Skanderbeg square tirana 2016.jpg
Toptani Shopping Mall Tirana 2016.jpg
Tirana Kapllan Pasha Tomb.jpg
Catedral de la Resurección de Cristo, Tirana, Albania, 2014-04-17, DD 13.JPG
Castillo de Petrela, Petrela, Albania, 2014-04-17, DD 07.JPG
Kulla e Sahatit-Tiranë.jpg
Tirana from South.jpg
Stema e Bashkisë Tiranë.svg
Tirana is located in Albania
Tirana is located in Balkans
Tirana is located in Europe
Coordinates: 41°19′44″N 19°49′04″E / 41.32889°N 19.81778°E / 41.32889; 19.81778
RegionCentral Albania
 • TypeMayor–council
 • MayorErion Veliaj[1] (PS)
 • CouncilTirana Municipal Council
 • ChairmanToni Gogu[2]
 • Municipality and city1,110 km2 (430 sq mi)
 • Metro
1,652 km2 (638 sq mi)
 • Unit41.8 km2 (16.1 sq mi)
110 m (360 ft)
 • Metro
 • Municipality
 • Municipality density502/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
 • Unit
Demonym(s)Albanian: Tiranas(e)
Tirana dialect: Tirons(e)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code(s)
Area code(s)+355 (0) 4
AirportTirana International Airport
MotorwaysAutostrada A3 Albania.svg
HighwaysSH1-AL.svg SH2-AL.svg
Vehicle registrationTR

Tirana[c] (/tɪˈrɑːnə/ (listen) tih-RAH-nə,[8][9] Albanian pronunciation: [tiˈɾana]; Gheg Albanian: Tirona) is the capital and largest city of Albania. It is located in the centre of the country, enclosed by mountains and hills with Dajti rising to the east and a slight valley to the northwest overlooking the Adriatic Sea in the distance. Due to its location at the Plain of Tirana and the close proximity to the Merranean Sea, the city is particularly influenced by a Merranean seasonal climate. It is among the wettest and sunniest cities in Europe, with 2,544 hours of sun per year.[10][11]

Tirana was founded as a city in 1614 by the Ottoman Albanian general Sylejman Pasha Bargjini and flourished by then around the Old Mosque and the türbe. The area that today corresponds to the city's territory has been continuously inhabited since the Iron Age. It was inhabited by Illyrians, and was most likely the core of the Illyrian Kingdom of the Taulantii, which in Classical Antiquity was centred in the hinterland of Epidamnus. Following the Illyrian Wars it was annexed by Rome and became an integral part of the Roman Empire. The heritage of that period is still evident and represented by the Mosaics of Tirana. Later, in the 5th and 6th centuries, an Early Christian basilica was built around this site.

After the Roman Empire split into East and West in the 4th century, its successor the Byzantine Empire took control over most of Albania, and built the Petrelë Castle in the reign of Justinian I. The city was fairly unimportant until the 20th century, when the Congress of Lushnjë proclaimed it as Albania's capital, after the Albanian Declaration of Independence in 1912.

Classified as a gamma-world-city, Tirana is the most important economic, financial, political and trade centre in Albania due to its significant location in the centre of the country and its modern air, maritime, rail and road transportation.[12] It is the seat of power of the Government of Albania, with the official residences of the President and Prime Minister of Albania, and the Parliament of Albania. The city was announced as the European Youth Capital for 2022.


Early development[]

The mosaics of an Ancient Roman house from the 3rd century AD

The area of Tirana has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times with the earliest recognised reference found at the Cave of Pëllumbas belonging to the Palaeolithic period. Illyrians were the first population of the area and formed most likely the core of the Illyrian kingdom of the Taulantii, which in classical antiquity was centered in the hinterland of Epidamnus.[13] When the Romans arrived in Illyria after their victory of the Illyrian Wars, they populated and integrated the area into their empire under the political control of the city of Rome. The oldest surviving discovery from this period is a Roman house dating to the 3rd century, which was transformed into an aisleless church with a mosaic floor. A castle, possibly known as Tirkan, was built by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I between the 4th and 6th century and later restored by Ahmed Pasha Toptani in the 18th century.[14]

Castle of Petrelë was founded in the 6th century by Justinian I.

Tirana is mentioned in Venetian documents in 1418, one year after the Ottoman conquest of the area: "...the resident Pjeter, son of late Domenik from the village of Tirana...".[15] Records of the first land registrations under the Ottomans in 1431–32 show that Tirana consisted of 60 inhabited areas, with nearly 2,028 houses and 7,300 inhabitants.[citation needed] In 1510, Marin Barleti, an Albanian Catholic priest and scholar, in the biography of the Albanian national hero Skanderbeg, Historia de vita et gestis Scanderbegi Epirotarum principis (The story of life and deeds of Skanderbeg, the prince of Epirotes), referred to this area as a small village, distinguishing between "Little Tirana" and "Great Tirana".[15] It is later mentioned in 1572 as Borgo di Tirana.[16]

According to Hahn, the settlement had already started to develop as a bazaar and included several watermills,[17] even before 1614, when Sulejman Bargjini, a local ruler, built the Old Mosque, a small commercial centre, and a hammam (Turkish bath). This is confirmed by oral sources, which state that there were two earlier mosques 300–400 m from the Old Mosque, towards today's Ali Demi Street. The Mosque of Reç and the Mosque of Mujo were positioned on the left side of the Lana river and were older than the Old Mosque.[17] Later, the Et'hem Bey Mosque, built by Molla Bey of Petrela, was constructed. It employed the best artisans in the country and was completed in 1821 by Molla's son Etëhem, who was also Sulejman Bargjini's great-nephew.

In 1800, the first newcomers arrived in the settlement[clarification needed], the so-called ortodoksit. They were Aromanians from villages near Korçë and Pogradec, who settled around modern day Tirana Park on the Artificial Lake.[18] They started to be known as the llacifac and were the first Christians to arrive after the creation of the town.[19] In 1807, Tirana became the centre of the Subprefecture of Krujë-Tirana.[citation needed] After 1816, Tirana languished under the control of the Toptani family of Krujë.[citation needed] Later, Tirana became a sub-prefecture of the newly created Vilayet of Shkodër and the Sanjak of Durrës. In 1889, the Albanian language started to be taught in Tirana's schools,[citation needed] and the patriotic club Bashkimi was founded in 1908.

The Old Bazaar at the turn of the 20th century

Modern development[]

On 28 November 1912, the national flag was raised in Vlorë by President Ismail Qemali, marking the symbolic birth of Albania as a sovereign country. The next years, however, were marked by turmoil. During the Balkan Wars, Tirana was temporarily occupied by the Serbian army and it took part in uprising of the villages led by Haxhi Qamili. In August 1916, the first city map was compiled by the specialists of the Austro-Hungarian army.[20] Following the capture of the town of Debar by Serbia, many of its Albanian inhabitants fled to Turkey, the rest went to Tirana.[21] Of those that ended up in Istanbul, some of their number migrated to Albania, mainly to Tirana where the Dibran community formed an important segment of the city's population from 1920 onward and for some years thereafter.[21] On 8 February 1920, the Congress of Lushnjë proclaimed Tirana as the temporary capital of Albania, which had gained independence in 1912.[22] The city acquired that status permanently on 31 December 1925. In 1923, the first regulatory city plan was compiled by Austrian architects.[23] The centre of Tirana was the project of Florestano Di Fausto and Armando Brasini, well-known architects of the Mussolini period in Italy. Brasini laid the basis for the modern-day arrangement of the ministerial buildings in the city centre. The plan underwent revisions by Albanian architect Eshref Frashëri, Italian architect Castellani and Austrian architects Weiss and Kohler.[citation needed] The modern Albanian parliament building served as an officers' club. It was there that, in September 1928, Zog of Albania was crowned King Zog I, King of the Albanians.

Old villa architecture in Tirana

Tirana was the venue for the signing of the Pact of Tirana between Fascist Italy and Albania. During the rule of King Zog a lot of Muhaxhirs emigrated towards Tirana, which lead to a growing population in the capital city in the early 20th century.[24]

In 1939, Tirana was captured by Fascist forces, who appointed a puppet government. In the meantime, Italian architect Gherardo Bosio was asked to elaborate on previous plans and introduce a new project in the area of present-day Mother Teresa Square.[25] A failed assassination attempt was made on Victor Emmanuel III of Italy by a local resistance activist during a visit to Tirana. In November 1941, two emissaries of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (KPJ), Miladin Popović and Dušan Mugoša, called a meeting of three Albanian communist groups[citation needed] and founded the Communist Party of Albania, and Enver Hoxha soon emerged as its leader.

The town soon became the centre of the Albanian communists, who mobilised locals against Italian fascists and later Nazi Germans, while spreading ideological propaganda. On 4 February 1944, the Gestapo, supported by the forces of Xhafer Deva, executed 86 anti-fascists in Tirana.[26] On 17 November 1944, the town was liberated after a fierce battle between the Communists and German forces.[citation needed] The Nazis eventually withdrew and the communists seized power.

The Skanderbeg Square in 1988, two years prior to the Fall of communism in Albania

From 1944 to 1991, massive socialist-style apartment complexes and factories were built, while Skanderbeg Square was redesigned, with a number of buildings demolished. For instance, Tirana's former Old Bazaar and the Orthodox Cathedral were razed to the ground in order to build the Soviet-styled Palace of Culture. The northern portion of the main boulevard was renamed Stalin Boulevard and his statue was erected in the city square. Because private car ownership was banned, mass transportation consisted mainly of bicycles, trucks and buses. After Hoxha's death, a pyramidal museum was constructed in his memory by the government.[citation needed]

Before and after the proclamation of Albania's policy of self-imposed isolationism, a number of high-profile figures paid visits to the city, such as Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai and East German Foreign Minister Oskar Fischer. In 1985, Enver Hoxha's funeral was held in Tirana.[27] A few years later, Mother Teresa became the first religious figure[28] to visit the country after the end of Albania's long anti-religious atheist stance. She paid respects to her mother and sister resting at a local cemetery.

Tirana's main boulevard in 1991

Starting at the campus and ending at Skanderbeg Square with the toppling of Enver Hoxha's statue, the city saw significant demonstrations by University of Tirana students demanding political freedoms in the early 1990s. On the political aspect, the city witnessed a number of events. Personalities visited the capital, such as former U.S. Secretary of State James Baker and Pope John Paul II. The former visit came amidst the historical setting after the fall of communism, as hundreds of thousands were chanting in Skanderbeg Square Baker's famous saying of "Freedom works!".[29] Pope John Paul II became the first major religious leader to visit Tirana, though Mother Teresa had visited few years prior.

During the Balkans turmoil in the mid-1990s, the city experienced dramatic events such as the unfolding of the 1997 unrest in Albania and a failed coup d'état on 14 September 1998.

In 1999, following the Kosovo War, Tirana Airport became a NATO airbase, serving its mission in the former Yugoslavia.


The Mustafa Matohiti Street near the Pyramid of Tirana. Consequently, after the fall of communism in Albania, a dramatic growth of new developments has taken place, with many new exclusive flats and apartments and other structures.

During his term from 2000 to 2011, the former mayor of Tirana, Edi Rama, undertook a campaign to demolish illegal constructed buildings across Tirana as well as along the river banks of Lanë to bring the area to its pre-1990 state. In an attempt to widen roads, Rama authorized the bulldozing of private properties so that they could be paved over, thus widening streets. Most main roads underwent reconstruction, including the Unaza, Rruga e Kavajës and the main boulevard. Rama also led the initiative to paint the façades of Tirana's buildings in bright colours, although much of their interiors continued to degrade. Rama's critics claimed that he focused too much attention on cosmetic changes without fixing any of the major problems such as shortages of drinking water and electricity.[30][31]

In June 2007, George W. Bush traveled to Tirana on an official state visit, becoming the first U.S. President to visit the former communist country.[32][33] In 2008, the Gërdec explosions were felt in the capital as windows were shattered and citizens shaken. In January 2011, the Albanian opposition demonstrations were triggered in front of the governmental buildings in Tirana protesting against political corruption and state capture, particularly associated with the former prime minister Sali Berisha's government.[34] In September 2014, Pope Francis made an official state visit to Tirana simultaneously becoming the second pontiff to visit Albania, after Pope John Paul II in 1992.[35][36]

Following the municipal elections of 2015, power was transferred from the Democratic Party representative Lulzim Basha to the Socialist Party candidate Erion Veliaj.[37] Albania then underwent a territorial reform, in which defunct communes were merged with municipalities.[38] Thirteen of Tirana's former communes were integrated as administrative units joining the existing eleven.[39] Since then, Tirana is undergoing significant changes in infrastructure, law enforcement and new projects, as well as continuing the ones started by Veliaj's predecessor. In their first few council meetings, 242 social houses got allocated to families in need.[40] Construction permits were suspended until the capital's development plan is revised and synthesized.[39]

Between December 2018 and February 2019, a series of demonstrations erupted in the central areas of Tirana and other cities of the country in response to a controversial law on higher education, poor quality of teaching, high tuition rates and corruption.[41][42][43] In September 2019, Tirana was ravaged by a 5.6 magnitude earthquake with an epicenter located near Durrës.[44][45][46] Two months after, in November 2019, another strong earthquake with the magnitude of 6.4 hit the region again resulting comparatively few damages in Tirana.[47] The same month, Tirana was announced as the European Youth Capital for 2022 with a planned program including events of cultural and social importance.[48]


View of Tirana Metropolitan Area

Tirana extends at the Plain of Tirana in the centre of Albania between the mount of Dajti in the east, the hills of Kërrabe, Sauk and Vaqarr in the south, and a valley to the north overlooking the Adriatic Sea. The average altitude is about 110 meters (360 ft) above sea level, with a maximum of 1,828 metres (5,997 feet) at Maja Mincekut of Mali me Gropa in Shenmeri.[49]

The city is surrounded by two important protected areas: the Dajti National Park and Mali me Gropa-Bizë-Martanesh Protected Landscape. In winter, the mountains are often covered with snow and are a popular retreat for the population of Tirana, which rarely receives snowfalls. In terms of biodiversity, the forests are mainly composed of pine, oak and beech, while its interior relief[clarification needed] is dotted with canyons, waterfalls, caves, lakes and other landforms.[50] Thanks to its natural heritage, it is considered the "Natural Balcony of Tirana". The mountain can be reached by a narrow asphalt mountain road onto an area known as Fusha e Dajtit. From this small area there is an excellent view of Tirana and its plain.

Tiranë river flows through the city, as does the Lanë river. Tirana is home to several artificial lakes, including Tirana, Farka, Tufina, and Kashar. The present municipality was formed in the 2015 local government reform by the merger of the former municipalities of Baldushk, Bërzhitë, Dajt, Farkë, Kashar, Krrabë, Ndroq, Petrelë, Pezë, Shëngjergj, Tirana, Vaqarr, Zall-Bastar and Zall-Herr, which became municipal units. The seat of the municipality is the city of Tirana.[6]


Snow at the Dajti National Park. It generally melts quickly in the region.[51]

Tirana has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) according to the Köppen climate classification and receives enough precipitation during summer to avoid the Merranean climate (Csa) classification.

The average precipitation in Tirana is about 1,266 millimetres (49.8 inches) per year. The city receives the majority of precipitation in winter months, which occurs from November to March, and less in summer months, from June to September. In terms of precipitation, both rain and snow, the city is ranked among the wettest cities in the European Continent.[11]

Temperatures vary throughout the year from an average of 6.7 °C (44.1 °F) in January to 24 °C (75 °F) in July. Springs and summers are very warm to hot often reaching over 20 °C (68 °F) from May to September. During autumn and winter, from November to March, the average temperature drops and is not lower than 6.7 °C (44.1 °F). The city receives approximately 2500 hours of sun.[52]

Climate data for Tirana (7)[d] 1961-1990 normals and extremes 1940-present[e]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.3
Average high °C (°F) 11.6
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.7
Average low °C (°F) 1.8
Record low °C (°F) −10.4
Average precipitation mm (inches) 143
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 13 13 14 13 12 7 5 4 6 9 16 16 128
Average relative humidity (%) 74 73 69 72 68 69 62 64 71 70 76 79 71
Mean monthly sunshine hours 124 125 165 191 263 298 354 327 264 218 127 88 2,544
Average ultraviolet index 2 2 4 6 8 9 9 8 6 4 2 1 5
Source: DWD,[53][54][f] Meteo Climat (record highs and lows),[55] NOAA (some records, rain and snow days)[56] and Weather Atlas[57]


The artificial lake of Tirana built from local waters in 1955

In September 2015, Tirana organized its first vehicle-free day, joining forces with numerous cities across the globe to fight against the existing problem of urban air pollution. This initiative resulted in a considerable drop in both air and noise pollution, encouraging the Municipality to organise a vehicle-free day every month.[58][59]

The city suffers from problems related to overpopulation,[60] such as waste management, high levels of air pollution and significant noise pollution. Over the last decades, air pollution has become a pressing concern as the number of cars has increased. These are mostly 1990s and early 2000s diesel cars,[61] while it is widely believed that the fuel used in Albania contains larger amounts of sulfur and lead than in the European Union. Effective 1 January 2019, the government has imposed an import ban of used vehicles made prior to 2005 in an effort to curb pollution, encourage the buying of new cars from certified domestic dealerships, and to improve overall road safety. Another source of pollution are PM10 and PM2.5 inhaled particulate matter and NO2 gases[62][63] resulting from rapid growth in the construction of new buildings and expanding road infrastructure.[64]

Untreated solid waste is present in the city and outskirts. Additionally, there have been complaints of excessive noise pollution. Despite the problems, the Grand Park at the Artificial Lake has some effect on absorbing CO2 emissions, while over 2.000 trees have been planted around sidewalks.

Works for four new large parks have started in the summer of 2015 located in Kashar, Farkë, Vaqarr, and Dajt. These parks are part of the new urban plan striving to increase the concentration of green spaces in the capital.[65] The government has included designated green areas around Tirana as part of the Tirana Greenbelt where construction is not permitted or limited.[66][67]



The municipality of Tirana is encompassed in the County of Tirana within the Central Region of Albania and consists of the rural administrative units of Baldushk, Bërzhitë, Dajt, Farkë, Kashar, Krrabë, Ndroq, Petrelë, Pezë, Shëngjergj, Vaqarr, Zall-Bastar, Zall-Herr and Tirana.[68][69] The administrative unit of Tirana is further partitioned into eleven urban administrative units, namely Tirana 1, Tirana 2, Tirana 3, Tirana 4, Tirana 5, Tirana 6, Tirana 7, Tirana 8, Tirana 9, Tirana 10 and Tirana 11.[68]

The Mayor of Tirana along with the Cabinet of Tirana exercises executive power. The Assembly of Tirana functions as the city parliament and consists of 55 members, serving four-year terms. It primarily deals with budget, global orientations and relations between the city and the Government of Albania. It has 14 committees and its chairman is Aldrin Dalipi from the Socialist Party. Each of the members have a specific portfolio such as economy, finance, juridical, education, health care, and several professional services, agencies and institutes.

In 2000, the centre of Tirana from the central campus of University of Tirana in the Mother Teresa Square up to the Skanderbeg Square, was declared the place of Cultural Assembly, and given state protection. The historical core of the capital lies around pedestrian only Murat Toptani Street, while the most prominent city district is Blloku. In 2010, the municipality undertook the installing of street name signs and entrance numbers while every apartment entrance was physically stamped.[70]

National capital[]

Tirana is the capital city of the Republic of Albania thus playing an essential role in shaping the political and economic life of the country.[71] It is the home to government functions and institutions for which the government of Albania is responsible, as for instance the executive, juridical and legislative branches of Albania.

The President and Prime Minister of Albania officially reside and work in Tirana specifically at the Presidenca and Kryeministria, respectively, nevertheless the Parliament of Albania is headquartered at the Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard.[72][73][74] Tirana is also the home to the national Constitutional Court and Supreme Court. Important national institutions housed in Tirana include the Appeal Court and Administrative Court.

The Bank of Albania is located at the Skanderbeg Square while other institutions such as the ministries of Culture, Defence, Education, Finance, Foreign Affairs, Health, Infrastructure, Internal Affairs, Justice and Tourism are spread over Tirana. The city is also the home to all the consulates and embassies in Albania, thereby making it an important centre for international diplomacy in the country.

International relations[]

Tirana is a founding member of the Union of Albanian Municipalities in the Region.[75][76] Tirana is twinned with Ankara, Beijing, Bursa, Doha, Florence, Kharkiv, Sarajevo and has signed partnership agreements with Verona and Zagreb.[g][84][85] It has also signed special bilateral agreements with Zaragoza.[86]


Tirana is the heart of the economy of Albania and the most industrialised and economically fastest growing region in Albania. Of the main sectors, the tertiary sector is the most important for the economy of Tirana and employs more than 68% of work force of Tirana.[87] 26% of the working population makes up the secondary sector followed by the primary sector with only 5%.[87]

The city began to develop at the beginning of the 16th century as it was part of the Ottoman Empire, when a bazaar was established, and its craftsmen manufactured silk and cotton fabrics, leather, ceramics and iron, silver and gold artefacts.[88] In the 20th century, the city and its surrounding areas expanded rapidly and became the most heavily industrialised region of the country.

The most significant contribution is made by the tertiary sector which has developed considerably since the fall of communism in Albania. Forming the financial centre of the country, the financial industry is a major component of the city's tertiary sector and remains in good conditions overall due to privatization and the commendable monetary policy.[89] All of the most important financial institutions, such as the Bank of Albania and the Albanian Stock Exchange are centred in Tirana as well as most of the banking companies such as the Banka Kombëtare Tregtare, Raiffeisen Bank, Credins Bank, Intesa Sanpaolo Bank and Tirana Bank.

Maritim Plaza Tirana is in the centre of Tirana.

The telecommunication industry represents another major and growing contributor to the sector.[90] A rapid development occurred as well as after the end of communism and decades of isolationism mainly due to the new national policy of reform and opening up sped up the industry's development. Vodafone, Telekom Albania and Eagle are the leading telecommunication providers in Tirana, as in all the country.

The tourism industry of the city has expanded in recent years to become a vital component of the economy.[91] Tirana has been officially dubbed as 'The Place Beyond Belief' by local authorities.[92] The increasing number of international arrivals at the Tirana International Airport and Port of Durrës from across Europe, Australia and Asia has rapidly grown the number of foreign visitors in the city.[93][94]

The largest hotels of the city are the Tirana International Hotel, Maritim Plaza Tirana both situated in the heart of the city near Scanderbeg Square, and the Hyatt-owned luxury Mak Hotel Tirana[95] located next to the Air Albania Stadium, where Mariott Tirana Hotel is also planned to open.[96] Other major hotels present in central Tirana include the Rogner Hotel, Hilton Garden Inn Tirana, Xheko Imperial Hotel, Best Western Premier Ark Hotel, and Mondial Hotel.



Tirana is served by Nënë Tereza International Airport, which is simultaneously the premier air gateway to the country. The airport was officially named in honour of the Albanian Roman Catholic nun and missionary, Mother Teresa. It connects Tirana with many destinations in different countries across Europe, Africa and Asia. The airport carried more than 3.3 million passengers in 2019 and is also the principal hub for the country's flag carrier, Air Albania.[97]

The city's geographical location in the centre of Albania has long established the city as an integral terminus for the national road transportation, thus connecting the city to all parts of Albania and the neighbouring countries.[98] The Rruga Shtetërore 1 (SH1) connects Tirana with Shkodër and Montenegro in the north, and constitutes an essential section of the proposed Adriatic–Ionian motorway. The Rruga Shtetërore 2 (SH2) continues in the west and provides direct connection to Durrës on the Adriatic Sea. The Rruga Shtetërore 3 (SH3) is being transformed to the Autostrada 3 (A3) and follows the ancient Via Egnatia. It significantly constitutes a major section of the Pan-European Corridor VIII and links the city with Elbasan, Korçë and Greece in the south. Tirana is further connected, through the Milot interchange in the northwest, with Kosovo following as part of the Autostrada 1 (A1).

An Ecovolis station near the Mother Teresa Square

During the communist regime in Albania, a plan for the construction of a ring road around Tirana arose in 1989s with no implementation until the 2010s.[99] It is of major importance, especially concerning the demographic growth of the metropolitan region of Tirana as well as the importance of the economy. Although, constructions for the nowadays completed southern section of the ring road started in 2011, however, the northern and eastern sections are still in the planning process.[100]

The Rruga Shtetërore 2 (SH2) connecting Tirana with Durrës

Rail lines of Hekurudha Shqiptare (HSH) connected Tirana with all of the major cities of Albania, including Durrës, Shkodër and Vlorë. In 2013, the Tirana Railway Station was closed and moved to Kashar by the government of Tirana in order to create space for the Bulevardi i Ri project.[101] The new Tirana Station will be constructed in Laprakë, which is projected to be a multifunctional terminal for rail, tram and bus transportation.[102][103] Furthermore, a new rail line from Tirana through Nënë Tereza International Airport to Durrës is planned to be constructed.[104][105]

In 2012, Tirana municipality published a report according to which a project on the construction of two tram lines was under evaluation. The tram lines would have a total length of 16.7 kilometres (10.4 miles). The public transport in Tirana is, for now, focused only in the city centre, so that the people living in the suburbs have fewer or no public transport connections.

Under the plan, the two tram lines will intersect in the Skanderbeg Square. The public transport system in Tirana is ten bus lines served by 250 to 260 buses every day.

During the administration of mayor Erion Veliaj, the government of Tirana has significantly increased the creation and expansion of a cycling infrastructure in the city in order to reduce traffic congestion as well as to improve the sustainable transportation.[106][107][108] Ecovolis was launched in 2011 offering rental services for bicycles at different centrally located stations for a small fee.[109][110] The international bicycle sharing system, Mobike, launched its operations on 8 June 2018 by deploying 4000 bicycles in the city.[111][112]


Tirana has the highest concentration of institutions of tertiary education in Albania, consisting of numerous academies, colleges and universities. Most prominent among these is the University of Tirana with campuses around the city and more than 28,000 students from all backgrounds.[113] The Polytechnic University of Tirana is another distinguished institution and also the most renowned engineering and technical university in the country. The four other public institutions in Tirana are the University of Arts, University of Agriculture, University of Medicine and University of Sports.[113]

The educational system of Tirana has expanded substantially over the past years with the renovations of existing school facilities and the construction of new schools.[114][115] For primary and secondary education, a variety of schools are available, tagged with the public, private and international labels. Few of the major international schools are the Tirana International School, Albanian International School, British School, Montessori School, Memorial Schooland and World Academy. Also of noteworthy mention is the public primary and secondary Servete Maçi School, which received international recognition as it won an award at the 2020 International Architecture Awards.[116]


There are numerous public and private hospitals as well as smaller public and private health care facilities in the territory of Tirana. The Mother Teresa University Hospital is one of the largest medical tertiary institutions of the country. Other medical institutions include the Shefqet Ndroqi University Hospital, Koço Gliozheni Hospital, Mbretëresha Gjeraldinë Hospital and the Military Hospital.


Population growth of Tirana in selected periods
Year 1703 1820 1923 1937 1955 1989 2001 2012
±% p.a.—    +0.94%−0.10%+8.73%+6.47%+3.28%+2.38%+2.38%
Source: [117][118][119][120][121]

The Institute of Statistics (INSTAT) estimated the population of the municipality of Tirana at 418,495 in 2011.[7] With a population density of 502 people per square kilometre, Tirana is the most densely populated municipality in the country.[3] The encompassing metropolitan area, consisting of the regions of Durrës and Tirana, has a combined population of approximately 1 million amounting to nearly one third of the country's total population.[122]

Historically, Tirana has experienced a steady population increase in the past years, especially after the fall of communism in the late twentieth century as well as the beginnings of the twenty-first century. The remarkable growth was, and still is, largely fueled by migrants from all over the country often in search of employment and improved living conditions. Between 1820 and 1955, the population of Tirana tenfolded while during the period from 1989 to 2011, the city's population grew annually by approximately 2.7%. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the city had a rate of growth less than 1% annually until the 1970s, then down to less than 8% per year until the middle 20th century figures.[123]

Religion in Tirana [124]
Other (mostly undeclared and non-religious)

Tirana's population is composed by a mixture of different cultural and ethnic groups from Southern Europe. The most represented ethnicities are Albanians (84.10%), Greeks (0.35%), Aromanians (0.11%), Macedonians (0.07%) and Italians (0.03%).[125]

In Albania, a secular state with no state religion, the freedom of belief, conscience and religion is explicitly guaranteed in the constitution of Albania.[126][127] Tirana is religiously diverse and has many places of worship catering to its religious population whom are adherents of Islam, Christianity and Judaism but also of Atheism and Agnosticism. They all maintain their Albanian headquarters spread across the territory of Tirana. Nevertheless, the Bektashi Order leadership established their world centre also in the city.

In the 2011 census, 55.7% of the population of the municipality of Tirana was counted as Muslim, 3.4% as Bektashis and 11.8% as Christian including 5.4% as Roman Catholic and 6.4% as Eastern Orthodox.[128] The remaining 29.1% of the population reported having no religion or did not provide an adequate answer. The census of 2011 did not included specific municipality level data for other religious groups. The Roman Catholic Church is represented in Tirana by the Archdiocese of Tiranë and Durrës, with the St Paul's Cathedral as the seat of the prelacy. The Albanian Orthodox community is served by the Archbishop of Tirana in the Resurrection Cathedral.


The Albanians mosaic
Panorama of The Albanians History mosaic above the entrance of the National Museum of History

Tirana offers a blend of traditional and modern lifestyle with a variety of arts, food, entertainment, music and night life. Its population celebrates a wide range of religious and other festivals including Christmas, Eid, Hanukkah and Nowruz. Another festival is Dita e Verës taking place every year on 14 March, during which the Albanians celebrate the end of winter and the arrival of spring.

Among the local institutions are the National Library, that keeps more than a million books, periodicals, maps, atlases, microfilms and other library materials. The city has five well-preserved traditional houses (museum-houses), 56 cultural monuments, eight public libraries.[129]

There are many domestic and foreign cultural institutions in Tirana, amongst them the British Council, Canadian Institute of Technology as well as the German Goethe-Institut and Friedrich Ebert Foundation.[130][131][132][133] Other cultural institutions include the Chinese Confucius Institute, Greek Hellenic Foundation for Culture, Italian Istituto Italiano di Cultura and the French Alliance Française.[134][135][136][137]


The Toptani house from the 18th century

Tirana is home to a mixture of architectural styles reflecting the influential periods in its history. Its current appearance was considerably shaped by two totalitarian regimes, once by the fascist regime of Benito Mussolini during the Second World War and the regime of Enver Hoxha in the aftermath. The Palace of Brigades, the ministries buildings, the government building and the municipality hall are designed by Florestano Di Fausto and Armando Brasini, both well-known architects of the Mussolini period in Italy. The Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard was built in 1930 and given the name King Zog I Boulevard.

Florestano Di Fausto and Armando Brasini designed the city plan for Tirana in Neo-Renaissance style with articulate angular solutions and giant order fascias.

In the 20th century, the part from Skanderbeg Square up to the train station was named Stalin Boulevard. The Royal Palace or Palace of Brigades previously served as the official residence of King Zog I. It has been used by different Albanian governments for various purposes. Because of the outbreak of World War II, and the 1939 Italian invasion of Albania, King Zog I fled Albania and never had a chance to see the Palace fully constructed. The Italians finished it and used it as the Army Headquarters. The Palace took its nickname Palace of Brigades because it was taken from the Italians by a people's army brigade.[138]

In the 21st century, Tirana turned into a proper modernist city, with large blocks of flats, modern new buildings, new shopping centres and many green spaces. In June 2016, the Mayor of Tirana Erion Veliaj and the Italian architect Stefano Boeri announced the start of the works for the redaction of the Master Plan Tirana 2030.[citation needed]

The entrance of the Grand Park of Tirana

Tirana is a densely-built area and still offers several public parks throughout its districts, graced with green gardens. The Grand Park is the most important green space in Tirana. It is one of most visited areas by local citizens.[139] The park includes many children's playgrounds, sport facilities and landmarks such as the Saint Procopius Church, the Presidential Palace, the Botanical Gardens, the Tirana Zoo, the Amphitheatre, the Monument of the Frashëri Brothers and many others.

The Rinia Park was built during the Communist regime in Albania. It bordered by Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard to the east, Gjergi Fishta Boulevard and Bajram Curri Boulevard to the south, Rruga Ibrahim Rugova to the west and Rruga Myslym Shyri to the north. The Taivani Centre is the main landmark in the park and houses cafés, restaurants, fountains, and a bowling lane in the basement. The Summer Festival takes place every year in the park, to celebrate the end of winter and the rebirth of nature and a rejuvenation of spirit amongst the Albanians.

As of the Mayor of Tirana Erion Veliaj, the Municipality of Tirana will build more green spaces and will plant more trees.[140]


As one of the cultural centres of the country, Tirana is the home to a number of museums dedicated to a wide array of arts. The National Museum of History is located at the Skanderbeg Square and the most representative museum of Tirana.[141] The mosaic above the entrance is the most dominant feature of the museum displaying the story of how the Albanian people have fought against invasion and occupation throughout history.

Founded in 1948, the National Museum of Archaeology at the Mother Teresa Square displays a wide collection of research and discoveries belonging to the archaeological locations around Albania.[142] It exhibits span from prehistory through antiquity and the Middle Ages to the twentieth century, offering an overview of the country's historical diversity.

The Cloud Pavilion outside the National Art Gallery installed by Japanese artist Sou Fujimoto[143]

The National Art Gallery is considered the most important gallery in Albania housing one of the greatest collections of paintings in the region.[144] Located at the Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard, it holds approximately 4.500 works of art including the most important collection of Albanian art of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

The Bunk'art Museum consists of two underground bunkers in Tirana built under the orders and direction of Enver Hoxha during the communist regime in the country. Located at the Fadil Deliu Street and Abdi Toptani Street respectively, the bunkers have been transformed into a history museum and contemporary art gallery with exhibits from the Second World War and Cold War.[145][146]

The Museum of Secret Surveillance was founded in 2017 and is housed within a twentieth century mansion, the building known as the House of Leaves, near the Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard.[147] It commemorates and honours the victims who fell to the communist terrorism and violence during the communist period in Albania. Other museums include the Natural Sciences Museum, which has branches in zoology, botany and geology, the former Enver Hoxha Museum and the Bunk'art Museum.

The Bektashi Museum was opened at the World Headquarters of the Bektashi on 7 September 2015. The museum contains exhibits relating to Bektashi history and leadership.[148]


As in other parts of Albania, agricultural traditions are of great significance to the Albanians in Tirana, substantially appreciated for the production of food such as cheese, olives and wine. In 2016, Albania surpassed Spain by becoming the country with the most coffee houses per capita in the world with 654 coffee houses per 100,000 inhabitants.[149] This is due to coffee houses closing down in Spain due to the economic crisis, and the fact that as many cafes open as they close in Albania. In addition, the fact that it was one of the easiest ways to make a living after the fall of communism in Albania, together with the country's Ottoman legacy further reinforce its strong dominance in Albania.[citation needed]

Tirana's restaurant scene has evolved recently characterised by stylish interiors and delicious food grown locally. The Tirana region is known for the Fergesa traditional dish made with either peppers or liver,[150] and is found at a number of traditional restaurants in the city and agri-tourism sites on the outskirts of Tirana.


Being the capital, Tirana is the centre of sport in Albania, where activity is organised across amateur and professional levels. It is home to many major sporting facilities. Starting from 2007, the Tirana Municipality has built up to 80 sport gardens in most of Tirana's neighborhoods. One of the latest projects is the reconstruction of the existing Olympic Park, that will provide infrastructure for most intramural sports.[151]

Tirana hosted in the past three major events, the FIBA EuroBasket 2006, 2011 World Mountain Running Championships and the 2013 European Weightlifting Championships.

Air Albania Stadium in the city centre under construction

There are two major stadiums, the former Qemal Stafa Stadium and the Selman Stërmasi stadium. The former was demolished in 2016 to make way for the new national stadium.[152] The new stadium called the Air Albania Stadium was constructed on the same site of the former Qemal Stafa Stadium and it is planned to open in late 2019. It will have an underground parking, Marriott Tirana Hotel, shops and bars and will be used for entertainment events. Tirana's sports infrastructure is developing fast because of the investments from the municipality and the government.

Football is the most widely followed sport in Tirana as well as in the country, having numerous club teams including the KF Tirana, Partizani Tirana, and Dinamo Tirana. It is popular at every level of society, from children to wealthy professionals. In football, as of April 2012, the Tirana-based teams have won a combined 57 championships out of 72 championships organised by the FSHF, i.e. 79% of them. Another popular sport in Albania is basketball, represented in particular by the teams KB Tirana, BC Partizani, BC Dinamo, Ardhmëria and also the women's PBC Tirana.

Recently two rugby teams were created: Tirana Rugby Club,[153] founded in 2013 and Ilirët Rugby Club[154] founded in 2016.


The former grounds of the headquarters of Radio Tirana. Radio Televizioni Shqiptar (RTSH) was initially founded as Radio Tirana in 1938.

As the capital, Tirana is the most significant location for the Albanian media industry whose content is distributed throughout Albania, Kosovo and other Albanian-speaking territories. Tirana is the home to most of the national and international television stations, including the national broadcaster, Radio Televizioni Shqiptar (RTSH), along with all its television and radio networks. The three largest Albanian commercial broadcasters, such as Televizioni Klan, Top Channel and Vizion Plus, also maintains their headquarters in the city. The European broadcaster, Euronews, operates a franchise in the city as well as the American broadcaster CNN.[155][156]

Tirana is also a principal location for the largest Albanian newspapers, magazines and publications. The newspapers with the largest circulations in Albania are published in Tirana, including Gazeta Shqip, Gazeta Tema, Koha Jonë and Panorama. Gazeta Shqiptare, one of the oldest Albanian-language newspapers in Albania, operates and has its headquarters in the city.[157] Tirana also has a well-established English-language newspaper, notably the daily of Tirana Times.

Notable people[]

Key of Tirana[]

The Key of Tirana (Albanian: Çelësi i Qytetit) is a symbolic recognition given by the Mayor of Tirana to an esteemed personality. It was given to:

See also[]


  1. ^ The municipality of Tirana consists of the administrative units of Baldushk, Bërzhitë, Dajt, Farkë, Kashar, Krrabë, Ndroq, Petrelë, Pezë, Shëngjergj, Vaqarr, Zall-Bastar, Zall-Herr and Tirana.[3][5][6] The population of the municipality results from the sum of the listed administrative units in the former as of the 2011 Albanian census.[3][7]
  2. ^ The estimation for the administrative unit of Tirana is to be taken into consideration.[7]
  3. ^ Indefinite Albanian form: Tiranë (pronounced [tiˈɾanə])
  4. ^ Elevation at 90 m (300 ft)
  5. ^ The monthly estimations for rainy and snowy days are not available, only annual.
  6. ^ Station ID for Tirana is 13615 Use this station ID to locate the sunshine duration
  7. ^ Citations regarding the twin or sister cities of Tirana:[77][78][79][80][81][82][83]


  1. ^ "Mayor of Tirana". Bashkia Tiranë. Archived from the original on 23 September 2020. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
  2. ^ "Municipal chairman of Tirana". Bashkia Tiranë. Archived from the original on 23 September 2020. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
  3. ^ a b c d "Pasaporta e Bashkisë Tirana" (in Albanian). Porta Vendore. Archived from the original on 6 October 2021. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  4. ^ "Bashkia Tirana". Albanian Association of Municipalities (AAM). Archived from the original on 12 October 2020. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  5. ^ "A new Urban–Rural Classification of Albanian Population" (PDF). Instituti i Statistikës (INSTAT). May 2014. p. 15. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 November 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  6. ^ a b "Law nr. 115/2014" (PDF) (in Albanian). p. 6375. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  7. ^ a b c "Censusi i popullsisë dhe banesave/ Population and Housing Census–Tiranë 2011" (PDF) (in Albanian). Tirana: Instituti i Statistikës (INSTAT). p. 85. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 August 2017. Retrieved 20 July 2020.
  8. ^ "Tirana". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 26 February 2021.
  9. ^ "Tirana". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). HarperCollins. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  10. ^ "Sunniest Cities in Europe". currentresults.com. p. 1.
  11. ^ a b "European Cities With the Wettest, Rainiest Weather". currentresults.com. p. 1.
  12. ^ "The World According to GaWC 2020". Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC). Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  13. ^ Hammond, Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière (1966). "The Kingdoms in Illyria circa 400-167 B.C.". The Annual of the British School at Athens. British School at Athens. 61: 247. doi:10.1017/S0068245400019043. JSTOR 30103175. S2CID 164155370.
  14. ^ Heppner, Harald (1994). Hauptstädte in Südosteuropa: Geschichte, Funktion, nationale Symbolkraft. Wien u.a. Böhlau. pp. 133, 135. ISBN 978-3-205-98255-5.
  15. ^ a b Heppner, Harald (1994). Hauptstädte in Südosteuropa: Geschichte, Funktion, nationale Symbolkraft. Wien u.a. Böhlau. p. 137. ISBN 978-3-205-98255-5.
  16. ^ E. J. Van Donzel (1994), Islamic Desk Reference, E.J. Brill, p. 451, ISBN 9780585305561, OCLC 45731063, "il borgo di Tirana" is already mentioned as early as 1572
  17. ^ a b Koco Miho (1987). J.Tocka (ed.). Trajta të profilit urbanistik të qytetit të Tiranës : prej fillimeve deri më 1944. Tirana: 8 Nëntori. p. 57. OCLC 20994870.
  18. ^ ""Tiranasit" e ardhur rishtaz" (in Albanian). Gazeta Shqiptare. Retrieved 17 August 2008.
  19. ^ Delvina, Sherif (2006). Low Albania (Epirus) and Cham issue. Tiranë: Eurorilindja. p. 196. ISBN 99943-861-0-7. OCLC 124184965.
  20. ^ "Klan magazine". Klan (527–534): 265. 2007. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  21. ^ a b Clayer, Nathalie (2005). "The Albanian students of the Mekteb-i Mülkiye: Social networks and trends of thought". In Özdalga, Elisabeth (ed.). Late Ottoman Society: The Intellectual Legacy. Routledge. pp. 306–307. ISBN 9780415341646.
  22. ^ Pearson, Owen (2006). Albania and King Zog: independence, republic and monarchy 1908–1939. IB Taurus. p. 140. ISBN 1-84511-013-7. It was decided that the Congress of Lushnje was not to be dissolved until elections had been held and the new government had taken power into its hands and begun to exercise its functions in Tirana, in opposition to the Provisional Government in Italian occupied Durrës
  23. ^ Kera, Gentiana. Aspects of the urban development of Tirana: 1820–1939 Archived 25 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Seventh International Conference of Urban History. Athens, 2004.
  24. ^ Stefanović, Djordje (2005). "Seeing the Albanians through Serbian eyes: The Inventors of the Tradition of Intolerance and their Critics, 1804–1939." European History Quarterly. 35. (3): 470.
  25. ^ Bleta, Indrit. Influences of political regime shifts on the urban scene of a capital city, Case Study: Tirana. Turkey, 2010.
  26. ^ Pearson, Owen (2006). Albania in Occupation and War: From Fascism to Communism 1940-1945. I.B.Tauris. p. 326. ISBN 978-1-84511-104-5.
  27. ^ "ENVER HOXHA DIES; ALBANIAN LEADER". The New York Times. Reuters. 12 April 1985. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  28. ^ "Mother Teresa". Biography. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  29. ^ Kempster, Norman (23 June 1991). "Albanians Mob Baker, Cheer U.S. : Europe: 'Freedom works,' he exhorts a rally of 200,000. The country hopes for aid to rebuild an economy shattered by lengthy Stalinist isolation". Los Angeles Times.
  30. ^ "A bright and colourful new style of urban design emerges in Albania". Resource for Urban Design Information. Retrieved 16 August 2008.
  31. ^ Pusca, Anca (2008). "The aesthetics of change: Exploring post-Communist spaces" (PDF). Global Society. 22 (3): 369–386. doi:10.1080/13600820802090512. S2CID 7735000.
  32. ^ "Bush makes landmark visit to Albania". The Daily Telegraph. 10 June 2007. Archived from the original on 7 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  33. ^ Stolberg, Sheryl Gay (11 June 2007). "Thousands Hails Bush in Visit to Albania". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 7 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  34. ^ "Albania: 20,000 Protesters March Against Government; 3 Killed". The New York Times. 21 January 2011. Archived from the original on 7 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  35. ^ "Pope Francis arrives in Albania on a flying visit". Deutsche Welle (DW). 21 September 2014. Archived from the original on 7 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  36. ^ "Pope Francis praises human rights and religious freedom during Albania visit". The Guardian. 21 September 2014. Archived from the original on 7 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  37. ^ "Erion Veliaj takes office as Mayor of Tirana". Archived from the original on 1 August 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
  38. ^ "Reforma Territoriale – Harta – 61 bashki". reformaterritoriale.al. Archived from the original on 28 August 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
  39. ^ a b "Veliaj suspends construction permits". Archived from the original on 16 August 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
  40. ^ "Tirana City Council approves the allocation of social housing for 242 families". Archived from the original on 20 August 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
  41. ^ "University students protest tariff hikes, low education standards in Albania". Tirana Times. 5 December 2018. Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  42. ^ Pomeroy, Robin (11 December 2018). "Albanian students block Tirana highway in protest at higher fees". Reuters. Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  43. ^ Ehl, David (18 December 2018). "France, Hungary, Serbia: Is half of Europe protesting?". Deutsche Welle (DW). Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  44. ^ "Albania jolted by strong earthquake, dozens reported injured". Deutsche Welle (DW). 21 September 2019. Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  45. ^ Andone, Dakin; Gashi, Aldona (21 September 2019). "Albania struck by 5.6-magnitude earthquake, injuring at least 37". Cable News Network (CNN). Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  46. ^ "Albania earthquake: Magnitude 5.6 tremor felt in capital Tirana". Euronews. 21 September 2019. Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  47. ^ Peltier, Elian; Magra, Iliana; Victor, Daniel (25 November 2019). "Albania Earthquake Kills at Least 23". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  48. ^ "Congratulations, Tirana! Winner of the European Youth Capital for 2022". European Youth Capital (EYC). 21 November 2019. Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  49. ^ "Koncepti i Zhvillimit Rajonal per Qarkun e Tiranes 2012-2017" [Concept of Regional Development for the District of Tirana 2012-2017] (PDF) (in Albanian). 22 April 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2020. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  50. ^ "Dajti National Park A Recreational Area for Citizens of Tirana, Albania" (PDF). boku.ac.at. p. 2.
  51. ^ Kottek, Markus; Grieser, Jürgen; Beck, Christoph; Rudolf, Bruno; Rube, Franz (June 2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated" (PDF). Meteorologische Zeitschrift. 15 (3): 259–263. Bibcode:2006MetZe..15..259K. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  52. ^ Telegraph Media Group (21 November 2016). "Mapped: the sunniest (and dullest) cities in Europe". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022.
  53. ^ "Klimatafel von Tirana (Flugh.) / Albanien" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  54. ^ "Station 13615 Tirana". Global station data 1961–1990—Sunshine Duration. Deutscher Wetterdienst. Archived from the original on 17 October 2017. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  55. ^ "Station Tirana" (in French). Meteo Climat. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
  56. ^ "Tirane (13615) - WMO Weather Station". NOAA. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  57. ^ "Tirana, Albania - Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Yu Media Group. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  58. ^ "Albania Announces Car-Free Days for First Sunday of Each Month". Exit - Explaining Albania. 25 March 2022. Retrieved 18 October 2022.
  59. ^ "Car-free day in Tirana, these are the roads where driving isn't permitted - Euronews Albania". 22 March 2022. Retrieved 18 October 2022.
  60. ^ "State of the Environment in Albania 1997-1998". Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  61. ^ VizionPlusAlbania (7 November 2013). "Stoku i makinave të përdorura – News, Lajme – Vizion Plus". Archived from the original on 30 October 2021 – via YouTube.
  62. ^ "Environmental Center for Administration & Technology Tirana. 2008. Tirana Air Quality Report. Tirana: EU/LIFE Program; German Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Protection and Nuclear Safety" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  63. ^ "Dako, Alba; Lika, Mirela and Hysen Mankolli. 2008. Monitoring aspects of air quality in urban areas of Tirana and Tirana and Durrës, Albania" (PDF). Natura Montenegrina. 7 (2): 549–557. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2012. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
  64. ^ Cameron, Rob (3 December 2004). "Tirana: Where the streets have no name". BBC News.
  65. ^ "Oranews.tv – Veliaj: Në Farkë do ndërtohet terminali i autobusave për juglindjen". Oranews. Archived from the original on 22 August 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
  66. ^ "HOME". planifikimi.gov.al.
  67. ^ "Baza Ligjore - APR Tirana". aprtirana.al.
  68. ^ a b "Strategjia e Zhvillimit të Qendrueshëm të Bashkisë Tiranë 2018–2022" (PDF) (in Albanian). Bashkia Tiranë. p. 22. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 June 2020. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
  69. ^ Dorina Pojani (6 March 2010). "Tirana City Profile". Cities. 27: 483–495. doi:10.1016/j.cities.2010.02.002.
  70. ^ "Bashkia – Lajmet e Ditarit". Tirana.gov.al. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
  71. ^ "Constitution of the Republic of Albania". Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE). p. 3. Retrieved 8 June 2020. The capital city of the Republic of Albania is Tirana
  72. ^ "Presidency". Bashkia Tiranë. Archived from the original on 19 July 2020. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  73. ^ "The Prime Minister Offices". Bashkia Tiranë. Archived from the original on 19 July 2020. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  74. ^ "Albania's Assembly Hall". Bashkia Tiranë. Archived from the original on 19 July 2020. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  75. ^ "Zyrtarizohet UBSHR, mbledh Konferencën e parë" (in Albanian). Unioni i Bashkive Shqiptare (UBSHR). 21 November 2016. Archived from the original on 2 October 2021. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  76. ^ "Politikat Lokale – Bashk olitikat Lokale – Bashkëpunimi Ndërkomunal në K ëpunimi Ndërkomunal në Kosovë" (in Albanian). University for Business and Technology (UBT). p. 42. Archived from the original on 12 August 2021. Retrieved 2 October 2021.
  77. ^ "Sister cities of Ankara". Ankara Municipality. Archived from the original on 2 October 2021. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  78. ^ "Beijing Info: Sister Cities". Beijing Municipality. Archived from the original on 6 October 2021. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  79. ^ "Kardeş Şehirler" (in Turkish). Bursa Municipality. Archived from the original on 2 October 2021. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  80. ^ "Twin cities: Doha & Tirana". Arabian Business. 8 March 2012. Archived from the original on 6 October 2021. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  81. ^ "Firenze internazionale: Gemellaggi e patti di amicizia" (in Italian). Florence Comune. Archived from the original on 6 October 2021. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  82. ^ "Города-партнеры" (in Ukrainian). Kharkiv. Archived from the original on 6 October 2021. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  83. ^ "Gradovi pobratimi: Spisak" (in Bosnian). Sarajevo. Archived from the original on 10 March 2021. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  84. ^ "Statistical Yearbook of the City of Zagreb 2018" (PDF). City of Zagreb. p. 34. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  85. ^ "Grandi Eventi - Gemellaggi e Patti d'Amicizia" (in Italian). Verona Comune. 5 September 2019. Archived from the original on 6 October 2021. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  86. ^ "Hermanamientos con Zaragoza" (in Spanish). Zaragoza. Archived from the original on 6 September 2021. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  87. ^ a b "50,7% of Albanian Employees Work in Agriculture". agroweb.org. 26 May 2017. Archived from the original on 25 June 2017. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
  88. ^ Hysa, Armanda. "The History, Form and Function of the Old Bazaar in Tirana". academia.edu.
  89. ^ "Analysis of the Albanian Banking System in the Transition Years" (PDF). ijbcnet.com.
  90. ^ Muharremi, Oltiana; Madani, Filloreta; Pelari, Erald. "The Development of the Service Sector in Albania and Its Future". researchgate.net. pp. 2–9.
  92. ^ "Mayor Veliaj in Singapore: Tirana, a place beyond belief". Radio Tirana International. Archived from the original on 19 December 2018. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  93. ^ "Turizmi në Tiranë, fluks nga Evropa, Azia e Australia". forum-al.com (in Albanian). Tirana. 11 August 2018.
  94. ^ "Veliaj: Ambicia jonë është që Tirana të kapë 1 milion turistë këtë vit". ata.gov.al (in Albanian). Tirana. 7 June 2018.
  95. ^ "US giant Hyatt takes over former Sheraton Tirana management". Tirana Times.
  96. ^ Jonuzaj, Klaudjo. "Marriott to open hotel in Albania's Tirana - govt". SEE News.
  97. ^ "Statistikat e transportit" (PDF) (in Albanian). Instituti i Statistikës (INSTAT). 27 January 2019. p. 2. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
  98. ^ "Strategjija e Zhvillimit të Qendrueshëm të Bashkisë Tiranë 2018-2022" (PDF) (in Albanian). Bashkia Tiranë. pp. 18, 23. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 June 2020. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
  99. ^ "Albania economy briefing: Tirana's Outer Ring Road and the controversial case of 2.1 km segment". Cooperation between China and Central and Eastern European Countries (China-CEE). 6 March 2019. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
  100. ^ "Unaza e Madhe e Tiranës hapet në shtator" (in Albanian). TV Klan. 14 August 2017. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
  101. ^ "Lamtumira e trenit në kryeqytet, stacioni tashmë zhvendoset në Vorë" (in Albanian). Gazeta Shqip. 1 September 2013. Archived from the original on 14 June 2020. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  102. ^ "New Public Transport Terminal of Tirana". Italferr. Archived from the original on 8 December 2019. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  103. ^ "Tirana me stacion modern multimodal" (in Albanian). Koha. 2 May 2018. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  104. ^ "Linja hekurudhore Durrës – Tiranë – Rinas, detajet e projektit" (in Albanian). Radio Televizioni Shqiptar (RTSH). 10 July 2018. Archived from the original on 10 July 2018. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  105. ^ "Rikthehet hekurudha, linja Tiranë-Durrës pritet të nisë punimet në qershor" (in Albanian). Euronews Albania. 12 February 2020. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  106. ^ "Pas rikonfirmimit për mandatin e dytë, Veliaj ftohet nga BERZH për vijimin e investimeve në Tiranë" (in Albanian). Administrata.al. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  107. ^ Burgen, Stephen (29 October 2018). "Build it and they will come: Tirana's plan for a 'kaleidoscope metropolis". The Guardian. Tirana. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  108. ^ "Tirana është kthyer në qytetin me më shumë korsi biçikletash në Shqipëri" (in Albanian). TRT. 14 July 2018. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  109. ^ "Ecovolis". Ecovolis. Archived from the original on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
  110. ^ Christiaens, Jan (1 August 2014). "Public bike service opens in Tirana (Albania)". Eltis. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  111. ^ Global, Mobike (8 June 2018). "Mobike Launches in Tirana, Albania". Mobike. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  112. ^ "Mobike ngushton hartën e përdorimit në Tiranë" (in Albanian). Radio Televizioni Shqiptar (RTSH). 17 January 2019. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  113. ^ a b "Strategjia e Zhvillimit të Qendrueshëm të Bashkisë Tiranë 2018–2022" (PDF) (in Albanian). Bashkia Tiranë. pp. 75–77. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 June 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
  114. ^ "Programi Buxhetor Afatmesëm 2018–2020" (PDF) (in Albanian). Bashkia Tiranë. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 September 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
  115. ^ "Përurohet shkolla 9-vjeçare "1 Maji"" (in Albanian). Bashkia Tiranë. Archived from the original on 26 September 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
  116. ^ Harrouk, Christele (11 September 2020). "2020 International Architecture Awards Winners Announced". ArchDaily. Archived from the original on 26 September 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
  117. ^ "Albania: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population". World Gazetteer. Archived from the original on 5 December 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
  118. ^ "Të dhëna të përgjithshme për Qytetin e Tiranës" (PDF) (in Albanian). Bashkia Tiranë. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 September 2008. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
  119. ^ "Popullsia e Shqipërisë" (PDF) (in Albanian). Instituti i Statistikës (INSTAT). 19 February 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 April 2016. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
  120. ^ "Popullsia e Shqipërisë" (PDF) (in Albanian). Instituti i Statistikës (INSTAT). 13 February 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 May 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
  121. ^ Citation regarding the Albanian censuses of 1989 and 2001:
  122. ^ "Population – INSTAT". Instituti i Statistikës (INSTAT). Archived from the original on 16 March 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2020.
  123. ^ See table: "Population growth of Tirana in selected periods"
  124. ^ "Religion in the Municipality of Tirana 2011". Instituti i Statistikës (INSTAT). Archived from the original on 22 January 2019. Retrieved 20 July 2020.
  125. ^ "Censusi i popullsisë dhe banesave / Population and Housing Census – Tiranë 2011" (PDF) (in Albanian). Tirana: Instituti i Statistikës (INSTAT). 2013. pp. 38–39. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 August 2017. Retrieved 20 July 2020.
  126. ^ "Constitution of the Republic of Albania". Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE). p. 2. Retrieved 20 July 2020.
  127. ^ "Albania 2016 International Religious Freedom Report" (PDF). United States Department of State. pp. 1–7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 August 2017. Retrieved 20 July 2020.
  128. ^ "Instat Gis". Instituti i Statistikës (INSTAT). Archived from the original on 22 January 2019. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
  129. ^ (in Albanian) Statistikat 2007 Archived 11 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine PDF Municipality of Tirana. Retrieved 20 July 2008
  130. ^ "Rreth nesh" (in Albanian). British Council. Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  131. ^ "Rreth nesh" (in Albanian). Canadian Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  132. ^ "Rreth nesh" (in Albanian). Goethe-Institut. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  133. ^ "Për në–FES Tiranë" (in Albanian). Friedrich Ebert Foundation. Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  134. ^ "Rreth nesh". Confucius Institute. Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  135. ^ "Tiranas Centre of Hellenic Foundation of Culture". Anna Lindh Foundation. Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  136. ^ "Rreth nesh" (in Albanian). Istituto Italiano di Cultura. Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  137. ^ "Historiku". Alliance Française. Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  138. ^ "Municipality of Tirana, partner in a transnational project on totalitarian architecture". atrium-see.eu. Archived from the original on 25 October 2016. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
  139. ^ "Mayor of Tirana inaugurates second workout area at Artificial Lake Park". 23 February 2017.
  140. ^ "Second paid parking space inaugurated in Tirana". top-channel.tv. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  141. ^ "National Historical Museum". Bashkia Tiranë. Archived from the original on 18 July 2020. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
  142. ^ "National Archaeological Museum". Bashkia Tiranë. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
  143. ^ ""The Cloud" - Art Pavilion at National Gallery Gardens" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  144. ^ "National Gallery of Arts". Bashkia Tiranë. Archived from the original on 18 July 2020. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
  145. ^ "Bunk'Art 1". Bashkia Tiranë. Archived from the original on 18 July 2020. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
  146. ^ "Bunk'Art 2". Bashkia Tiranë. Archived from the original on 18 July 2020. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
  147. ^ "The Museum of Secret Surveillance". Bashkia Tiranë. Archived from the original on 18 July 2020. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
  148. ^ The Bektashi Library. Kryegjyshata Botërore Bektashiane. Accessed 19 September 2021.
  149. ^ "Albania ranked first in the World for the number of Bars and Restaurants per inhabitant". Oculus News.
  150. ^ "Albanian Fergese - Fergesë e Tiranës me piperka". My Albanian Food.
  151. ^ "Me sportistët elitar, prezantohet Parku Olimpik i Tiranës". arsimi.gov.al. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
  152. ^ Shembet "Qemal Stafa" (25 June 2016). "Shemben 4 tribuna, lamtumirë stadiumi "Qemal Stafa" (FOTO)". Panorama (in Albanian).
  153. ^ "Tirana Regbi Klub kthen sportin e munguar në kryeqytet". sportekspres.com. Archived from the original on 10 March 2016. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
  154. ^ "OSCE Presence in Albania launches sports-based youth development programme - OSCE". osce.org.
  155. ^ Euronews, Michael (23 November 2019). "Michael Peters welcomes Euronews Albania to the Euronews family". Euronews Albania. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  156. ^ "Televizioni A2, partneri ekskluziv i CNN në Shqipëri, nis rekrutimin e stafit" (in Albanian). Telegrafi. 25 April 2018. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  157. ^ Stegherr, Marc; Liesem, Kerstin (3 August 2010). Die Medien in Osteuropa: Mediensysteme im Transformationsprozess (in German). Springer-Verlag. pp. 159–166. ISBN 9783531924878. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  158. ^ "Presidentja Atifete Jahjaga u takua me kryetarin e Bashkisë së Tiranës, Erion Veliaj" (in Albanian). Presidential Office of Kosovo. Archived from the original on 10 October 2020. Retrieved 10 October 2020.
  159. ^ a b "Veliaj i dorëzon "Çelësin e Qytetit" këngëtares Bebe Rexha" (in Albanian). Klan Kosova. 10 September 2016. Archived from the original on 7 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  160. ^ "Kryebashkiaku Veliaj i jep "Çelësin e qytetit" Zv.Kryeministrit të Malit të Zi, Dritan Abazoviç" (in Albanian). Bashkia Tiranë. 6 October 2021. Archived from the original on 6 October 2021. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  161. ^ "Çelësi i Qytetit për këngëtaren Dua Lipa" (in Albanian). Bashkia Tiranë. Archived from the original on 7 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  162. ^ ""Çelësi i Qytetit" për këngëtaren me origjinë shqiptare, Eleni Foureira" (in Albanian). Bashkia Tiranë. Archived from the original on 7 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  163. ^ "Kryebashkiaku Veliaj i jep "çelësin e qytetit" këngëtares së njohur Emeli Sande" (in Albanian). ABC News. 30 November 2017. Archived from the original on 10 October 2020. Retrieved 10 October 2020.
  164. ^ "Fituesi i "Sanremo"-s merr "Çelësin e Qytetit"" (in Albanian). Top Channel. 1 June 2018. Archived from the original on 7 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  165. ^ ""Çelësi i Qytetit" për Komandantin e Përgjithshëm të Guardia di Finanza, Giorgio Toschi" (in Albanian). Bashkia Tiranë. Archived from the original on 7 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  166. ^ ""Çelësi i Qytetit" për këngëtaren italiane Giusy Ferreri" (in Albanian). Bashkia Tiranë. Archived from the original on 7 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  167. ^ ""Çelësi i Qytetit" për kryebashkiakun e Budapestit, István Tarlós" (in Albanian). Bashkia Tiranë. Archived from the original on 7 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  168. ^ ""Çelësi i Qytetit" për Presidenten e Kroacisë, Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović" (in Albanian). Bashkia Tiranë. Archived from the original on 7 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  169. ^ ""Çelësi i Qytetit" për këngëtaren Nexhmije Pagarusha" (in Albanian). ABC News. 7 May 2018. Archived from the original on 7 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  170. ^ ""Çelësi i Qytetit" Sir Noel Robert Malcolm" (in Albanian). Bashkia Tiranë. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  171. ^ "Kryetari i Bashkisë së Tiranës i dhuroi Çelësin e Qytetit këngëtarit italian Riccardo Cocciante" (in Albanian). Bashkia Tiranë. Archived from the original on 7 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  172. ^ "Erion Veliaj i dhuron "Çelësin e Qytetit" Rita Orës" (in Albanian). Klan Kosova. 4 June 2018. Archived from the original on 7 October 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  173. ^ "Çelësi i qytetit për Robin Krasniqin/ Boksieri shqiptar u shpall pak ditë më parë kampion bote" (in Albanian). Top Channel. 19 October 2020. Archived from the original on 26 October 2020. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  174. ^ ""Çelësi i Qytetit" për Pendarovskin, Bashkia e Tiranës nderon Presidentin e Maqedonisë së Veriut" (in Albanian). Top Channel. 27 October 2019. Archived from the original on 10 October 2020. Retrieved 10 October 2020.

Further reading[]

External links[]