Ska punk

Ska punk (also spelled ska-punk) is a fusion genre that mixes ska music and punk rock music together. Ska-core (sometimes spelled skacore) is a subgenre of ska punk that mixes ska with hardcore punk. Early ska punk mixed both 2 tone and ska with hardcore punk. Ska punk tends to feature brass instruments, especially horns such as trumpets, trombones and woodwind instruments like saxophones, making the genre distinct from other forms of punk rock. It is closely tied to third wave ska which reached its zenith in the mid-1990s.

Before ska punk began, many ska bands and punk rock bands performed on the same bills together and performed to the same audiences. Some music groups from the late 1970s and early 1980s, such as the Clash, the Deadbeats, the Specials, the Beat, and Madness fused characteristics of punk rock and ska, but many of these were either punk bands playing an occasional ska-flavored song, or are usually considered 2-tone ska bands who played faster songs with a punk attitude. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, ska-punk enjoyed its greatest success, heralded by bands such as Fishbone, the Mighty Mighty Bosstones, Sublime, Less Than Jake, and more.

Ska punk had significant mainstream success in the middle-to-late 1990s, with many bands topping pop and rock music charts. The best-selling ska punk record of the era was No Doubt's Tragic Kingdom, which was certified diamond by the RIAA in 1999 and was certified diamond by Music Canada in 1997. By the early 2000s, many of the bands in ska punk had broken up, and the genre lost mainstream appeal, though it continued to have underground popularity and featured a revival in the late 2010s with bands like the Interrupters returning to chart success, when their song "She's Kerosene" reached the top 5 on alternative and rock music charts in Canada and the US.

Characteristics[]

Ska punk combines ska music with punk rock music.[2] Ska-core is a subgenre of ska punk that blends ska with hardcore punk.[3] Early ska punk combined both 2 tone and ska with hardcore punk.[4] Ska punk often features wind instruments, especially horns[5] such as saxophones, trombones[6] and trumpets, making the genre distinct from other forms of punk rock. It is similar to traditional Jamaican ska, but faster and heavier.[5]

History[]

Predecessors and early development (Late 1970s, 1980s, and early 1990s)[]

Ska punk band Operation Ivy performing live at 924 Gilman Street in 1988

Before ska punk started, many ska bands and punk rock bands performed on the same bills together and appealed to the same audiences.[7] A ska revival occurred simultaneously around the beginning of British punk rock and the near-simultaneous rebirth of the late 1970s British mod and skinhead movements.[8] During the late 1970s and early 1980s in United Kingdom, many punk rock bands mixed punk rock with ska influences. Pioneering punk rock band the Clash incorporated influences from ska alongside a range of other genres on their seminal 1979 post-punk album London Calling.[9] Songs like 1978's "Kill the Hippies" by the Deadbeats prominently featured horns, although there are no ska elements. Other British bands that were influenced by both punk rock and ska included the Specials, the Beat and Madness. With both films like the 1981 documentary film Dance Craze and supportive radio stations like Los Angeles, California's KROQ, ska crossed the Atlantic.[8] Many early ska punk bands mixed 2 tone with hardcore punk. During the 1980s, ska punk was underground. However, Fishbone, one of the earliest ska punk bands, achieved moderate success.[4] Other ska punk bands from the 1980s and early 1990s include Operation Ivy,[10] Culture Shock,[11] Voodoo Glow Skulls,[12] the Porkers,[13] Sublime,[14] Citizen Fish,[15] the Mighty Mighty Bosstones,[16] the Suicide Machines, MU330 and Dance Hall Crashers.[17]

Ska punk band No Doubt performing in Worcester, Massachusetts, United States.
Ska punk band the Mighty Mighty Bosstones performing in 2008

Mainstream success (Mid–late 1990s)[]

Ska punk broke into the mainstream in the mid-1990s with bands such as Sublime, No Doubt, Goldfinger, the Mighty Mighty Bosstones, Less Than Jake and Rancid all achieving mainstream success. Sublime's song "Date Rape" became a hit on major California alternative rock radio stations.[18] However, Sublime did not reach its peak of popularity until 1996 with the release of the band's 1996 self-titled album, which was certified 5× platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) in 1999.[19] Because of Sublime's popularity, the band's album 40oz. to Freedom was certified 2× platinum by the RIAA in 2005.[20]

Another ska punk band that achieved mainstream success during the mid-late 1990s was No Doubt. No Doubt's 1995 album Tragic Kingdom was certified diamond by the RIAA in 1999[21] and was certified diamond by Music Canada in 1997.[22] Tragic Kingdom sold at least 16,000,000 copies worldwide.[23] Rancid's song "Time Bomb" peaked at number 48 on the Billboard Hot 100 Airplay chart[24] and the band's 1994 album ...And Out Come the Wolves was certified platinum by the RIAA.[25] Reel Big Fish's album Turn the Radio Off, which was released in August 1996, was certified gold by the RIAA in November 1997.[26] Reel Big Fish's song "Sell Out" peaked at number 69 on the Billboard Hot 100 Airplay chart.[27] Goldfinger's song "Here in Your Bedroom" peaked at number 47 on the Billboard Hot 100 Airplay chart.[28] The Mighty Mighty Bosstones achieved mainstream success in 1997; their song "The Impression That I Get" peaked at number 23 on the Billboard Hot 100 Airplay chart,[29] number 19 on the Mainstream Top 40 chart,[30] and number 17 on the Adult Pop Songs chart.[31] Also, the Mighty Mighty Bosstones' song "The Rascal King" peaked at number 68 on the Billboard Hot 100 Airplay chart.[29] The Mighty Mighty Bosstones' album Let's Face It, which was released in March 1997, was certified platinum by the RIAA in September 1997.[32] In 2000, Billboard wrote that according to Nielsen SoundScan, Let's Face It sold 1,700,000 copies.[33]

Decline (2000s–early 2010s) and revival (late 2010s–present)[]

Ska and reggae influenced rock music retreated to niche status by the first decade of the 2000s, with many major acts, such as the Mighty Mighty Bosstones taking an extended hiatus, and chart success eluded most bands of the genre. Some acts continued to produce such music through the decade, spearheaded by groups from Southern California (the home of ska-punk pioneers Sublime) such as Slightly Stoopid, Long Beach Shortbus, Long Beach Dub Allstars, and Tribal Seeds. Chart success returned in 2018 when The Interrupters scored a minor hit with their song "She's Kerosene", that peaked at No. 4 on the Billboard Alternative Songs chart and No. 1 on the RPM Canadian rock/alternative chart.[34] Detroit ska punk outfit the Suicide Machines released a new album titled "Revolution Spring", released in March 2020 on Fat Wreck Chords. The Planet Smashers released "Too Much Information" on Stomp Records in 2019 and continue to play shows in the U.S. and Canada. The duo 100 Gecs incorporated ska punk elements into their 2019 song "Stupid Horse" from their self-titled album.[35]

Ann Arbor, Michigan–based[36] ska punk band We Are the Union released "Self Care" in 2018[37] and tour frequently. Their trombone player, Jeremy Hunter, has their own YouTube channel called Skatune Network. They post ska and ska punk covers of a multitude of different songs ranging from video game soundtracks[38][39][40][41] and cartoon songs[42][43] to pop punk[44] and more.[45][46] The channel has a significant international following online and has released multiple albums of the songs.[41][47][48][49] Buck-O-Nine released a new album titled: "Fundaymental" in 2019. Other artists that continue to tour or put out music on a regular basis include: Kill Lincoln, Omnigone, Catbite, Big D and the Kids Table, Five Iron Frenzy, Pilfers, Mad Caddies, Voodoo Glow Skulls, Joystick, Mike Park's The Bruce Lee Band, Tape Girl,[50] Noise Complaint, Skatsune Miku, Monkey, and the Interrupters.

See also[]

References[]

Citations[]

  1. ^ GENTILE, JOHN. "Sonic Reducer: Crack Rock Steady". Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  2. ^ "Ska Revival". AllMusic. Archived from the original on 9 December 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2011.
  3. ^ Drozdowski, Ted (May 2000). "United Colors of Beantown". CMJ New Music Monthly. No. 81. p. 47. Cut for cut, Pay Attention is another step in songwriting evolution for the once-plaid-clad architects of the fusion of punk rock and Afro-Caribbean dance music known as skacore.
  4. ^ a b "Ska-Punk". AllMusic.
  5. ^ a b Cooper, Ryan. "The Subgenres of Punk Rock". About.com.
  6. ^ Walker 2016, p. 74.
  7. ^ Marciniak 2015, p. xxxiii.
  8. ^ a b Diehl 2013, p. 46.
  9. ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. Ska punk at AllMusic. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  10. ^ "Operation Ivy | Biography & History". AllMusic.
  11. ^ Sacher, Andrew (6 July 2016). "Culture Shock released their first album in 27 years, touring with World/Inferno". BrooklynVegan.
  12. ^ Bush, John. "Voodoo Glow Skulls | Biography & History". AllMusic.
  13. ^ Anderson, Rick. "Grunt! – The Porkers". AllMusic.
  14. ^ Blakinger, Keri (22 February 2016). "Six Sublime songs that maintain relevance today". NY Daily News.
  15. ^ "Citizen Fish | Biography & History". AllMusic.
  16. ^ "The Mighty Mighty Bosstones | Biography & History". AllMusic.
  17. ^ Ankeny, Jason. "Dance Hall Crashers | Biography & History". AllMusic.
  18. ^ Diehl2013, p. 47.
  19. ^ "American album certifications – Sublime – Sublime". Recording Industry Association of America.
  20. ^ "American album certifications – Sublime – 40 Ounces to Freedom". Recording Industry Association of America.
  21. ^ "American album certifications – No Doubt – Tragic Kingdom". Recording Industry Association of America.
  22. ^ "Canadian album certifications – No Doubt – Tragic Kingdom". Music Canada. 15 August 1997.
  23. ^ Van Meter, Jonathan (April 2004). "The First Lady of Rock". Vogue. New York. 194 (4). ISSN 0042-8000. OCLC 1769261.
  24. ^ "Rancid – Chart history". Billboard.
  25. ^ "American album certifications – Rancid – ...And Out Come the Wolves". Recording Industry Association of America.
  26. ^ "American album certifications – Reel Big Fish – Turn the Radio Off". Recording Industry Association of America.
  27. ^ "Reel Big Fish – Chart history". Billboard.
  28. ^ "Goldfinger – Chart history". Billboard.
  29. ^ a b "The Mighty Mighty Bosstones – Chart history (Radio Songs)". Billboard.
  30. ^ "The Mighty Mighty Bosstones – Chart history (Pop Songs)". Billboard.
  31. ^ "The Mighty Mighty Bosstones – Chart history (Adult Pop Songs)". Billboard.
  32. ^ "American album certifications – The Mighty Mighty Bosstones – Let's Face It". Recording Industry Association of America.
  33. ^ Mays, Raqiyah (29 April 2000). "Mighty Bosstones 'Pay Attention' On Island/Def Jam Set". Billboard. Vol. 112, no. 18. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. ISSN 0006-2510.
  34. ^ Payne, Chris (25 July 2018). "Meet The Interrupters, the First Female-Fronted Ska Band With an Alternative Radio Hit Since No Doubt". Billboard. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
  35. ^ Bote, Joshua (13 December 2019). "No Album Left Behind: 100 gecs' 1000 gecs". Paste. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
  36. ^ "We Are the Union – Audiotree". Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  37. ^ "Wannabe Reviews We Are The Union's 'Self Care' – Glide Magazine". Retrieved 21 January 2021 – via Glide Magazine.
  38. ^ "Here's the Animal Crossing: New Horizons ska cover you needed". 23 March 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2021 – via venturebeat.com.
  39. ^ Gurwin, Gabe. "An Undertale Fan Is Turning The Soundtrack Into A Ska Album". Retrieved 21 January 2021 – via GameSpot.
  40. ^ "Hyrule Temple – (SSB: Melee) Ska Cover". YouTube. Archived from the original on 17 November 2021. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  41. ^ a b "Skatune Network releasing ska covers album of 'Undertale' video game soundtrack". Retrieved 25 February 2021 – via BrooklynVegan.
  42. ^ "Cartoons!". YouTube. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  43. ^ Muncy, Julie (14 November 2020). "Ska Tune Network Turns a Beautiful Steven Universe Song Into a Self-Affirmation Anthem". Retrieved 25 February 2021 – via io9.gizmodo.com.
  44. ^ "SKA goes POP PUNK". YouTube. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  45. ^ Ochoa, John. "This Person Is Determined to Make a Ska Version of Every Song, Ever". Vice. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
  46. ^ Dunn, Thom (29 April 2020). "What if the Mighty Mighty Bosstones changed genre every 15 seconds". Retrieved 21 January 2021 – via boingboing.net.
  47. ^ "Skatune Network teams with Counter Intuitive for covers album (stream a track)". Retrieved 21 January 2021 – via BrooklynVegan.
  48. ^ "Pick It the Fuck Up – album by Skatune Network". 27 September 2019. Retrieved 7 December 2020 – via Spotify.
  49. ^ "Ska Goes Emo, Vol. 1 – album by Skatune Network". 17 April 2020. Retrieved 7 December 2020 – via Spotify.
  50. ^ "Tape Girl is putting a bedroom pop spin on ska (stream two singles)". Retrieved 25 February 2021 – via BrooklynVegan.

Bibliography[]