Timeline of Serer history

This is a timeline of the history and development of Serer religion and the Serer people of Senegal, The Gambia and Mauritania. This timeline merely gives an overview of their history, consisting of calibrated archaeological discoveries in Serer countries, Serer religion, politics, royalty, etc. Dates are given according to the Common Era. For a background to these events, see Roog, Serer religion, Serer creation myth, Serer prehistory, Lamane, States headed by Serer Lamanes, Serer history and Serer people.

Prehistory[]

Medieval era (The Golden Age of West Africa)[]

9th century[]

Many of the Serer village and town names they have founded still survives today.

11th century[]

"Today, the Serer retain much of their old culture, customs and traditions. In fact, it's not uncommon to hear how Serer culture has survived through the centuries in spite of all the forces which tried to destroy it."

Godfrey Mwakikagile,[6]

This era marks the exodus of the Serers of Tekrur. Those who survived the wars and refused to convert migrated southwards to what later became known as the Serer Kingdoms of Sine, Saloum and previously Baol, rather than convert to Islam. In the south, they were granted asylum by their distant Serer relatives, endorsed by the Great Council of Lamanes, the highest court in Serer country. Trimingham notes that, Tekrur was the first in the region to adopt Islam but lost completely its Serer identity.[8] War Jabi died in 1040 and was succeeded by his son Leb (or Labi), also a major ally of the Almoravids.[9] Leb is reported to have been fighting for the Almoravids in 1056[10] probably as a result of the subjugation of Tekrur by the Almoravids in 1042 and a well enforced Sharia law.[11] Economically, the Kingdom of Tekrur benefit with the introduction of Islam. It also created political ties with the North. Many Fulanis/Toucouleurs were part of the Almoravid army that conquered parts of Europe.[citation needed]

13th century[]

14th century[]

15th century[]

16th century[]

Early modern period[]

17th century[]

18th century[]

Modern history[]

19th century[]

19th century war drum called junjung in Serer language. Played when Serer kings and warriors went to war. From the Kingdom of Sine.
"The noble qualities are found in Serer countries, though they only lack Islam..."[29]
Plan of the Maad a Sinig's residence in Joal.

20th century[]

21st century[]

See also[]

Notes[]

  1. ^ Gravrand, Henry, "La civilisation Sereer, Cosaan", p 62
  2. ^ Trimingham, John Spencer, "A history of Islam in West Africa", Oxford University Press, USA, 1970, p 234
  3. ^ Hrbek, I. (1992). General History of Africa volume 3: Africa from the 7th to the 11th Century: Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century v. 3 (Unesco General History of Africa (abridged)). James Carey. p. 67. ISBN 978-0852550939.
  4. ^ Creevey, Lucy (August 1996). "Islam, Women and the Role of the State in Senegal". Journal of Religion in Africa. 26 (3): 268–307. doi:10.1163/157006696x00299. JSTOR 1581646.
  5. ^ Fage, John Donnelly (1997). "Upper and Lower Guinea". In Roland Oliver. The Cambridge History of Africa, Volume 3. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521209816.
  6. ^ Mwakikagile, Godfrey, "Ethnic Diversity and Integration in The Gambia: The Land, The People and The Culture," (2010), p 231, ISBN 9987932223
  7. ^ Page, Willie F., "Encyclopedia of African history and culture: African kingdoms (500 to 1500)", p209. Vol.2, Facts on File (2001), ISBN 0-8160-4472-4
  8. ^ Trimingham, John Spencer, "A history of Islam in West Africa", pp 174, 176 & 234, Oxford University Press, USA (1970)
  9. ^ Page, Willie F., "Encyclopedia of African history and culture: African kingdoms (500 to 1500)", p 676, Vol.2, Facts on File (2001), ISBN 0-8160-4472-4
  10. ^ Niane, Djibril Tamsir, "General History of Africa: Africa from the twelfth to the sixteenth century", pp 119–120, UNESCO, 1984, ISBN 9231017101 [1]
  11. ^ Abdur Rahman I. Doi, "Islam in Nigeria", Gaskiya Corp., 1984, p 9
  12. ^ Nnoli, Okwudiba, "Ethnic conflicts in Africa", p 241. CODESRIA, 1998. ISBN 2-86978-070-2
  13. ^ "La famille Juuf" [in] « L'épopée de Sanmoon Fay », in Éthiopiques, no 54, vol. 7, 2e semestre 1991
  14. ^ For the old Serer paternal dynasties such as the Joof family or Diouf and the Wagadou maternal dynasty, see : (in English) Phillips, Lucie Colvin, "Historical dictionary of Senegal", Scarecrow Press, 1981, pp 52–71 ISBN 0-8108-1369-6; (in English) Clark, Andrew F. & Philips, Lucie Colvin, "Historical Dictionary of Senegal", Second Edition (1994); & (in French) Institut fondamental d'Afrique noire. Bulletin de l'Institut fondamental d'Afrique noire, Volume 38. IFAN, 1976. pp 557–504. For the Guelowars, see : (in French) Sarr, Alioune, "Histoire du Sine-Saloum", Introduction, bibliographie et notes par Charles Becker, BIFAN, Tome 46, Serie B, n° 3-4, 1986-1987, p 239 (p 21) – *
  15. ^ Diouf, Niokhobaye, "Chronique du royaume du Sine" par suivie de Notes sur les traditions orales et les sources écrites concernant le royaume du Sine par Charles Becker et Victor Martin. Bulletin de l'Ifan, Tome 34, Série B, n° 4, 1972. p 706
  16. ^ Charles, Eunice A., "Precolonial Senegal: the Jolof Kingdom, 1800-1890", African Studies Center, Boston University, 1977. pp 1–3
  17. ^ Fage, John Donnelly (1997). "Upper and Lower Guinea". In Roland Oliver. The Cambridge History of Africa, Volume 3. Cambridge University Press. p. 484. ISBN 978-0521209816.
  18. ^ Conrad, David C., "Empires of Medieval West Africa", p 12, Infobase Publishing, 2005, ISBN 1-4381-0319-0
  19. ^ Hair, Paul Edward Hedley, "The Use of African Languages in Afro-European contacts in Guinea : 1440-1560", [in] "Sierra Leone Language Review", no. 5, 1966, p. 13 [2]
  20. ^ Hair, Paul Edward Hedley, "Africa encountered: European contacts and evidence, 1450-1700", Variorum, 1997, pp 213-15 & 248, ISBN 0-86078-626-9
  21. ^ It was a corruption by Alvise, see : Boulègue, Jean, "Le Grand Jolof, (XVIIIe – XVIe Siècle)", (Paris, Edition Façades), Karthala (1987), p 16
  22. ^ Alvise Cadamosto, the 15th century explorer in modern day Senegambia had never set foot in Serer country. His ship proceeded to the Gambia after one of his Wolof interpreters sent to negotiate slave terms with the local Serer community living in the Cayor border was killed on the spot by this Serer community. Neither Alvise nor any of his party left the ship. The ship proceeded to the Gambia. Since Alvise had never entered Serer country, most of his opinions about the Serers were coming from his Wolof interpreters. The Wolofs of Cayor were in constant war with Serer community living on their border and were fearful of these Serers as narrated by Alvise himself. In Kerr, Alvise refer to the Serers as without kings. However, these Serers were those living on the Wolof Cayor border and refused to submit to the kings of Cayor. Alvise did not know that the Kingdom of Sine was actually a Serer kingdom, where the Barbacini – (a corruption of the Wolof "Bur Ba Sine" which means "king of Sine") took residence. See : (in French) Boulègue, Jean, "Le Grand Jolof, (XVIIIe – XVIe Siècle)", (Paris, Edition Façades), Karthala (1987), p 16. Also : (in English) Kerr, Robert, "A general history of voyages and travels to the end of the 18th century", pp 238–240, J. Ballantyne & Co. 1811; (in French) Verrier, Frédérique, "Introduction. Voyages en Afrique noire d'Alvise Ca'da Mosto (1455 & 1456)", p 136, Chandeigne, Paris, 1994; (in English) Russell, Peter E., "Prince Henry 'the Navigator" : a life, New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press, 2000, pp 299–300
  23. ^ a b Ba, Abdou Bouri. Essai sur l’histoire du Saloum et du Rip. Avant-propos par Charles Becker et Victor Martin. Publié dans le Bulletin de l’Institut Fondamental d’Afrique Noire. pp 10–27
  24. ^ A mission which had eluded the Faal (var : Fall) dynasty from the 16th to the 19th centuries. See Fall.
  25. ^ Fall, Tanor Latsoukabé, Recueil sur la Vie des Damel, Introduit et commenté par Charles Becker et Victor. Martin, BIFAN, Tome 36, Série B, n° 1, janvier 1974
  26. ^ Boulègue, pp 169–180
  27. ^ They are not Wolofs either. They were originally Black Moors (Naari Kajoor meaning Moors of Cayor), however, they became Wolofized and adopted Wolof culture.
  28. ^ Diop, Cheikh Anta, Modum, Egbuna P., "Towards the African renaissance: essays in African culture & development", 1946–1960, p 28
  29. ^ a b c d (in French) Ndiaye, Ousmane Sémou, "Diversité et unicité Sérères: L'exemple de la Région de Thiès", Ethiopiques, n°54, revue semestrielle de culture négro-africaine, Nouvelle série volume 7, 2e semestre 1991 [3]
  30. ^ Diouf, Niokhobaye, "Chronique du royaume du Sine", Suivie de notes sur les traditions orales et les sources écrites concernant le royaume du Sine par Charles Becker et Victor Martin. (1972). Bulletin de l'Ifan, Tome 34, Série B, n° 4, (1972). pp 722–733
  31. ^ a b (in French) Diouf, Mahawa, "L’INFORMATION HISTORIQUE : L’EXEMPLE DU SIIN", Ethiopiques n°54. Revue semestrielle de culture négro-Africaine. Nouvelle série volume 7. 2e semestre 1991 [4]
  32. ^ a b c Sarr, "Histoire du Sine-Saloum", pp 33–5
  33. ^ Variation : Diogomay (French spelling of Jogoymay in Senegal).
  34. ^ French spelling in Senegal : Madiodio Fall
  35. ^ a b Klein, Martin, "Islam and Imperialism in Senegal, Sine-Saloum", p130
  36. ^ Titles of the Chief of Sabakh and Sanjal respective. Both States were tributary to the Kingdom of Saloum
  37. ^ a b Klein, pp 74–75
  38. ^ Camara, Alhaji Sait, [in] GRTS programmes, "Sunu Chossan"
  39. ^ Variations : Samba Laobé Fall or Samba Laobé Latsouck Sira Diogop Fall
  40. ^ Variation : Mang Codou
  41. ^ Head of the noble council of electors responsible for electing the kings from the royal family. He was equivalent to a Prime Minister in Serer country.
  42. ^ Sarr, pp 37–38
  43. ^ Diouf, Niokhobaye, pp 726–727
  44. ^ Kesteloot, Lilyan; Mbodj, Chérif; Ba, Seydou, Contes et mythes wolof (critic), (ors : Lilyan Kesteloot, Chérif Mbodj), Nouvelles Éditions Africaines, 1983, pp 15, 111, 179–80
  45. ^ John D. Tuxill, Gary Paul Nabhan, World Wide Fund for Nature, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, "People, Plants, and Protected Areas: A Guide to in Situ Management", p 50
  46. ^ a b Klein, Martin A. "Islam and Imperialism in Senegal Sine-Saloum, 1847–1914." Edinburgh University Press (1968). p XV
  47. ^ Le Soleil (Senegal)
  48. ^ Diallo,Ibrahima, "The Politics of National Languages in Postcolonial Senegal"
  49. ^ See Alhaji Alieu Ebrima Cham Joof. Abstract printed on The Point Newspaper : "Message to the Founding Fathers of the OAU at their First Conference at Addis Ababa, 1st May 1963", (2006).
  50. ^ Merh, "The Fate of Africa", p 367, Public Affaires (2005)

Bibliography[]

Further reading[]