Translocase

Translocase is a general term for a protein that assists in moving another molecule, usually across a cell membrane. These enzymes catalyze the movement of ions or molecules across membranes or their separation within membranes. The reaction is designated as a transfer from “side 1” to “side 2” because the designations “in” and “out”, which had previously been used, can be ambiguous.[1] Translocases are the most common secretion system in Gram positive bacteria.

It is also a historical term for the protein now called elongation factor G, due to its function in moving the transfer RNA (tRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA) through the ribosome.

History[]

The enzyme classification and nomenclature list was first approved by the International Union of Biochemistry in 1961. Six enzyme classes had been recognized based on the type of chemical reaction catalyzed, including oxidoreductases (EC 1), transferases (EC 2), hydrolases (EC 3), lyases (EC 4), isomerases (EC 5) and ligases (EC 6). However, it became apparent that none of these could describe the important group of enzymes that catalyse the movement of ions or molecules across membranes or their separation within membranes. Several of these involve the hydrolysis of ATP and had been previously classified as ATPases (EC 3.6.3.-), although the hydrolytic reaction is not their primary function. In August 2018, the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology classified these enzymes under a new enzyme class (EC) of translocases (EC 7).[2]

Enzyme Mechanism[]

The reaction most translocases catalyse is:

AX + Bside 1|| = A + X + || Bside 2[3]

A clear example of an enzyme that follows this scheme is H+-transporting two-sector ATPase:

ATP + H2O + 4 H+side 1 = ADP + phosphate + 4 H+side 2

A) ATP-ADP translocase: protein responsible for the 1: 1 exchange of intramitochondrial ATP for ADP produced in the cytoplasm. B) Phosphate translocase: the transport of H2PO4- together with a proton are produced by symport H2PO4-/H+

This ATPase carries out the dephosphorylation of ATP into ADP while it transports H+ to the other side of the membrane.[4] However, other enzymes that also fall into this category do not follow the same reaction scheme. This is the case of ascorbate ferrireductase:

ascorbateside 1 + Fe(III)side 2 = monodehydroascorbateside 1 + Fe(II)side 2

In which the enzyme only transports an electron in the catalysation of an oxidoreductase reaction between a molecule and an inorganic cation located on different sides of the membrane.[5]

Functions and biological importance[]

The basic function, as already mentioned (see: Translocase § Definition), is to "catalyse the movement of ions or molecules across membranes or their separation within membranes". This form of membrane transport is classified under active membrane transport, an energy-requiring process of pumping molecules and ions across membranes against a concentration gradient.[6]

Translocases biological importance relies primarily on their critical function, in the way that they provide movement across the cell's membrane in many cellular processes that are substantial, such as:

TOM: Translocase of the outer membrane. Mitochondrial import receptor subunit TOM20.

Hundreds of proteins encoded by the nucleus are required for mitochondrial metabolism, growth, division, and partitioning to daughter cells, and all of these proteins must be imported into the organelle.[8] Translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) and translocase of the inner membrane (TIM) mediate the import of proteins into the mitochondrion. The translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) sorts proteins via several mechanisms either directly to the outer membrane, the intermembrane space, or the translocase of the inner membrane (TIM). Then, generally, the TIM23 machinery mediates protein translocation into the matrix and the TIM22 machinery mediates insertion into the inner membrane.[9]

Classification[]

The enzyme subclasses designate the types of components that are being transferred, and the sub-subclasses indicate the reaction processes that provide the driving force for the translocation.[12]

EC 7.1 Catalysing the translocation of hydrons[]

Structure of an ATP synthase (EC 7.1.2.2)

This subclass contains translocases that catalyze the translocation of hydrons.[13] Based on the reaction they are linked to, EC 7.1 can be further classified into:

An important translocase contained in this group is ATP synthase, also known as EC 7.1.2.2.

Structure of the Na+/K+ ATPase (EC 7.2.2.13).

EC 7.2 catalysing the translocation of inorganic cations and their chelates[]

This subclass contains translocases that transfer inorganic cations (metal cations).[14] Based on the reaction they're linked to, EC 7.2 can be further classified into:

An important translocase contained in this group is Na+/K+ pump, also known as EC 7.2.2.13.

EC 7.3 Catalysing the translocation of inorganic anions[]

This subclass contains translocases that transfer inorganic cations anions. Subclasses are based on the reaction processes that provide the driving force for the translocation. At present only one subclass is represented: EC 7.3.2 Translocation of inorganic anions linked to the hydrolysis of a nucleoside triphosphate.[15]

[16]ATP + H2O + phosphate [phosphate - binding protein][side 1] = ADP + phosphate + phosphate [side 2] + [phophate - binding protein][side 1]

[17]ATP + H2O + phosphonate [phosphonate-binding protein][side 1] = ADP + phosphate + phosphonate [side 2] + [phosphonate- binding protein][side 1]

[18]ATP + H2O + sulfate [sulfate - binding protein] [side 1] = ADP + phosphate + sulfate [side 2] + [sulfate - binding protein][side 1]

[19]ATP + H2O + nitrate [nitrate - binding protein][side 1] = ADP + phosphate + nitrate [side 2] + [nitrate - binding protein][side 1]

[20]ATP + H2O + molybdate [molybdate - binding protein][side 1] = ADP + phosphate + molybdate [side 2] + [molybdate - binding protein][side 1]

[21]ATP + H2O + tungstate [tungstate - binding protein][side 1] = ADP + phosphate + tungstate [side 2] + [tungstate - binding protein][side 1]

EC 7.4 Catalysing the translocation of amino acids and peptides[]

Subclasses are based on the reaction processes that provide the driving force for the translocation. At present there is only one subclass: EC 7.4.2 Translocation of amino acids and peptides linked to the hydrolysis of a nucleoside triphosphate.[22]

[23]ATP + H2O + polar amino acid [polar amino acid-binding protein][side 1] = ADP + phosphate + polar amino acid [side 2] + [polar amino acid-binding protein][side1]

[24]ATP + H2O + non polar amino acid [non polar amino acid - binding protein][side 1] = ADP + phosphate + non polar amino acid [side 2] + [non polar amino acid - binding protein][side 1]

[25]ATP + H2O + mitochondrial protein [side 1] = ADP + phosphate + mitochondrial protein [side 2]

[26]ATP + H2O + chloroplast protein [side 1] = ADP + phosphate + chloroplast protein [side 2]

[27]ATP + H2O + protein [side 1] = ADP + phosphate + protein [side 2]

[28]ATP + H2O + oligopeptide [oligopeptide - binding protein][side 1] = ADP + phosphate + oligopeptide [side 2] + [oligopeptide - binding protein][side 1]

[29]ATP + H2O + alpha factor [side 1] = ADP + phosphate + alpha factor [side 2]

[30]ATP + H2O + cellular protein [side 1] = ADP + phosphate + cellular protein [side 2]

[31]ATP + H2O + dipeptide [dipeptide - binding protein][side 1] = ADP + phosphate + [side 2] + [dipeptide - binding protein][side 1]

[32]ATP + H2O glutathione [glutathione - binding protein][side 1] = ADP + phosphate + glutathione [side 2] + [glutathione - binding protein][side 1]

[33](1) ATP + H2O + L-methionine [methionine - binding protein][side 1] = ADP + phosphate + L-methionine [side 2] + [methionine - binding protein][side 1] [34](2) ATP + H2O + D-methionine [methionine - binding protein][side 1] = ADP + phosphate + D-methionine [side 2] + [methionine - binding protein][side 1]

[35](1) ATP + H2O + L-cystine [cystine - binding protein][side 1] = ADP + phosphate + L-cystine [side 2] + [cystine - binding protein][side 1] [35](2) ATP + H2O + D-cystine [cystine - binding protein][side 1] = ADP + phosphate + D-cystine [side 2] + [cystine - binding protein][side 1]

EC 7.5 Catalysing the translocation of carbohydrates and their derivatives[]

EC 7.6 Catalysing the translocation of other compounds[]

Examples[]

References[]

  1. ^ "EC class 7". ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  2. ^ Tipton, Keith. "Translocases (EC 7): A new EC Class". ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  3. ^ Tipton, Keith; McDonald, Andrew (2018). "A Brief Guide to Enzyme Nomenclature and Classification" (PDF).
  4. ^ "ExplorEnz: EC 7.1.2.2". www.enzyme-database.org. Retrieved 2019-10-24.
  5. ^ "BRENDA - Information on EC 7.2.1.3 - ascorbate ferrireductase (transmembrane)". www.brenda-enzymes.org. Retrieved 2019-10-24.
  6. ^ Foundation, CK-12. "Active Transport". www.ck12.org. Retrieved 2019-10-25.
  7. ^ Kunji, Edmund R. S.; Aleksandrova, Antoniya; King, Martin S.; Majd, Homa; Ashton, Valerie L.; Cerson, Elizabeth; Springett, Roger; Kibalchenko, Mikhail; Tavoulari, Sotiria; Crichton, Paul G.; Ruprecht, Jonathan J. (2016-10-01). "The transport mechanism of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research. Channels and transporters in cell metabolism. 1863 (10): 2379–2393. doi:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2016.03.015. ISSN 0167-4889. PMID 27001633.
  8. ^ Ryan, Kathleen R.; Jensen, Robert E. (1995-11-17). "Protein translocation across mitochondrial membranes: What a long, strange trip it is". Cell. 83 (4): 517–519. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(95)90089-6. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 7585952.
  9. ^ Koehler, Carla M (2000-06-30). "Protein translocation pathways of the mitochondrion". FEBS Letters. Birmingham Issue. 476 (1): 27–31. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(00)01664-1. ISSN 0014-5793. PMID 10878244.
  10. ^ Palmieri, Ferdinando (2008-07-01). "Diseases caused by defects of mitochondrial carriers: A review". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics. 15th European Bioenergetics Conference 2008. 1777 (7): 564–578. doi:10.1016/j.bbabio.2008.03.008. ISSN 0005-2728. PMID 18406340.
  11. ^ "Fatty Acids -- Transport and Regeneration". library.med.utah.edu. Retrieved 2019-10-26.
  12. ^ "EC class 7". ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  13. ^ "EC 7.1 - Catalysing the translocation of hydrons". IntEnz (Integrated relational Enzyme database). Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  14. ^ "EC 7.2 - Catalysing the translocation of inorganic cations". IntEnz (Integrated relational Enzyme database). Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  15. ^ "IntEnz - EC 7.3". www.ebi.ac.uk. Retrieved 2019-10-26.
  16. ^ "BRENDA - Information on EC 7.3.2.1 - ABC-type phosphate transporter". www.brenda-enzymes.org. Retrieved 2019-10-26.
  17. ^ "BRENDA - Information on EC 7.3.2.2 - ABC-type phosphonate transporter". www.brenda-enzymes.org. Retrieved 2019-10-26.
  18. ^ "BRENDA - Information on EC 7.3.2.3 - ABC-type sulfate transporter". www.brenda-enzymes.org. Retrieved 2019-10-26.
  19. ^ "BRENDA - Information on EC 7.3.2.4 - ABC-type nitrate transporter". www.brenda-enzymes.org. Retrieved 2019-10-26.
  20. ^ "BRENDA - Information on EC 7.3.2.5 - ABC-type molybdate transporter". www.brenda-enzymes.org. Retrieved 2019-10-26.
  21. ^ "BRENDA - Information on EC 7.3.2.6 - ABC-type tungstate transporter". www.brenda-enzymes.org. Retrieved 2019-10-26.
  22. ^ "IntEnz - EC 7.4". www.ebi.ac.uk. Retrieved 2019-10-26.
  23. ^ "BRENDA - Information on EC 7.4.2.1 - ABC-type polar-amino-acid transporter". www.brenda-enzymes.org. Retrieved 2019-10-26.
  24. ^ "BRENDA - Information on EC 7.4.2.2 - ABC-type nonpolar-amino-acid transporter". www.brenda-enzymes.org. Retrieved 2019-10-26.
  25. ^ "BRENDA - Information on EC 7.4.2.3 - mitochondrial protein-transporting ATPase". www.brenda-enzymes.org. Retrieved 2019-10-26.
  26. ^ "BRENDA - Information on EC 7.4.2.4 - chloroplast protein-transporting ATPase". www.brenda-enzymes.org. Retrieved 2019-10-26.
  27. ^ "BRENDA - Information on EC 7.4.2.5 - ABC-type protein transporter". www.brenda-enzymes.org. Retrieved 2019-10-26.
  28. ^ "BRENDA - Information on EC 7.4.2.6 - ABC-type oligopeptide transporter". www.brenda-enzymes.org. Retrieved 2019-10-26.
  29. ^ "BRENDA - Information on EC 7.4.2.7 - ABC-type alpha-factor-pheromone transporter". www.brenda-enzymes.org. Retrieved 2019-10-26.
  30. ^ "BRENDA - Information on EC 7.4.2.8 - protein-secreting ATPase". www.brenda-enzymes.org. Retrieved 2019-10-26.
  31. ^ "BRENDA - Information on EC 7.4.2.9 - ABC-type dipeptide transporter". www.brenda-enzymes.org. Retrieved 2019-10-26.
  32. ^ "Rhea - Annotated reactions database". www.rhea-db.org. Retrieved 2019-10-26.
  33. ^ "Rhea - Annotated reactions database". www.rhea-db.org. Retrieved 2019-10-26.
  34. ^ "Rhea - Annotated reactions database". www.rhea-db.org. Retrieved 2019-10-26.
  35. ^ a b "IntEnz - EC 7.4.2.12". www.ebi.ac.uk. Retrieved 2019-10-26.