Umbundu

Umbundu
South Mbundu
Úmbúndú
Native toAngola
EthnicityOvimbundu
Native speakers
9.5 million
Official status
Official language in
 Angola ("National language")
Language codes
ISO 639-2umb
ISO 639-3umb
Glottologumbu1257[1]
R.11[2]
Southern Mbundu
PersonOcimbundu
PeopleOvimbundu
LanguageUmbundu
CountryOvimbunduland

Umbundu, or South Mbundu (autonym Umbundu: úmbúndú), one of many Bantu languages. It is the most widely spoken autochthonous language of Angola. Its speakers are known as Ovimbundu and are an ethnic group constituting a third of Angola's population. Their homeland is the Central Highlands of Angola and the coastal region west of these highlands, including the cities of Benguela and Lobito. Because of recent internal migration there are now also large communities in the capital Luanda and its surrounding province, as well as in Lubango.

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop plain p t t͡ʃ k
prenasal. ᵐb ⁿd ᶮd͡ʒ ᵑɡ
Fricative voiceless f s h
voiced v
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Approximant w l j

Vowels[]

Front Central Back
Close i ĩ u ũ
Mid e ẽ o õ
Open a ã

Tone[]

Umbundu has two tones: low and high. The first acute accent (á) in a word represents a high tone. The low tone is represented by a grave accent (à). Unmarked syllables carry the same tone as the preceding syllable.[3]

Vocabulary[]

Sample text[]

Omanu vosi vacitiwa valipwa kwenda valisoka kovina vyosikwenda komoko. Ovo vakwete esunga kwenda, kwenda olondunge kwenje ovo vatêla okuliteywila kuvamwe kwenda vakwavo vesokolwilo lyocisola.

Translation: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. (Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) vokussumba suko onhe?[incomprehensible]

References[]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Umbundu". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online
  3. ^ Schadeberg, Thilo C. (1990). A Sketch of Umbundu.

Further reading[]

External links[]