Voiceless dental and alveolar stops

Voiceless alveolar stop
t
IPA number 103
Encoding
Entity (decimal) t
Unicode (hex) U+0074
X-SAMPA t
Kirshenbaum t
Braille ⠞ (braille pattern dots-2345)
Listen

The voiceless alveolar stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents voiceless dental, alveolar, and postalveolar stops is ⟨t⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is t. The dental stop can be distinguished with the underbridge diacritic, ⟨⟩, the postalveolar with a retraction line, ⟨⟩, and the Extensions to the IPA have a double underline diacritic which can be used to explicitly specify an alveolar pronunciation, ⟨⟩.

The [t] sound is a very common sound cross-linguistically;[1] the most common consonant phonemes of the world's languages are [t], [k] and [p]. Most languages have at least a plain [t], and some distinguish more than one variety. Some languages without a [t] are Hawaiian (except for Niʻihau; Hawaiian uses a voiceless velar stop [k] for loanwords with [t]), colloquial Samoan (which also lacks an [n]), Abau, and Nǁng of South Africa.[citation needed]

Features[]

Here are features of the voiceless alveolar stop:

Occurrence[]

Voiceless dental stop
Listen

Dental or denti-alveolar[]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Aleut[2] tiistax̂ [t̪iːstaχ] 'dough' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Armenian Eastern[3] տուն About this sound [t̪un]  'house' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic [t̪lɑ] 'three'
Belarusian[4] стагоддзе [s̪t̪äˈɣod̪d̪͡z̪ʲe] 'century' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Belarusian phonology
Basque toki [t̪oki] 'place' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Bengali তুমি [t̪umi] 'you' Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
Catalan[5] tothom [t̪uˈt̪ɔm] 'everyone' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Catalan phonology
Chinese Hakka[6] ta3 [t̪ʰa˧] 'he/she' Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with an unaspirated form.
Dinka[7] th [mɛ̀t̪] 'child' Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with alveolar /t/.
Dutch Belgian taal [t̪aːl̪] 'language' Laminal denti-alveolar.
English Dublin[8] thin [t̪ʰɪn] 'thin' Laminal denti-alveolar, corresponds to [θ] in other dialects; in Dublin it may be [t͡θ] instead.[8] See English phonology
Indian
Southern Irish[9]
Ulster[10] train [t̪ɹeːn] 'train' Laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /t/ before /r/, in free variation with an alveolar stop.
Esperanto Esperanto [espeˈranto] 'Who hopes' See Esperanto phonology
Finnish tutti [ˈt̪ut̪ːi] 'pacifier' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Finnish phonology
French[11] tordu [t̪ɔʁd̪y] 'crooked' Laminal denti-alveolar. See French phonology
Hindustani[12] तीन / تین [t̪iːn] 'three' Laminal denti-alveolar. Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology
Indonesian[13] tabir [t̪abir] 'curtain' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Italian[14] tale [ˈt̪ale] 'such' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Italian phonology
Kashubian[15] [example needed] Laminal denti-alveolar.
Kyrgyz[16] туз [t̪us̪] 'salt' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Latvian[17] tabula [ˈt̪äbulä] 'table' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Latvian phonology
Mapudungun[18] a [ˈfɘt̪ɜ] 'husband' Interdental.[18]
Marathi बला [t̪əbˈlaː] 'tabla' Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with aspirated form. See Marathi phonology
Nunggubuyu[19] darag [t̪aɾaɡ] 'whiskers' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Pazeh[20] [mut̪apɛt̪aˈpɛh] 'keep clapping' Dental.
Polish[21] tom About this sound [t̪ɔm]  'volume' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Polish phonology
Portuguese[22] Many dialects montanha [mõˈt̪ɐɲɐ] 'mountain' Laminal denti-alveolar. Likely to have allophones among native speakers, as it may affricate to [], [] and/or [ts] in certain environments. See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਤੇਲ [t̪eːl] 'oil' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Russian[23] толстый [ˈt̪ʷo̞ɫ̪s̪t̪ɨ̞j] 'fat' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Russian phonology
Scottish Gaelic[24] taigh [t̪ʰɤj] 'house'
Slovene[25] tip [t̪íːp] 'type' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Spanish[26] tango [ˈt̪ãŋɡo̞] 'tango' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Spanish phonology
Swedish[27] tåg [ˈt̪ʰoːɡ] 'train' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Swedish phonology
Temne[28] [example needed] -- Dental.
Turkish at [ät̪] 'horse' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[29][30] брат [brɑt̪] 'brother' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Ukrainian phonology
Uzbek[31] [example needed] -- Laminal denti-alveolar. Slightly aspirated before vowels.[31]
Vietnamese[32] tuần [t̪wən˨˩] 'week' Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with aspirated form. See Vietnamese phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[33] tant [t̪ant̪] 'so much' Laminal denti-alveolar.

Alveolar[]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe тфы About this sound [tfə]  'five'
Arabic Standard تينtīn [tiːn] 'fig' Articulation may be alveolar or dental depending on the speaker's native dialect. See Arabic phonology
Egyptian توكةtōka [ˈtoːkæ] 'barrette' See Egyptian Arabic phonology
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic ܒܬ [bet̪a] 'house' Most speakers. In the Tyari, Barwari and Chaldean Neo-Aramaic dialects θ is used.
Bengali টাকা [t̠aka] 'Taka' True alveolar in eastern dialects, apical post-alveolar in western dialects. See Bengali phonology.
Czech toto [ˈtoto] 'this' See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[34] dåse [ˈtɔ̽ːsə] 'can' (n.) Usually transcribed in IPA with ⟨⟩ or ⟨d⟩. Contrasts with the affricate [t͡s] or aspirated stop [tʰ] (depending on the dialect), which are usually transcribed in IPA with ⟨⟩ or ⟨t⟩.[35] See Danish phonology
Dutch[36] taal [taːɫ] 'language' See Dutch phonology
English Most speakers tick About this sound [tʰɪk] 'tick' See English phonology
New York[37] Varies between apical and laminal, with the latter being predominant.[37]
Finnish parta [ˈpɑrtɑ] 'beard' Allophone of the voiceless dental stop. See Finnish phonology
Hebrew תמונה [tmuna] 'image' see Modern Hebrew phonology
Hungarian[38] tutaj [ˈtutɒj] 'raft' See Hungarian phonology
Japanese[39] 特別 / tokubetsu [tokɯbetsɯ] 'special' See Japanese phonology
Kabardian тхуы About this sound [txʷə]  'five'
Korean / dol [tol] 'stone' See Korean phonology
Luxembourgish[40] dënn [tə̹n] 'thin' Less often voiced [d]. It is usually transcribed /d/, and it contrasts with voiceless aspirated form, which is usually transcribed /t/.[40] See Luxembourgish phonology
Malay tahun [tähʊn] 'year' See Malay phonology
Maltese tassew [tasˈsew] 'true'
Mapudungun[18] ta [ˈfɘtɜ] 'elderly'
Nunggubuyu[19] darawa [taɾawa] 'greedy'
Nuosu[which?] da [ta˧] 'place' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms
Portuguese[41] Some dialects troço [ˈtɾɔsu] 'thing' (pejorative) Allophone before alveolar /ɾ/. In other dialects /ɾ/ takes a denti-alveolar allophone instead. See Portuguese phonology
Thai ta [taː˥˧] 'eye'
Vietnamese ti [ti] 'flaw' See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisian tosk [ˈtosk] 'tooth'

Variable[]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English Broad South African[42] talk [toːk] 'talk' Laminal denti-alveolar for some speakers, alveolar for other speakers.[42][43][44]
Scottish[43] [tʰɔk]
Welsh[44] [tʰɒːk]
German Standard[45] Tochter [ˈtɔxtɐ] 'daughter' Varies between laminal denti-alveolar, laminal alveolar and apical alveolar.[45] See Standard German phonology
Greek[46] τρία tria [ˈtɾiä] 'three' Varies between dental, laminal denti-alveolar and alveolar, depending on the environment.[46] See Modern Greek phonology
Norwegian Urban East[47] dans [t̻ɑns] 'dance' Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and laminal alveolar. It is usually transcribed /d/. It may be partially voiced [], and it contrasts with voiceless aspirated form, which is usually transcribed /t/.[47] See Norwegian phonology
Persian[48] توت [t̪ʰuːt̪ʰ] 'berry' Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and apical alveolar.[48] See Persian phonology
Slovak[49][50] to [t̻ɔ̝] 'that' Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and laminal alveolar.[49][50] See Slovak phonology

See also[]

References[]

  1. ^ Liberman et al. (1967), p. ?.
  2. ^ Ladefoged (2005), p. 165.
  3. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 17.
  4. ^ Padluzhny (1989), p. 47.
  5. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 53.
  6. ^ Lee & Zee (2009), p. 109.
  7. ^ Remijsen & Manyang (2009), pp. 115 and 121.
  8. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 302.
  9. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 24.
  10. ^ "Week 18 (ii). Northern Ireland" (PDF). 
  11. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  12. ^ Ladefoged (2005), p. 141.
  13. ^ Soderberg & Olson (2008), p. 210.
  14. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 117.
  15. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. 
  16. ^ Kara (2003), p. 11.
  17. ^ Nau (1998), p. 6.
  18. ^ a b c Sadowsky et al. (2013), pp. 88–89.
  19. ^ a b Ladefoged (2005), p. 158.
  20. ^ Blust (1999), p. 330.
  21. ^ Jassem (2003), p. 103.
  22. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  23. ^ Jones & Ward (1969), p. 99.
  24. ^ Bauer, Michael. Blas na Gàidhlig: The Practical Guide to Gaelic Pronunciation. Glasgow: Akerbeltz, 2011.
  25. ^ Pretnar & Tokarz (1980), p. 21.
  26. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 255.
  27. ^ Engstrand (1999), p. 141.
  28. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. ?.
  29. ^ S. Buk; J. Mačutek; A. Rovenchak (2008). "Some properties of the Ukrainian writing system". arXiv:0802.4198Freely accessible. 
  30. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  31. ^ a b Sjoberg (1963), p. 10.
  32. ^ Thompson (1959), pp. 458–461.
  33. ^ Merrill (2008), p. 108.
  34. ^ Basbøll (2005), p. 61.
  35. ^ Grønnum (2005), p. 120.
  36. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 45.
  37. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 515.
  38. ^ Szende (1994), p. 91.
  39. ^ Okada (1991), p. 94.
  40. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), pp. 67–68.
  41. ^ Palatalization in Brazilian Portuguese revisited (in Portuguese)
  42. ^ a b Lass (2002), p. 120.
  43. ^ a b Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 4.
  44. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 388.
  45. ^ a b Mangold (2005), p. 47.
  46. ^ a b Arvaniti (2007), p. 10.
  47. ^ a b Kristoffersen (2000), p. 22.
  48. ^ a b Mahootian (2002:287–289)
  49. ^ a b Kráľ (1988), p. 72.
  50. ^ a b Pavlík (2004), pp. 98–99.

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