Tate–LaBianca murders

Charles Manson
MansonB33920 8-14-17 (cropped).jpg
Manson at Corcoran State Prison, August 2017.
Born Charles Milles Maddox
(1934-11-12)November 12, 1934
Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.
Died November 19, 2017(2017-11-19) (aged 83)
Bakersfield, California, U.S.
Cause of death Cardiac arrest, respiratory failure, colon cancer[1]
Criminal charge Murder, conspiracy
Criminal penalty Death (commuted to life with the possibility of parole after the death penalty was abolished in California)
Spouse(s)
Rosalie Willis
(m. 1955; div. 1958)

Leona Stevens
(m. 1959; div. 1963)
Children 3
Parent(s)
  • Colonel W. H. Scott Sr. (father)
  • Kathleen Maddox (mother)
  • William Manson (stepfather)
Signature
Charles Manson signature2.svg

Charles Milles Manson (né Maddox, November 12, 1934 – November 19, 2017) was an American criminal, cult leader, and singer-songwriter. In the late 1960s, he formed what became known as the Manson Family, a quasi-commune in California. Manson's followers committed a series of nine murders at four locations in July and August 1969. In 1971, he was convicted of first-degree murder and conspiracy to commit murder for the deaths of seven people, all of which members of the group carried out at his instruction. Manson was also convicted of first-degree murder for two other deaths.

At the time the Manson Family began to form, Manson was an unemployed ex-convict who had spent half of his life in correctional institutions for a variety of offenses. Before the murders, he was a singer-songwriter on the fringe of the Los Angeles music industry, chiefly through a chance association with Dennis Wilson, drummer and founding member of the Beach Boys. Manson believed in what he called "Helter Skelter", a term he took from the Beatles' song of the same name to describe an impending apocalyptic race war. He believed the murders would help precipitate that war. The Beach Boys recorded one of his songs, "Cease to Exist", under the title "Never Learn Not to Love". It was released as a B-sided single in 1968 without cring Manson.

From the beginning of Manson's notoriety, a pop culture arose around him in which he ultimately became an emblem of insanity, violence, and the macabre. After he was charged with the crimes of which he was later convicted, recordings of songs written and performed by Manson were released commercially, starting with Lie: The Love and Terror Cult (1970). Various musicians have covered some of his songs. Manson was originally sentenced to death, but his sentence was commuted to life with the possibility of parole after California invalidated the state's death penalty statute in 1972. He served out his life sentence at California State Prison in Corcoran and died at age 83 in 2017.

Early life[]

Childhood[]

Charles Manson was born to unmarried 16-year-old Kathleen Manson-Bower-Cavender,[2] née Maddox (1918–1973),[3] in the University of Cincinnati Academic Health Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. He was first named "no name Maddox".[4]:136–7[5][6] Within weeks, he was called Charles Milles Maddox.[4]:136–7[7]

Manson's biological father appears to have been Colonel Walker Henderson Scott Sr. (1910–1954)[8] against whom Kathleen Maddox filed a paternity suit that resulted in an agreed judgment in 1937. Manson may never have known his biological father.[4]:136–7[6] Scott worked intermittently in local mills, and also had a local reputation as a con artist. He allowed Maddox to believe he was an army colonel, although "Colonel" was merely his given name. When Maddox told Scott she was pregnant, he told her he had been called away on army business; after several months she realized he had no intention of returning.[9]

In August 1934, before Manson's birth, Maddox married William Eugene Manson (1909–1961), whose occupation was listed on Charles's birth certificate as a "laborer" at a dry cleaning business.[10] Maddox went on drinking sprees for days at a time with her brother Luther, leaving Charles with a variety of babysitters. They were divorced on April 30, 1937, when a court accepted Manson's charge of "gross neglect of duty".[10]

On August 1, 1939, Maddox and Luther's girlfriend Julia Vickers spent the evening drinking with Frank Martin, a new acquaintance who appeared to be wealthy. Maddox and Vickers decided to rob him, and Maddox phoned her brother to help. They were incompetent thieves, and were found and arrested within hours. At the trial seven weeks later, Luther was sentenced to ten years in prison, and Kathleen was sentenced to five years.[11] Manson was placed in the home of an aunt and uncle in McMechen, West Virginia.[12] His mother was paroled in 1942. Manson later characterized the first weeks after she returned from prison as the happiest time in his life.[13]

Manson's family moved to Charleston, West Virginia, where Manson continually played truant and his mother spent her evenings drinking. She was arrested for grand larceny, but not convicted. After moving to Indianapolis, Maddox started attending Alcoholics Anonymous meetings where she met an alcoholic named Lewis (no first name), whom she married in August 1943. As well as constantly playing truant, Manson began stealing from stores and his home. In 1947, Maddox looked for a temporary foster home for Manson, but she was unable to find a suitable one. She decided to send him to the Gibault School for Boys in Terre Haute, Indiana, a school for male delinquents run by Catholic priests. Manson soon fled home to his mother, but she took him back to the school. He spent Christmas 1947 in McMechen, at his aunt and uncle's house, where he was caught stealing a gun.[14]

First offenses[]

Manson returned to Gibault but ran away to Indianapolis ten months later. Instead of returning to his mother, he rented a room and supported himself by burglarizing stores at night. He was eventually caught, and a sympathetic judge sent him to Boys Town, a juvenile facility in Omaha, Nebraska. After four days, he and a student named Blackie Nielson stole a car and somehow obtained a gun. They used it to rob a grocery store and a casino, as they made their way to the home of Nielson's uncle in Peoria, Illinois.[15][4]:136–146

Neilson's uncle was a professional thief, and when the boys arrived he apparently took them on as apprentices.[16] Manson was arrested two weeks later during a nighttime raid on a Peoria store. In the investigation that followed, he was linked to his two earlier armed robberies. He was sent to the Indiana Boys School, a strict reform school. He later claimed that other students raped him with the encouragement of a staff member. Manson developed a self-defense technique he later called the "insane game". When he was physically unable to defend himself he would screech, grimace and wave his arms to convince aggressors that he was insane. After a number of failed attempts, he escaped with two other boys in February 1951.[17][4]:137–146

The three escapees were attempting to drive to California in stolen cars when they were arrested in Utah. They had robbed several filling stations along the way. Driving a stolen car across state lines is a federal crime that violates the Dyer Act. Manson was sent to Washington, D.C.'s National Training School for Boys.[4]:137–146 On arrival he was given aptitude tests. He was illiterate, and his IQ was 109 (the national average was 100). His case worker deemed him aggressively antisocial.[17][4]:137–146

First imprisonment[]

On a psychiatrist's recommendation, Manson was transferred in October 1951 to Natural Bridge Honor Camp, a minimum security institution.[4]:137–146 His aunt visited him and told administrators she would let him stay at her house and would help him find work. Manson had a parole hearing scheduled for February 1952. However, in January, he was caught raping a boy at knifepoint. Manson was transferred to the Federal Reformatory in Petersburg, Virginia. There he committed a further "eight serious disciplinary offenses, three involving homosexual acts". He was then moved to a maximum security reformatory at Chillicothe, Ohio, where he was expected to remain until his release on his 21st birthday in November 1955. Good behavior led to an early release in May 1954, to live with his aunt and uncle in McMechen.[18]

Booking photo, Federal Correctional Institute Terminal Island, May 2, 1956

In January 1955, Manson married a hospital waitress named Rosalie Jean Willis.[19] Around October, about three months after he and his pregnant wife arrived in Los Angeles in a car he had stolen in Ohio, Manson was again charged with a federal crime for taking the vehicle across state lines. After a psychiatric evaluation, he was given five years' probation. Manson's failure to appear at a Los Angeles hearing on an identical charge filed in Florida resulted in his March 1956 arrest in Indianapolis. His probation was revoked; he was sentenced to three years' imprisonment at Terminal Island, San Pedro, California.[4]:137–146

While Manson was in prison, Rosalie gave birth to their son Charles Manson Jr. During his first year at Terminal Island, Manson received visits from Rosalie and his mother, who were now living together in Los Angeles. In March 1957, when the visits from his wife ceased, his mother informed him Rosalie was living with another man. Less than two weeks before a scheduled parole hearing, Manson tried to escape by stealing a car. He was given five years' probation and his parole was denied.[4]:137–146

Second imprisonment[]

Manson received five years' parole in September 1958, the same year in which Rosalie received a decree of divorce. By November, he was pimping a 16-year-old girl and was receiving additional support from a girl with wealthy parents. In September 1959, he pleaded guilty to a charge of attempting to cash a forged U.S. Treasury check, which he claimed to have stolen from a mailbox; the latter charge was later dropped. He received a 10-year suspended sentence and probation after a young woman named Leona, who had an arrest record for prostitution, made a "tearful plea" before the court that she and Manson were "deeply in love ... and would marry if Charlie were freed".[4]:137–146 Before the year's end, the woman did marry Manson, possibly so she would not be required to testify against him.[4]:137–146

Manson took Leona and another woman to New Mexico for purposes of prostitution, resulting in him being held and questioned for violating the Mann Act. Though he was released, Manson correctly suspected that the investigation had not ended. When he disappeared in violation of his probation, a bench warrant was issued. An indictment for violation of the Mann Act followed in April 1960.[4]:137–146 When one of the women was arrested for prostitution, Manson was arrested in June in Laredo, Texas, and was returned to Los Angeles. For violating his probation on the check-cashing charge, he was ordered to serve his ten year sentence.[4]:137–146

Manson spent a year trying unsuccessfully to appeal the revocation of his probation. In July 1961, he was transferred from the Los Angeles County Jail to the United States Penitentiary at McNeil Island, Washington. There, he took guitar lessons from Barker–Karpis gang leader Alvin "Creepy" Karpis, and obtained a contact name of someone at Universal Studios in Hollywood from another inmate, Phil Kaufman.[20] According to Jeff Guinn's 2013 biography of Manson, his mother moved to Washington State to be closer to him during his McNeil Island incarceration, working nearby as a waitress.[21]

Although the Mann Act charge had been dropped, the attempt to cash the Treasury check was still a federal offense. Manson's September 1961 annual review noted he had a "tremendous drive to call attention to himself", an observation echoed in September 1964.[4]:137–146 In 1963 Leona was granted a divorce. During the process she alleged that she and Manson had a son, Charles Luther.[4]:137–146 According to a popular urban legend, Manson auditioned unsuccessfully for the Monkees in late 1965; this is refuted by the fact that Manson was still incarcerated at McNeil Island at that time.[22]

In June 1966, Manson was sent for the second time to Terminal Island in preparation for early release. By the time of his release day on March 21, 1967, he had spent more than half of his 32 years in prisons and other institutions. This was mainly because he had broken federal laws. Federal sentences were, and remain, much more severe than state sentences for many of the same offenses.[4]:137–146 Telling the authorities that prison had become his home, he requested permission to stay.[4]:137–146

1968–1971: Cult formation, murders, and trial[]

Manson's
1969 mug shot

Once discharged from prison, Manson began attracting a group of followers, mostly young women, from around California. They were later dubbed the "Manson Family". The group was involved in the murder of Gary Hinman in July 1969, then gained national notoriety after the murder of actress Sharon Tate and four others in her home on August 9, 1969,[23] and Leno and Rosemary LaBianca the next day. Tex Watson and three other members of the Family executed the Tate-LaBianca murders, acting under Manson's specific instructions.[24][25] Family members were also responsible for other assaults, thefts, crimes, and the attempted assassination of United States President Gerald Ford in Sacramento by Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme.[26]

On March 6, 1970, (the day the court vacated Manson's status as his own attorney),[4]:258–269 LIE, an album of Manson music, was released.[27][28][29] This included "Cease to Exist", a Manson composition the Beach Boys had recorded with modified lyrics and the title "Never Learn Not to Love".[30][31] Over the next couple of months only about 300 of the album's 2,000 copies sold.[32]

1971–2017: Third imprisonment[]

Sentencing[]

Manson was admitted to state prison from Los Angeles County on April 22, 1971, for seven counts of first-degree murder and one count of conspiracy to commit murder for the deaths of Abigail Ann Folger, Wojciech Frykowski, Steven Earl Parent, Sharon Tate Polanski, Jay Sebring and Leno and Rosemary LaBianca. He was sentenced to death. When the death penalty was ruled unconstitutional in 1972, he was resentenced to life with the possibility of parole. His original death sentence was modified to life on February 2, 1977.

On December 13, 1971, Manson was convicted of first-degree murder in Los Angeles County Court for the July 25, 1969 death of musician Gary Hinman. He was also convicted of first-degree murder for the August 1969 death of Donald Jerome "Shorty" Shea. A footnote to the conclusion of California v. Anderson, the 1972 decision that neutralized California's death sentences, stated that, "any prisoner now under a sentence of death … may file a petition for writ of habeas corpus in the superior court inviting that court to modify its judgment to provide for the appropriate alternative punishment of life imprisonment or life imprisonment without possibility of parole specified by statute for the crime for which he was sentenced to death."[33] This made Manson eligible to apply for parole after seven years' incarceration.[4]:488 Accordingly, his first parole hearing took place on November 16, 1978, at California Medical Facility in Vacaville, and his petition was rejected.[4]:498[34]

1980s–1990s[]

Folsom State Prison, one of Manson's lockups

In the 1980s, Manson gave four interviews to the mainstream media. The first, recorded at California Medical Facility and aired June 13, 1981, was by Tom Snyder for NBC's The Tomorrow Show. The second, recorded at San Quentin State Prison and aired March 7, 1986, was by Charlie Rose for CBS News Nightwatch; it won the national news Emmy Award for Best Interview in 1987.[35] The third, with Geraldo Rivera in 1988, was part of the journalist's prime-time special on Satanism.[36] At least as early as the Snyder interview, Manson's forehead bore a swastika in the spot where the X carved during his trial had been.[37]

Nikolas Schreck conducted an interview with Manson for his documentary Charles Manson Superstar (1989). Schreck concluded that Manson was not insane but merely acting that way out of frustration.[38][39]

On September 25, 1984, Manson was imprisoned in the California Medical Facility at Vacaville when inmate Jan Holmstrom poured paint thinner on him and set him on fire, causing second- and third-degree burns on over 20 percent of his body. Holmstrom explained that Manson had objected to his Hare Krishna chants and verbally threatened him.[4]:497

After 1989, Manson was housed in the Protective Housing Unit at California State Prison, Corcoran, in Kings County. The unit houses inmates whose safety would be endangered by general population housing. He had also been housed at San Quentin State Prison,[35] California Medical Facility in Vacaville,[4]:497 Folsom State Prison and Pelican Bay State Prison.[40][citation needed] In June 1997, a prison disciplinary committee found that Manson had been trafficking drugs.[40] That August he was moved from Corcoran State Prison to Pelican Bay State Prison.[40]

2000s–2017[]

Manson, age 76, June 2011

On September 5, 2007, MSNBC aired The Mind of Manson, a complete version of a 1987 interview at California's San Quentin State Prison. The footage of the "unshackled, unapologetic, and unruly" Manson had been considered "so unbelievable" that only seven minutes of it had originally been broadcast on The Today Show, for which it had been recorded.[41]

In March 2009, a photograph of Manson showing a receding hairline, grizzled gray beard and hair, and the swastika tattoo still prominent on his forehead was released to the public by California corrections officials.[42]

In 2010, the Los Angeles Times reported that Manson was caught with a cell phone in 2009 and had contacted people in California, New Jersey, Florida and British Columbia. A spokesperson for the California Department of Corrections stated that it was not known if Manson had used the phone for criminal purposes.[43] Manson also recorded an album of acoustic pop songs with additional production by Henry Rollins, titled Completion. Only five copies were pressed: two belong to Rollins, while the other three are presumed to have been with Manson. The album remains unreleased.[44]

Illness and death[]

On January 1, 2017, Manson was suffering from gastrointestinal bleeding at California State Prison in Corcoran when he was rushed to Mercy Hospital in downtown Bakersfield. A source told the Los Angeles Times that Manson was seriously ill,[45] and TMZ reported his doctors considered him "too weak" for surgery.[46] He was returned to prison by January 6; whatever treatment he had received was not disclosed.[47]

On November 15, 2017, a source not authorized to speak on behalf of the corrections department confirmed that Manson had returned to a hospital in Bakersfield.[48] In compliance with federal and state medical privacy laws, the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation did not confirm this.[49] He died from cardiac arrest resulting from respiratory failure and colon cancer at the hospital four days later on November 19.[50][51][52][53]

Three people have stated their intention to claim Manson's estate and body.[54][55][56] Manson's grandson, Jason Freeman, stated his intent to take possession of Manson's remains and personal effects.[57] Michael Channels, a pen pal of Manson, has a will, dated February 14, 2002, that leaves Manson's entire estate plus his body to him.[58][59] A friend of Manson's, Ben Gurecki, has a will dated January 2017. It gives the estate and Manson's body to his alleged son, Matthew Roberts.[54][55] In 2012, CNN News ran a DNA match to see if Freeman and Roberts were related to each other and found they were not. (Matches between Roberts and Manson were attempted but the results were reportedly "contaminated".)[60] On March 12, 2018, the Kern County Superior Court in California decided in favor of Freeman in regard to Manson's body. Freeman had previously said he would have Manson cremated, and, in fact, did so on March 20, 2018.[61]

Personal life[]

Beliefs[]

In 1974 Manson stated his religion was Scientology.[62]

Relationships and alleged child[]

In 2009, a Los Angeles disk jockey and songwriter named Matthew Roberts released correspondence and other evidence indicating that he might be Manson's biological son. Roberts's biological mother claims to have been a member of the Manson Family who left in mid-1967 after being raped by Manson; she returned to her parents' home to complete the pregnancy, gave birth on March 22, 1968, and put Roberts up for adoption. Manson himself stated that he "could" be the father, acknowledging the biological mother and a sexual relationship with her during 1967, nearly two years before the Family began its murderous phase.[63]

In 2014, it was announced that the imprisoned Manson was engaged to 26-year-old Afton Elaine "Star" Burton and had obtained a marriage license on November 7.[64] Manson personally dubbed Burton with the name "Star". She had been visiting Manson in prison for at least nine years, and maintained several websites that proclaimed his innocence.[65] The wedding license expired on February 5, 2015, without a marriage ceremony taking place.[66] It was later reported, according to journalist Daniel Simone, the wedding was cancelled after it was discovered Burton only wanted to marry Manson so she and a friend, Craig "Gray Wolf" Hammond, could use his corpse as a tourist attraction after his death.[66][67] According to Simone, Manson believed he would never die, and may simply have used the possibility of marriage as a way to encourage Burton and Hammond to continue visiting him and bringing him gifts. Together with co-author Heidi Jordan Ley, and with the assistance of some of Manson's fellow prisoners, Simone wrote a book about Manson and was seeking a publisher for it. Burton said on her web site that the reason the marriage did not take place is merely logistical. Manson was suffering from an infection and had been in a prison medical facility for two months, and could not receive visitors. She said she still hoped the marriage license would be renewed and the marriage would take place.[66]

Psychology[]

On April 11, 2012, Manson was denied release at his 12th parole hearing, which he did not attend. After his March 27, 1997 parole hearing, Manson refused to attend any of his later hearings. The panel at that hearing noted that Manson had a "history of controlling behavior" and "mental health issues" including schizophrenia and paranoid delusional disorder, and was too great a danger to be released.[68] The panel also noted that Manson had received 108 rules violation reports, had no indication of remorse, no insight into the causative factors of the crimes, lacked understanding of the magnitude of the crimes, had an exceptional, callous disregard for human suffering and had no parole plans.[69] It was determined that Manson would not be reconsidered for parole for another 15 years (i.e. not before 2027, at which time he would have been 92 years old).[70]

Legacy[]

Cultural impact[]

Beginning in January 1970, Manson was embraced by the underground newspapers Los Angeles Free Press and Tuesday's Child, with the latter proclaiming him "Man of the Year". In June 1970, he was the subject of a Rolling Stone cover story, "Charles Manson: The Incredible Story of the Most Dangerous Man Alive".[71] When a Rolling Stone writer visited the Los Angeles District Attorney's office in preparing that story,[72] he was shocked by a photograph of the bloody "Healter [sic] Skelter" that would bind Manson to popular culture.[73] Prosecutor Vincent Bugliosi pointed out the dispute in the underground press over whether Manson was "Christ returned" or "a sick symbol of our times"[where?] to his Helter Skelter co-author, Curt Gentry. Bernardine Dohrn, a leader of the Weather Underground, reportedly said of the Tate murders: "Dig it, first they killed those pigs, then they ate dinner in the same room with them, then they even shoved a fork into a victim's stomach. Wild!"[74]

In an afterword composed for the 1994 ion of the non-fiction book Helter Skelter, Bugliosi quoted a BBC employee's assertion that a "neo-Manson cult" existing then in Europe was represented by, among other things, approximately 70 rock bands playing songs by Manson and "songs in support of him".[4]:488–491

Music[]

There have been several releases of Manson recordings – both musical and spoken. One of these, The Family Jams, includes two compact discs of Manson's songs recorded by the Family in 1970, after Manson and the others had been arrested. Guitar and lead vocals are supplied by Steve Grogan;[4]:125–127 additional vocals are supplied by Lynette Fromme, Sandra Good, Catherine Share, and others.[75] One Mind, an album of music, poetry, and spoken word, new at the time of its release, in April 2005, was put out under a Creative Commons license.[76][77]

American rock band Guns N' Roses recorded Manson's "Look at Your Game, Girl", included as an unlisted 13th track on their 1993 album "The Spaghetti Incident?"[4]:488–491[78][79] "My Monkey", which appears on Portrait of an American Family by the American rock band Marilyn Manson, includes the lyrics "I had a little monkey / I sent him to the country and I fed him on gingerbread / Along came a choo-choo / Knocked my monkey cuckoo / And now my monkey's dead." These lyrics are from Manson's "Mechanical Man",[80] which is heard on LIE. Crispin Glover covered "Never Say 'Never' To Always" on his album The Big Problem ≠ The Solution. The Solution = Let It Be released in 1989.

Musical performers such as Kasabian,[81] Spahn Ranch,[82] and Marilyn Manson[83] derived their names from Manson and his lore.

Documentaries[]

Fiction inspired by Manson[]

See also[]

References[]

Notes

  1. ^ Dillon, Nancy. "Charles Manson's cause of death revealed as battle over his remains continues  - NY Daily News". nydailynews.com. Archived from the original on January 27, 2018. Retrieved May 27, 2018. 
  2. ^ Woods, Jared (November 21, 2017). "15 Lesser-Known Facts About The Late Charles Manson". The Clever. Archived from the original on November 29, 2017. 
  3. ^ "Internet Accuracy Project: Charles Manson, a website dedicated to providing accurate information on the web". Accuracyproject.org. Retrieved October 28, 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Bugliosi, Vincent with Gentry, Curt. Helter Skelter – The True Story of the Manson Murders 25th Anniversary Edition, W.W. Norton & Company, 1994. ISBN 0-393-08700-X. oclc=15164618.
  5. ^ Emmons, Nuel. Manson in His Own Words. Archived May 3, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Grove Press, New York; 1988. ISBN 0-8021-3024-0, p. 28. (If link does not go directly to page 28, scroll to it; "no name Maddox" is highlighted.)
  6. ^ a b Smith, Dave. Mother Tells Life of Manson as Boy. 1971 article; retrieved June 5, 2007.
  7. ^ Reitwiesner, William Addams. Provisional ancestry of Charles Manson Archived March 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.; retrieved April 26, 2007.
  8. ^ "Internet Accuracy Project: Charles Manson". Accuracyproject.org. Retrieved October 28, 2012. 
  9. ^ Guinn p.22
  10. ^ a b Guinn p.23
  11. ^ Guinn p.27
  12. ^ "Long Before Little Charlie Became the Face of Evil". The New York Times. August 7, 2013. Archived from the original on September 30, 2015. Retrieved January 7, 2016. 
  13. ^ Guinn p.36
  14. ^ Guinn pp.37-42
  15. ^ Guinn pp.42-43
  16. ^ Guinn p.43
  17. ^ a b Guinn p.45
  18. ^ Guinn p.52
  19. ^ Emmons, Nuel. Manson in His Own Words. Grove Press, New York (1988); ISBN 0-8021-3024-0
  20. ^ "Short Bits 2 – Charles Manson and the Beach Boys". Lost in the Grooves. Archived from the original on July 18, 2012. Retrieved July 2, 2012. 
  21. ^ Rule, Ann (August 18, 2013). "There Will Be Blood". The New York Times Book Review (August 18, 2013): 14. 
  22. ^ "Did Charles Manson Audition for The Monkees?". snopes.com. Retrieved July 5, 2018. 
  23. ^ Renee, Alexa (November 2, 2017). "The Manson family: Who are they and where are they now?". KXTV. Archived from the original on March 31, 2017. Retrieved November 5, 2017. 
  24. ^ Lawrence, Jonelle (June 14, 2015). "Manson Family murders: Key players in the Tate-LaBianca killings". ABC7 Los Angeles. Archived from the original on June 17, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2017. 
  25. ^ Hamilton, Matt (April 15, 2016). "Manson follower's chilling murder description: 'We started stabbing and cutting up the lady'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 5, 2017. 
  26. ^ Schmidt, Dick (September 5, 2017). "'Pure luck' led to famous photo of would-be President Ford assassin". The Sacramento Bee. Archived from the original on September 5, 2017. Retrieved November 5, 2017. 
  27. ^ Sanders 2002, 336.
  28. ^ Lie: The Love And Terror Cult Archived February 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.. ASIN: B000005X1J. Amazon.com. Access date: November 23, 2007.
  29. ^ Syndicated column re LIE release Mike Jahn, August 1970.
  30. ^ Sanders 2002, 64–65.
  31. ^ Dennis Wilson interview Archived December 15, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Circus magazine, October 26, 1976. Retrieved December 1, 2007.
  32. ^ Rolling Stone story on Manson, June 1970 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 23, 2016. Retrieved August 25, 2017.  "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 23, 2016. Retrieved August 25, 2017. 
  33. ^ People v. Anderson, 493 P.2d 880, 6 Cal. 3d 628 (Cal. 1972), footnote (45) to final sentence of majority opinion. Retrieved April 7, 2008.
  34. ^ "Charles Manson Family and Sharon Tate-Labianca Murders – Cielodrive.com". Retrieved April 24, 2012. 
  35. ^ a b Joynt, Carol. Diary of a Mad Saloon Owner Archived July 14, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.. April–May 2005.
  36. ^ "Rivera's 'Devil Worship' was TV at its Worst". Review by Tom Shales. San Jose Mercury News, October 31, 1988.
  37. ^ Itzkoff, Dave (July 31, 2007). "Hearts and Souls Dissected, in 12 Minutes or Less". New York Times. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved October 31, 2009. Appraisal of Tom Snyder, upon his death. Includes photograph of Manson with swastika on forehead during 1981 interview. 
  38. ^ Charles Manson Superstar, 1989.
  39. ^ Interano Radio "Interview with Nikolas Schreck", August 1988.
  40. ^ a b c "Manson moved to a tougher prison after drug charge". Sun Journal. Lewiston, Maine. AP. August 22, 1997. p. 7A. Retrieved January 16, 2013. 
  41. ^ Transcript, MSNBC Live Archived November 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.. September 5, 2007. Retrieved November 21, 2007.
  42. ^ "New prison photo of Charles Manson released". CNN. March 20, 2009. Archived from the original on July 29, 2009. Retrieved July 21, 2009. 
  43. ^ Wilson, Greg (December 3, 2010). ""Cell" Phone: Charles Manson Busted with a Mobile". Nbclosangeles.com. Archived from the original on October 19, 2012. Retrieved October 28, 2012. 
  44. ^ Michaels, Sean (December 15, 2010). "Henry Rollins produced Charles Manson album". The Guardian. Archived from the original on October 29, 2017. 
  45. ^ Winton, Richard; Hamilton, Matt; Branson-Potts, Hailey (January 4, 2017). "Killer Charles Manson's failing health renews focus on cult murder saga". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on January 5, 2017. Retrieved January 4, 2017. 
  46. ^ "US killer Manson 'too weak' for surgery". RTÉ. January 7, 2017. Archived from the original on January 8, 2017. Retrieved January 7, 2017. 
  47. ^ Winton, Richard; Christensen, Kim (January 7, 2017). "Charles Manson is returned to prison after stay at Bakersfield hospital". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on January 7, 2017. Retrieved January 7, 2017. 
  48. ^ Tchekmedyian, Alene (November 15, 2017). "Charles Manson hospitalized in Bakersfield; severity of illness unclear". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 16, 2017. 
  49. ^ Desk, Scripps National (November 17, 2017). "Charles Manson's condition still unannounced". Archived from the original on November 18, 2017. 
  50. ^ "Manson died of 'cardiac arrest after cancer battle' death certificate reveals". thesun.co.uk. December 12, 2017. Archived from the original on January 8, 2018. Retrieved May 27, 2018. 
  51. ^ "Charles Manson Dead at 83". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on November 20, 2017. 
  52. ^ "Charles Manson Dead at 83". TMZ. November 19, 2017. Archived from the original on November 20, 2017. 
  53. ^ "Inmate Charles Manson Dies of Natural Causes". California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. Archived from the original on November 20, 2017. 
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Bibliography

Further reading[]

External links[]