Voiceless glottal fricative

Voiceless glottal fricative
h
IPA Number146
Encoding
Entity (decimal)h
Unicode (hex)U+0068
X-SAMPAh
Braille⠓ (braille pattern dots-125)
Audio sample

The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate,[1][2] is a type of sound used in some spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨h⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is h, although [h] has been described as a voiceless vowel because in many languages, it lacks the place and manner of articulation of a prototypical consonant as well as the height and backness of a prototypical vowel:

[h and ɦ] have been described as voiceless or breathy voiced counterparts of the vowels that follow them [but] the shape of the vocal tract […] is often simply that of the surrounding sounds. […] Accordingly, in such cases it is more appropriate to regard h and ɦ as segments that have only a laryngeal specification, and are unmarked for all other features. There are other languages [such as Hebrew and Arabic] which show a more definite displacement of the formant frequencies for h, suggesting it has a [glottal] constriction associated with its production.[3]

Lamé contrasts voiceless and voiced glottal fricatives.[4]

Features[]

Features of the "voiceless glottal fricative":

Occurrence[]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe Shapsug хыгь [həɡʲ] 'now' Corresponds to [x] in other dialects.
Albanian hire [hiɾɛ][stress?] 'the graces'
Arabic Modern Standard[5] هائل [ˈhaːʔɪl] 'enormous' See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[6] հայերեն About this sound[hɑjɛɾɛn]  'Armenian'
Assyrian/Syriac Eastern ܗܝܡܢܘܬܐ [heːmaːnuːtʰa] 'faith'
Asturian South-central dialects uerza [ˈhweɾθɐ] 'force' F- becomes [h] before -ue/-ui in some south-central dialects. May be also realized as [ħ, ʕ, ɦ, x, χ]
Oriental dialects acer [haˈθeɾ] "to do" F- becomes [h] in oriental dialects. May be also realized as [ħ, ʕ, ɦ, x, χ]
Avar гьа [ha] 'oath'
Azeri hin [hɪn] 'chicken coop'
Basque North-Eastern dialects[7] hirur [hiɾur] 'three' Can be voiced [ɦ] instead.
Bengali হাওয়া [hao̯a] 'wind'
Berber aherkus [ahərkus] 'shoe'
Cantabrian muer [muˈheɾ] 'woman' F- becomes [h]. In most dialects, -LJ- and -C'L- too. May be also realized as [A

as [ħ, ʕ, ɦ, x, χ]

Chechen хӏара / hara [hɑrɐ] 'this'
Chinese Cantonese / hói About this sound[hɔːi̯˧˥] 'sea' See Cantonese phonology
Taiwanese Mandarin / hǎi About this sound[haɪ̯˨˩˦] A velar fricative [x] for Standard Chinese. See Standard Chinese phonology
Danish[4] hus [ˈhuːˀs] 'house' Often voiced [ɦ] when between vowels.[4] See Danish phonology
English high [haɪ̯] 'high' See English phonology and H-dropping
Esperanto hejmo [ˈhejmo] 'home' See Esperanto phonology
Eastern Lombard Val Camonica Bresa [ˈbrɛha] 'Brescia' Corresponds to /s/ in other varieties.
Estonian hammas [ˈhɑmˑɑs] 'tooth' See Estonian phonology
Faroese hon [hoːn] 'she'
Finnish hammas [ˈhɑmːɑs] 'tooth' See Finnish phonology
French Belgian hotte [hɔt] 'pannier' Found in the region of Liège. See French phonology
Galician Occidental, central, and some oriental dialects gato [ˈhätʊ] 'cat' Realization of [g] in some dialects. May be also realized as

[ɦ, ʕ, x, χ, ʁ, ɡʰ]. See gheada.

Georgian[8] ავა [hɑvɑ] 'climate'
German[9] Hass [has] 'hatred' See Standard German phonology
Greek Cypriot[10] μαχαζί [mahaˈzi] 'shop' Allophone of /x/ before /a/.
Hawaiian[11] haka [ˈhɐkə] 'shelf' See Hawaiian phonology
Hebrew הַר [har] 'mountain' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindi Standard[5] हम [ˈhəm] 'we' See Hindustani phonology
Hmong hawm [haɨ̰] 'to honor'
Hungarian helyes [ˈhɛjɛʃ] 'right' See Hungarian phonology
Italian Tuscan[12] i capitani [iˌhäɸiˈθäːni] 'the captains' Intervocalic allophone of /k/.[12] See Italian phonology
Japanese すはだ / suhada [su͍hada] 'bare skin' See Japanese phonology
Korean 하루 / haru [hɐɾu] 'day' See Korean phonology
Kabardian тхылъхэ [tχɪɬhɑ] 'books'
Lakota ho [ho] 'voice'
Lao ຫ້າ [haː˧˩] 'five'
Leonese guaje [ˈwahe̞] 'boy'
Lezgian гьек [hek] 'glue'
Limburgish Some dialects[13][14] hòs [hɔːs] 'glove' Voiced [ɦ] in other dialects. The example word is from the Weert dialect.
Luxembourgish[15] hei [hɑ̝ɪ̯] 'here' See Luxembourgish phonology
Malay hari [hari] 'day'
Mutsun hučekniš [hut͡ʃɛkniʃ] 'dog'
Navajo hastiin [hàsd̥ìːn] 'mister'
Norwegian hatt [hɑtː] 'hat' See Norwegian phonology
Pashto هو [ho] 'yes'
Persian هفت [hæft] 'seven' See Persian phonology
Pirahã hi [hì] 'he'
Portuguese Many Brazilian dialects[16] marreta [maˈhetɐ] 'sledgehammer' Allophone of /ʁ/. [h, ɦ] are marginal sounds to many speakers, particularly out of Brazil. See Portuguese phonology
Most dialects Honda [ˈhõ̞dɐ] 'Honda'
Minas Gerais (mountain dialect) arte [ˈahtʃ] 'art'
Colloquial Brazilian[17][18] chuvisco [ɕuˈvihku] 'drizzle' Corresponds to either /s/ or /ʃ/ (depending on dialect) in the syllable coda. Might also be deleted.
Romanian hăț [həts] 'bridle' See Romanian phonology
Serbo-Croatian Croatian[19] hmelj [hmê̞ʎ̟] 'hops' Allophone of /x/ when it is initial in a consonant cluster.[19] See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Spanish[20] Andalusian higo [ˈhiɣo̞] 'fig' Corresponds to Old Spanish /h/, which was developed from Latin /f/ but muted in other dialects.
Many dialects obispo [o̞ˈβ̞ihpo̞] 'bishop' Allophone of /s/. See Spanish phonology
Some dialects jaca [ˈhaka] 'pony' Corresponds to /x/ in other dialects.
Swedish hatt [ˈhatː] 'hat' See Swedish phonology
Sylheti ꠢꠣꠝꠥꠇ [hamux] 'snail'
Thai ห้า [haː˥˩] 'five'
Turkish halı [häˈɫɯ] 'carpet' See Turkish phonology
Ubykh [dwaha] 'prayer' See Ubykh phonology
Urdu Standard[5] ہم [ˈhəm] 'we' See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Vietnamese[21] hiểu [hjew˧˩˧] 'understand' See Vietnamese phonology
Welsh haul [ˈhaɨl] 'sun' See Welsh orthography
West Frisian hoeke [ˈhukə] 'corner'
Yi / hxa [ha˧] 'hundred'

See also[]

Notes[]

References[]

  • Arvaniti, Amalia (1999), "Cypriot Greek" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 29 (2): 173–178, doi:10.1017/S002510030000654X
  • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), "Brazilian Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (2): 227–232, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001756
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278
  • Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 87-500-3865-6
  • Hall, Robert A. Jr. (1944). "Italian phonemes and orthography". Italica. American Association of Teachers of Italian. 21 (2): 72–82. doi:10.2307/475860. JSTOR 475860.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Heijmans, Linda; Gussenhoven, Carlos (1998), "The Dutch dialect of Weert" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 28 (1–2): 107–112, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006307
  • Hualde, José Ignacio; Ortiz de Urbina, Jon, eds. (2003), A grammar of Basque, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, ISBN 3-11-017683-1
  • Kohler, Klaus (1999), "German", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, pp. 86–89, ISBN 0-521-63751-1
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarić, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
  • Laufer, Asher (1991), "Phonetic Representation: Glottal Fricatives", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 21 (2): 91–93, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004448
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373
  • Peters, Jörg (2006), "The dialect of Hasselt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (1): 117–124, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002428
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659
  • Smyth, Herbert Weir (1920). A Greek Grammar for Colleges. American Book Company. Retrieved 1 January 2014 – via CCEL.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Thelwall, Robin (1990), "Illustrations of the IPA: Arabic", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 20 (2): 37–41, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004266
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language, 35 (3): 454–476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232
  • Wright, Joseph; Wright, Elizabeth Mary (1925). Old English Grammar (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

External links[]