|Socialist Republic of Macedonia|
Социјалистичка Република Македонија
|Constituent republic of Yugoslavia|
Anthem: Денес над Македонија
Denes nad Makedonija
Today Over Macedonia
Macedonia within Yugoslavia
|Status||Constituent republic of Yugoslavia|
|Historical era||Cold War|
|2 August 1945|
|8 May 1945|
|1991||25,713 km2 (9,928 sq mi)|
|ISO 3166 code||MK|
The Socialist Republic of Macedonia (Macedonian: Социјалистичка Република Македонија, translit. Socijalistička Republika Makedonija) was one of the six constituent countries of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and a socialist nation state of the Macedonians. After the transition of the political system to parliamentary democracy in 1990, the Republic changed its official name to Republic of Macedonia in 1991, and with the beginning of the breakup of Yugoslavia, it declared itself an independent country on September 8, 1991.
The first Macedonian state was formally proclaimed under the name Democratic Federal Macedonia (Macedonian: Демократска Федерална Македонија, translit. Demokratska Federalna Makedonija) at the First Plenary Session of the Anti-Fascist Assembly for the People's Liberation of Macedonia (ANSOM) during the National Liberation War of Macedonia in World War II. It was set up on August 2, 1944 in the Bulgarian occupation zone in Yugoslavia. This date is now celebrated by ethnic Macedonians as the day they were first allowed to freely state their nationality. It was chosen intentionally, as it was the date of the Ilinden Uprising against the Ottoman rule in 1903. However, after Bulgarian army retreat under Sovjet pressure, on September 8, right-wing IMRO nationalists declared pro-German Macedonian puppet-state. In the early October, Under the leadership of the new Bulgarian pro-Soviet government, Bulgarian army reentered Yugoslavia to blocking the German forces withdrawing from Greece. In Macedonia the Bulgarians operated in conjunction with the fighters of the People's Liberation Army of Macedonia.
Vardar Macedonia was de facto liberated from the Germans and their collaborationists in late November 1944, so the ASNOM became operational in December, shortly after the German retreat. Nevertheless in December anti-communist Albanian nationalists in Western Macedonia tried to remain in control of the region after the Yugoslav Partisans announced victory. They aimed to resist incorporation of the area into communist Yugoslavia and it was only early 1945 that the Yugoslav Partisans were able to establish their control over the mountainous area. By the early 1945, the Yugoslav Partisans were still clearing out Axis forces and seizing the remaining parts of occupied Yugoslav territory. By the end of April 1945 the most northern parts of Yugoslavia were seized by them. The nature of the new Yugoslav state was still unclear immediately after the war. Yugoslavia was envisioned by the Partisans as a "Democratic Federation", including six federal states. When Tito's nomination as a Premier was accepted on November 29, 1945, FNRY was declared, with its constitution coming into force in 1946. As result Macedonia changed its name to the People's Republic of Macedonia and was incorporated as a constituent republic in the Yugoslav Federation.
However, some people were against the federation and demanded greater independence from the federal authorities, leading to their prosecution. One of the notable victims of these purges was the first president, Metodija Andonov - Čento. On the other hand the Macedonian national feelings were ripe at that time, but some researchers argue that even then, it was questionable whether the majority of the Macedonian Slavs considered themselves to be a nationality separate from the Bulgarians. To wipe out the remnants from Bulgarophile sentiments, the Communists started a remarkable process of nation-building. So people who were at some degree pro-Bulgarian oriented, were purged from their positions, then isolated, arrested and imprisoned on fabricated charges. The number of the victims is estimated to 50 000, including those killed, imprisoned, deported, sent to forced labor, tortured, etc. More purges followed after the Tito-Stalin split.
The state was formed on the territory of Vardar Macedonia, a part of the wider geographical region of Macedonia, which was divided between several countries. Some ethnic Macedonian politicians from the Republic advocated the idea of United Macedonia, which would include Aegean Macedonia and Pirin Macedonia. The idea was somewhat supported by the federal Yugoslav authorities on some occasions, or repressed, depending on the regional and international political constellation.
In 1963, the name of the state was changed to the Socialist Republic of Macedonia.
The Socialist Republic of Macedonia, which was defined as a nation-state of the ethnic Macedonians and also, a state of its ethnic minorities, had some powers normally associated with an independent state. The Constitution also recognised the right of self-determination and secession. The borders of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia could only be changed by a decision of the republic's parliament. Its inhabitants held both Yugoslav citizenship and an internal Macedonian citizenship for state business.
The Socialist Republic of Macedonia had its own constitution, presidency, government, parliament, official language, state symbols, Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Secretariat of Internal Affairs (Interior ministry), Bureau for Foreign Relations (a Ministry of Foreign Affairs) and other state prerogatives. Also, the Socialist Republic of Macedonia had its own Territorial Defence armed forces (Macedonian: Територијална одбрана, Teritorijalna odbrana).
The Socialist Republic of Macedonia was a one-party communist state, the ruling political party was the League of Communists of Macedonia (in Macedonian: Сојуз на Комунистите на Македонија, Sojuz na Komunistite na Makedonija, abbreviation: СКМ, SKM). Being a constituent country of SFR Yugoslavia, a leading founder of the Non-Aligned Movement, SR Macedonia pursued a neutral foreign policy and maintained a more liberal communist system compared to the other communist states. The ruling ideology was based on Titoism and Workers' self-management (Macedonian: самоуправување, samoupravuvanje).
While the ethnic Macedonians were the majority and were one of the constituent nations of SFR Yugoslavia (official term: narod) the rights of the ethnic minorities (official term: narodnosti) were guaranteed by the Constitution. The official language of SR Macedonia was Macedonian, however Macedonian Albanians and Macedonian Turks had the right to use their own languages within the school system and the media. The constitution of the SR Macedonia defined the state as the national state of the ethnic Macedonians, but also as the state of Albanians and Turks.
From the start of the Yugoslav Macedonia, accusations surfaced that the new authorities were involved in retribution against people who did not support the formation of the new Macedonian national identity. The number of the victims due to organized killings of Bulgarians is unclear. Bulgarian sources claim that thousands of people were killed after 1944 and that more than 100,000 people were put in prison under the "Law for the protection of Macedonian national honor". In SR Macedonia the Bulgarophobia increased to the level of State ideology.
Although the ruling communists discouraged religion, religious freedom was allowed to a certain extent. The authorities allowed the existence of the Macedonian Orthodox Church, which proclaimed autocephaly in 1967. In 1972 the construction of the largest orthodox church St. Clement of Ohrid in the capital of Skopje began. Muslims, Catholics, Protestants and other religious communities also could maintain their own organisations and places of worship.
The Socialist Republic of Macedonia was the 4th largest constituent country of SFR Yugoslavia both by area and population. Within Yugoslavia, it had an internal border with the Socialist Republic of Serbia in the north and its subunit the Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo in the north-west and international borders with Greece in the south, the People's Republic of Bulgaria in the east and the People's Socialist Republic of Albania in the west.
In 1990, the form of government peacefully changed from socialist state to parliamentary democracy. The first pluralist elections were held on November 11, 1990. The once ruling communist party took a reformist direction and renamed itself League of Communists of Macedonia - Party for Democratic Change led by Petar Gošev. After the head of the last communist presidency Vladimir Mitkov resigned, Kiro Gligorov became the first democratically elected president of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia on January 31, 1991.[a] On April 16, 1991, the parliament adopted a constitutional amendment removing "Socialist" from the official name of the entity, and on June 7, 1991, the same year, the new name, Republic of Macedonia, was officially established. After the process of dissolution of Yugoslavia began, Macedonia issued a Sovereignty Declaration on January 25, 1991 and later, proclaimed itself a fully independent country, following a referendum held on September 8, 1991.
The Republic of Macedonia is the legal successor to the Socialist Republic of Macedonia.
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This post was established in 1991 after the dissolution of the collective presidency
Prvi člen Ustave SR Makedonije (Ustav na SRM, 1974) je SRM definiral kot nacionalno državo makedonskega naroda ter albanske in turške narodnosti v njej. V členih 220 in 222 je bilo zapisano, da ljudje lahko prosto uporabljajo svoj jezik in pisavo za izražanje in razvijanje svoje kulture.— Vidovič-Muha, 2003., 163.
Poleg tega so makedonske (in slovenske) javne osebe v okvirih SFRJ (zunaj SR Makedonije oziroma SR Slovenije) zelo redko upoštevale pravico do uporabe svojega jezika v javnem sporazumevanju, in to je dajalo vtis, da je edini uradni jezik na ravni države SFRJ srbohrvaščina.— Vidovič-Muha, 2003., 164.