Voiceless velar stop

Voiceless velar stop
k
IPA number 109
Encoding
Entity (decimal) k
Unicode (hex) U+006B
X-SAMPA k
Kirshenbaum k
Braille ⠅ (braille pattern dots-13)
Listen

The voiceless velar stop or voiceless velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨k⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is k.

The [k] sound is a very common sound cross-linguistically. Most languages have at least a plain [k], and some distinguish more than one variety. Most Indo-Aryan languages, such as Hindi and Bengali, have a two-way contrast between aspirated and plain [k]. Only a few languages lack a voiceless velar stop, e.g. Tahitian.

Some languages have the voiceless pre-velar stop,[1] which is articulated slightly more front compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless velar stop, though not as front as the prototypical voiceless palatal stop - see that article for more information.

Conversely, some languages have the voiceless post-velar stop,[2] which is articulated slightly behind the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless velar stop, though not as back as the prototypical voiceless uvular stop - see that article for more information.

Features[]

Features of the voiceless velar stop:

Varieties[]

IPA Description
k plain k
aspirated k
palatalized k
labialized k
k with no audible release
voiced k
tense k
ejective k

Occurrence[]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz ақалақь [ˈakalakʲ] 'the city' See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe Shapsug кьэт About this sound [kʲat]  'chicken' Dialectal; corresponds to [t͡ʃ] in other dialects.
Temirgoy пскэн [pskan] 'to cough'
Ahtna gistaann [kɪstʰɐːn] 'six'
Aleut[3] kiikax̂ [kiːkaχ] 'cranberry bush'
Arabic Modern Standard[4] كتب [ˈkatabɐ] 'he wrote' See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[5] քաղաք [kʰɑˈʁɑkʰ] 'town' Contrasts with unaspirated form.
Assamese [kɔm] 'less'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic kuleh [kulɛː] 'all' Used in most varieties, with the exception of the Urmia and Nochiya dialects
where it corresponds to [t͡ʃ].
Basque katu [kat̪u] 'cat'
Bengali [kɔm] 'less' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
Bulgarian как [kak] 'how' See Bulgarian phonology
Catalan[6] quinze [ˈkinzə] 'fifteen' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Cantonese /gā About this sound [kaː˥] 'home' Contrasts with aspirated and or labialized forms. See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin /gāo About this sound [kɑʊ˥] 'high' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Mandarin phonology
Czech kost [kost] 'bone' See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[7] gås [ˈkɔ̽ːs] 'goose' Usually transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɡ̊⟩ or ⟨ɡ⟩. Contrasts with aspirated form, which is usually transcribed in IPA with ⟨⟩ or ⟨k⟩. See Danish phonology
Dutch[8] koning [ˈkoːnɪŋ] 'king' See Dutch phonology
English kiss About this sound [kʰɪs] 'kiss' See English phonology
Esperanto rakonto [raˈkonto] 'tale' See Esperanto phonology
Estonian kõik [kɤik] 'all' See Estonian phonology
Esperanto kato [kato] 'cat'
Filipino kuto [kuˈto] 'lice'
Finnish kakku [kɑkːu] 'cake' See Finnish phonology
French[9] cabinet [kabinɛ] 'office' See French phonology
Georgian[10] ვა [kʰva] 'stone'
German Käfig [ˈkʰɛːfɪç] 'cage' See Standard German phonology
Greek καλόγερος/kalógeros [kaˈlo̞ʝe̞ro̞s̠] 'monk' See Modern Greek phonology
Gujarati કાંદો [kɑːnd̪oː] 'onion' See Gujarati phonology
Hebrew כסף/kesef [ˈkesef] 'money' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustani काम / کام [kɑːm] 'work' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian akkor [ɒkkor] 'then' See Hungarian phonology
Italian[11] casa [ˈkaza] 'house' See Italian phonology
Japanese[12] /kaban [kabaɴ] 'handbag' See Japanese phonology
Kagayanen[13] kalag [kað̞aɡ] 'spirit'
Korean 감자/kamja [kamdʐa] 'potato' See Korean phonology
Lakota kimímela [kɪˈmɪmela] 'butterfly'
Luxembourgish[14] geess [ˈkeːs] 'goat' Less often voiced [ɡ]. It is usually transcribed in IPA as ⟨ɡ⟩, and it contrasts with aspirated form, which is usually transcribed ⟨k⟩.[14] See Luxembourgish phonology
Macedonian кој [kɔj] 'who' See Macedonian phonology
Marathi वच [kəʋət͡s] 'armour' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Marathi phonology
Malay kaki [käki] 'leg'
Norwegian kake [kɑːkɛ] 'cake' See Norwegian phonology
Pashto كال [kɑl] 'year'
Persian کیمچی [kimt͡ʃi] 'kimchi'
Polish[15] buk About this sound [ˈbuk]  'beech tree' See Polish phonology
Portuguese[16] corpo [ˈkoɾpu] 'body' See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਕਰ [kəɾ] 'do' Contrasts with aspirated form.
Romanian[17] când [ˈkɨnd] 'when' See Romanian phonology
Russian[18] короткий About this sound [kɐˈrotkʲɪj]  'short' See Russian phonology
Slovak kosť [kɔ̝sc̟] 'bone' See Slovak phonology
Spanish[19] casa [ˈkäsä] 'house' See Spanish phonology
Swedish ko [ˈkʰuː] 'cow' See Swedish phonology
Sylheti ꠇꠤꠔꠣ [kɪt̪à] 'what'
Telugu కాకి [kāki] 'crow'
Turkish kulak [kʰuɫäk] 'ear' See Turkish phonology
Ubykh [kawar] 'slat' Found mostly in loanwords. See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainian[20] колесо [ˈkɔɫɛsɔ] 'wheel' See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese[21] cam [kam] 'orange' See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisian keal [kɪəl] 'calf' See West Frisian phonology
Yi /ge [kɤ˧] 'foolish' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms.
Zapotec Tilquiapan[22] canza [kanza] 'walking'

See also[]

Notes[]

  1. ^ Instead of "pre-velar", it can be called "advanced velar", "fronted velar", "front-velar", "palato-velar", "post-palatal", "retracted palatal" or "backed palatal".
  2. ^ Instead of "post-velar", it can be called "retracted velar", "backed velar", "pre-uvular", "advanced uvular" or "fronted uvular".
  3. ^ Ladefoged (2005), p. 165.
  4. ^ Thelwall (1990), p. 37.
  5. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 13.
  6. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 53.
  7. ^ Basbøll (2005:61)
  8. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 45.
  9. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  10. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  11. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 117.
  12. ^ Okada (1991), p. 94.
  13. ^ Olson et al. (2010), pp. 206–207.
  14. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013:67–68)
  15. ^ Jassem (2003), p. 103.
  16. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  17. ^ DEX Online : [1]
  18. ^ Padgett (2003), p. 42.
  19. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 255.
  20. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  21. ^ Thompson (1959), pp. 458–461.
  22. ^ Merrill (2008), p. 108.

References[]

  • Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5 
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (1–2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618 
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223 
  • Danyenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995), Ukrainian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 9783929075083 
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L. (1993), "French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 23 (2): 73–76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874 
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X 
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191 
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell 
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373 
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344 
  • Okada, Hideo (1991), "Phonetic Representation:Japanese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 21 (2): 94–97, doi:10.1017/S002510030000445X 
  • Olson, Kenneth; Mielke, Jeff; Sanicas-Daguman, Josephine; Pebley, Carol Jean; Paterson, Hugh J., III (2010), "The phonetic status of the (inter)dental approximant", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 199–215, doi:10.1017/S0025100309990296 
  • Padgett, Jaye (2003), "Contrast and Post-Velar Fronting in Russian", Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 21 (1): 39–87, doi:10.1023/A:1021879906505 
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628 
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659 
  • Thelwall, Robin (1990), "Arabic", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 20 (2): 37–41, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004266 
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language, 35 (3): 454–476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232