|Latin: Universitas Tociensis|
|Imperial University (1886–1897)|
Tokyo Imperial University (1897–1947)
|Established||April 12, 1877|
Washington University in St. Louis McDonnell International Scholars Academy
|2,575 full-time (2021)|
|616 research students and auditors|
The University of Tokyo (東京大学, Tōkyō daigaku), abbreviated as Todai (東大, Tōdai) or UTokyo, is a public research university located in Bunkyō, Tokyo, Japan. Established in 1877, the university is the first Imperial University and currently selected as a Top Type university of Top Global University Project by the Japanese government.
UTokyo has ten faculties, 15 graduate schools and enrolls about 30,000 students, about 4,200 of whom are international students. In particular, the number of privately funded international students, who account for more than 80%, has increased 1.75 times in the 10 years since 2010, and the university is focusing on supporting international students. Its five campuses are in Hongō, Komaba, Kashiwa, Shirokane and Nakano. It is considered to be the most selective and prestigious university in Japan. As of 2021, University of Tokyo's alumni, faculty members and researchers include seventeen Prime Ministers, 18 Nobel Prize laureates, four Pritzker Prize laureates, five astronauts, and a Fields Medalist.
The university was chartered by the Meiji government in 1877 under its current name by amalgamating older government schools for medicine, various traditional scholars and modern learning. It was renamed "the Imperial University (帝國大學, Teikoku daigaku)" in 1886, and then Tokyo Imperial University (東京帝國大學, Tōkyō teikoku daigaku) in 1897 when the Imperial University system was created. In September 1923, an earthquake and the following fires destroyed about 750,000 volumes of the Imperial University Library. The books lost included the Hoshino Library (星野文庫, Hoshino bunko), a collection of about 10,000 books. The books were the former possessions of Hoshino Hisashi before becoming part of the library of the university and were mainly about Chinese philosophy and history.
In 1947 after Japan's defeat in World War II it re-assumed its original name. With the start of the new university system in 1949, Todai swallowed up the former First Higher School (today's Komaba campus) and the former Tokyo Higher School, which thenceforth assumed the duty of teaching first- and second-year undergraduates, while the faculties on Hongo main campus took care of third- and fourth-year students.
Although the university was founded during the Meiji period, it has earlier roots in the Astronomy Agency (天文方; 1684), Shoheizaka Study Office (昌平坂学問所; 1797), and the Western Books Translation Agency (蕃書和解御用; 1811). These institutions were government offices established by the 徳川幕府 Tokugawa shogunate (1603–1867), and played an important role in the importation and translation of books from Europe.
According to The Japan Times, the university had 1,282 professors in February 2012. Of those, 58 were women. Comparing the number of professors in May 2020, there are 108 women among the 1,298 professors, which has almost doubled. The university is steadily closing the gender gap, and by April 2021, half of its directors were women.
In the fall of 2012 and for the first time, the University of Tokyo started two undergraduate programs entirely taught in English and geared toward international students—Programs in English at Komaba (PEAK)—the International Program on Japan in East Asia and the International Program on Environmental Sciences. In 2014, the School of Science at the University of Tokyo introduced an all-English undergraduate transfer program called Global Science Course (GSC).
Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, started, on May 28, 2021, construction of the "Hyper-Kamiokande" device, for a new world-leading international scientific research project which is set to start experiments in 2027.
|Order||Person||Tenure||Position (involving temporary agent, etc.), Motto|
|Representation, University of Tokyo|
|Hiroyuki Kato||April 13, 1877[a] - July 5, 1881||Head, Law, Science & Literature Departments|
|Kensai Ikeda||April 13, 1877 - July 5, 1881||Head, Medical Department|
|Hiroyuki Kato||July 6, 1881[b] – January 11, 1886||President|
|Masakazu Toyama||January 11, 1886 – March 1, 1886||President (administration)|
|President, Imperial University|
|Masakazu Toyama||March 2, 1886 - March 8, 1886||President (administration)|
|1||Hiromoto Watanabe||March 9, 1886 - May 18, 1890|
|2||Hiroyuki Kato||May 19, 1890 – March 29, 1893|
|3||Arata Hamao||March 30, 1893 - June 18, 1897|
|President, Tokyo Imperial University|
|3||Arata Hamao||June 18, 1897 - November 5, 1897|
|4||Masakazu Toyama||November 12, 1897 – April 29, 1998|
|5||Dairoku Kikuchi||May 2, 1898 – June 2, 1901|
|6||Kenjiro Yamakawa||June 5, 1901 - December 2, 1905|
|7||Naokichi Matsui||December 2, 1905 - December 14, 1905||President (concurrent)|
|8||Arata Hamao||December 14, 1905 - August 13, 1912||Reappointed|
|Joji Sakurai||August 13, 1912 – May 9, 1913||President (administration)|
|9||Kenjiro Yamakawa||May 9, 1913 – September 21, 1920||Reappointed|
|10||Yoshinao Kozai||September 27, 1920 - December 22, 1928|
|11||Kiheiji Onozuka||December 22, 1928 – December 27, 1934|
|12||Mataro Nagayo||December 27, 1934 - November 8, 1938|
|Kanji Sato||November 8, 1938 – December 20, 1938||President (administration)|
|13||Yuzuru Hiraga||December 20, 1938 – February 17, 1943|
|Kanichi Terazawa||February 17, 1943 – March 12, 1943||President (administration)[c]|
|14||Yoshikazu Uchida||March 12, 1943 – December 14, 1945|
|15||Shigeru Nanbara||December 14, 1945 – May 31, 1949|
|President, The University of Tokyo[d]|
|15||Shigeru Nanbara||May 31, 1949 - December 14, 1951|
|16||Tadao Yanaihara||December 14, 1951 - December 14, 1957|
|17||Seiji Kaya||December 14, 1957 – December 13, 1963|
|18||Kazuo Okochi||December 14, 1963 – November 5, 1968|
|Ichiro Kato||November 5, 1968 – April 1, 1969||President (administration)|
|19||Ichiro Kato||April 1, 1969 – March 31, 1973|
|20||Kentaro Hayashi||April 1, 1973 – March 31, 1977|
|21||Takashi Mukaibo||April 1, 1977 – March 31, 1981|
|22||Ryuichi Hirano||April 1, 1981 – March 31, 1985|
|23||Wataru Mori||April 1, 1985 – March 31, 1989|
|24||Akito Arima||April 1, 1989 – March 31, 1993|
|25||Hiroyuki Yoshikawa||April 1, 1993 – March 31, 1997|
|26||Shigehiko Hasumi||April 1, 1997 – March 31, 2001|
|27||Takeshi Sasaki||April 1, 2001 – March 31, 2005|
|28||Hiroshi Komiyama||April 1, 2005 – March 31, 2009|
|29||Junichi Hamada||April 1, 2009 – March 31, 2015|
|30||Makoto Gonokami||April 1, 2015 – March 31, 2021|
|31||Teruo Fujii||April 1, 2021 -||"Into a Sea of Diversity: Creating the Future through Dialogue"|
Todai Law School is considered one of the top law schools in Japan, ranking first in the number of successful candidates of Japanese Bar Examination in 2020. Eduniversal ranked Japanese business schools, and the Faculty of Economics in Todai is placed 4th in Japan (111th in the world).
The University of Tokyo is considered a top research institution of Japan. It receives the largest amount of national grants for research institutions, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, receiving 40% more than the University with 2nd largest grants and 90% more than the University with 3rd largest grants. This massive financial investment from the Japanese government directly affects Todai's research outcomes. According to Thomson Reuters, Todai is the best research university in Japan. Its research excellence is especially distinctive in Physics (1st in Japan, 2nd in the world), Biology & Biochemistry (1st in Japan, 3rd in the world), Pharmacology & Toxicology (1st in Japan, 5th in the world), Materials Science (3rd in Japan, 19th in the world), Chemistry (2nd in Japan, 5th in the world), and Immunology (2nd in Japan, 20th in the world).
In another ranking, Nikkei Shimbun on 16 February 2004 surveyed about the research standards in Engineering studies based on Thomson Reuters, Grants in Aid for Scientific Research and questionnaires to heads of 93 leading Japanese Research Centers, and Todai was placed 4th (research planning ability 3rd/informative ability of research outcome 10th/ability of business-academia collaboration 3rd) in this ranking. Weekly Diamond also reported that Todai has the 3rd highest research standard in Japan in terms of research fundings per researchers in COE Program. In the same article, it is also ranked 21st in terms of the quality of education by GP funds per student.
Todai also has been recognized for its research in the social sciences and humanities. In January 2011, Repec ranked Todai's Economics department as Japan's best economics research university. And it is the only Japanese university within world top 100. Todai has produced 9 presidents of the Japanese Economic Association, the largest number in the association. Asahi Shimbun summarized the number of academic papers in Japanese major legal journals by university, and Todai was ranked top during 2005–2009.
|Toyo Keizai National||General||1|
|T. Reuters National||Research||1|
|NBP Greater Tokyo||Reputation||2|
(World Ranking version)
(Asian Ranking version)
|Social Sciences & Humanities|
|BE Success National||Qualification||1|
|BE Pass rate National||Qualification||3|
BUSINESS & MANAGEMENT
|Eduni MBA National||General||4|
|Eduni MBA World||General||111|
|CPA Success National||Qualification||4|
|Natural Sciences & Technology|
BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY
PHARMACOLOGY & TOXICOLOGY
|* T. Reuters World rankings include non-educational institutions|
Nikkei BP has been publishing a ranking system "Brand rankings of Japanese universities" every year, composed by the various indications related to the power of brand, and Todai has been 2nd in 2009–2010 in Greater Tokyo Area. The university has been ranked 1st during 2006–2010 in the ranking "Truly Strong Universities" by Toyo Keizai. In another ranking, Japanese prep school Kawaijuku ranked Todai as the best university in Japan.
Todai was ranked second in the world, behind Harvard University, in Mines ParisTech: Professional Ranking of World Universities (2011), which measured universities' numbers of alumni holding CEO positions in Fortune Global 500 companies.
Todai alumni are distinctively successful in Japanese industries. According to the Weekly Economist's 2010 rankings, graduates from Todai have the 12th best employment rate in 400 major companies in Japan. However, this lower ranking position is because of the large number of alumni who become government bureaucrats, which is more than double of alumni from any other universities. In fact, alumni of Todai have the highest average salary in Japan, according to PRESIDENT.
School of Law was 3rd out of all the 74 law schools in Japan according to the ratio, 78.91%, of the successful graduates who passed the bar examinations from 2007 to 2017 on average.
|all universities in Japan||1st out of all the 744 universities which existed as of 2006|
|Source||2006 Survey by Weekly Diamond on the ranking of the universities which produced the high ratio of the graduates who hold the position of "president and chief executive officer of listed company" to all the graduates of each university|
|all universities in Japan||33rd out of all the 778 universities which existed as of 2010|
|Source||2010 Survey by Weekly Economist on the ranking of universities according to the ratio of the number of the officers & managers produced by each university to the number of graduates|
|Japan||4th (out of 788 universities in Japan as of 2021)|
|Source||2021 Nikkei Survey to all listed (3,755) and leading unlisted (1,095), totally 4,850 companies|
In 2019, enrollment figures from the University of Tokyo reveal that 5,267 of 24,674 (21.3%) domestic students are female. The ratio is more equal among international students, where 1,465 of 3,735 (39.2%) students are female. The gender imbalance is more stark among the faculty, where 7.8 percent of professors are female.
Within student life, some clubs excluded female students even though the university discourages such a practice. Of more than 30 tennis clubs at the University of Tokyo, even though no clubs announced that they reject female students, only two actively recruited women, allowing them to join without passing the exam required for male applicants. In 2020, the Orientation Committee announced that clubs that did not admit female students' membership could not join circle recruitment events.
Since 2017, the University of Tokyo has paid thirty thousand yen in housing allowances for female students exclusively in order to gain more female applicants from distant regions.
The main Hongo campus occupies the former estate of the Maeda family, Edo period feudal lords of Kaga Province. One of the university's best known landmarks, Akamon (the Red Gate), is a relic of this era. The symbol of the university is the ginkgo leaf, from the trees found throughout the area. The Hongo campus also hosts the University of Tokyo's annual May Festival.
Akamon (the Red Gate)
Sanshiro Pond (三四郎池, Sanshirō ike), university's Hongo campus, dates to 1615. After the fall of the Osaka Castle, the shōgun gave this pond and its surrounding garden to Maeda Toshitsune. With further development of the garden by Maeda Tsunanori, it became known as one of the most beautiful gardens in Edo (Now Tokyo), with the traditional eight landscapes and eight borders, and known for originality in artificial pond, hills, and pavilions. It was at that time known as Ikutoku-en (Garden of Teaching Virtue). The pond's contours are in the shape of the character kokoro or shin (heart), and thus its official name is Ikutoku-en Shinjiike. It has been commonly called Sanshiro Pond after the title of Natsume Sōseki's novel Sanshiro.
One of the five campuses of the University of Tokyo, the Komaba Campus is home to the College of Arts and Sciences, the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the Graduate School of Mathematical Sciences, and a number of advanced research facilities and campus services. This is the campus where all the freshmen and sophomores of the University of Tokyo spend their college life. The University of Tokyo is the only university in Japan which has a system of two years of general education before students can choose and move on to special fields of study. The Komaba Campus is the cornerstone of general education, and was designated as the "center of excellence" for three new areas of research by the Ministry of Education and Science. There are currently over 7,000 students (freshmen and sophomores) enrolled in the general education courses, about 450 students (juniors and seniors) pursuing their specialties in the College of Arts and Sciences, and 1,400 graduate students in the advanced study.
One of the five campuses of the University of Tokyo, the Kashiwa Campus is home to the Graduate School of Frontier Sciences and a number of advanced research facilities and campus services. The Kashiwa Campus also hosts the Institute for Cosmic Ray Research(ICRR), which is entirely dedicated to postgraduate studies.
The relatively small Shirokanedai Campus hosts the Institute of Medical Science of the University of Tokyo (IMSUT), which is entirely dedicated to postgraduate studies. The campus is focused on genome research, including among its facilities the Human Genome Center (HGC), which have at its disposal the largest supercomputer in the field.
Yasunari Kawabata, Literature, 1968
Leo Esaki, Physics, 1973
Eisaku Satō, Peace, 1974
Kenzaburō Ōe, Literature, 1994
Masatoshi Koshiba, Physics, 2002
Yoichiro Nambu, Physics, 2008
Ei-ichi Negishi, Chemistry, 2010
Takaaki Kajita, Physics, 2015
Yoshinori Ohsumi, Physiology or Medicine, 2016
Syukuro Manabe, Physics, 2021
Charles Dickinson West, mechanical engineer
on June 15, 1881, Kato Hiroyuki, previous President overseeing the Faculties of Law, Science and Literature, was appointed the first President to oversee the overall operations of the whole University
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