl) 76 Massacre at a church
Żdżary Duże colony 51
Korytnica (pl) Strzelecka colony 60 Attacked on July 11 or 12
Turówka (uk) 49
Wydranka several dozen
Mikulicze (pl) Biskupicze Górne estate 70
Biskupicze Górne village (uk) at least 20
Markostaw (uk) 44 Attacked on July 11 or 12
Mikulicze 24
Orlęta ~ 50
Zygmuntówka several dozen
Poryck (pl) Iwanicze Stare & Nowe village & colony more than 9
Jerzyn 51 Attacked by the same death squad as in Poryck
Kłopoczyn (uk) 15
Lachów (pl) at least 21
Orzeszyn 306 Separate article (pl)
Pawłówka 10
Poryck 200 Separate article (pl) Poryck 1943 massacre of Poles
Romanówka (pl) more than 15
Topieliszcze (pl) more than 14 Attacked on July 11 or in the following days
Wolica 14
Werba (pl) Dominopol at least 220 Dominopol massacre
Piński Most 29
Wołczak 9

References[]

  1. ^ Nabi Abdullaev, Foreign Policy Association: Central and Eastern Europe. Fpa.org. Retrieved on July 11, 2011.
  2. ^ Massacre, Volhynia. "The Effects of the Volhynian Massacres". Volhynia Massacre. Retrieved 2018-07-13.
  3. ^ George Eisen, Tamás Stark (2013). The 1941 Galician Deportation (PDF). Holocaust and Genocide Studies 27, no. 2 (Fall 2013): 207–241. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. pp. 215 (9/35 in PDF). Retrieved 16 December 2014. More than 10,000 Jews, including 2,000 Hungarian Jews [the so-called “Galicianer” Jews deported out of Hungary], perished on that day – as it happened, on the last day of the Jewish festival of Sukkoth (Hoshana Rabbah). SS-Hauptsturmführer (Captain) Hans Krüger orchestrated the massacre, aided by Ukrainian collaborators and Reserve Police Battalion 133. Notably, Krüger had at his disposal a Volksdeutsche unit, recruited from Hungary, that routinely participated in exterminations.
  4. ^ IPN (2016). "The Genocide on Poles Conducted by the OUN-B and UPA" (PDF). Remembering the Volhynian Massacres 70 years later — Basic Information. Institute of National Remembrance. 5 (7/12) in PDF. The OUN-UPA terror assumed a mass scale in the summer and fall of 1943. The massacres of Poles initiated in the Sarny, Kostopol, Równe, and Zdołbuny counties spread across to Dubno and Łuck counties in June 1943. In July of that year they affected the Kowel, Włodzimierz Wołyński, and Horochów counties, before spreading further still to Luboml county in August.
  5. ^ Władysław Siemaszko, Ewa Siemaszko, Ludobójstwo dokonane przez nacjonalistów ukraińskich na ludności polskiej Wołynia. Tom 1-2. Publisher: Borowiecky, Warsaw, ISBN 978-83-60748-01-5, Vol.1; pp. 137, 141, 144-145, 147, 159, 179, 186, 191-192, 195, 337, 382, 616, 696, 817, 820, 823-829, 831-834, 836, 838-839, 848, 850, 852-853, 857-859, 863-866, 868, 871, 887-888, 890-893, 895-896, 899-905, 915, 929-930, 948, 959.
  6. ^ Terles, Mikolaj (1993). Ethnic cleansing of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia, 1942-1946. Alliance of the Polish Eastern Provinces, University of Michigan. p. 39. ISBN 0-9698020-0-5.
  7. ^ Władysław Filar (2008), Wydarzenia wołyńskie 1939-1945. W poszukiwaniu odpowiedzi na trudne pytania. Toruń: Wydawnictwo Adam Marszałek. ISBN 978-83-7441-884-3.
  8. ^ Strony o Wołyniu, Nowojanka. Wolyn.ovh.org
  9. ^ Strony o Wołyniu, Suchodoły. Wolyn.ovh.org
  10. ^ Strony o Wołyniu, Franopol. Wolyn.ovh.org