Shalom

Shalom in Hebrew

Shalom (Hebrew: שָׁלוֹםshalom; also spelled as sholom, sholem, sholoim, shulem) is a Hebrew word meaning peace, harmony, wholeness, completeness, prosperity, welfare and tranquility and can be used idiomatically to mean both hello and goodbye.[1][2][3]

As it does in English, it can refer to either peace between two entities (especially between man and God or between two countries), or to the well-being, welfare or safety of an individual or a group of individuals. The word shalom is also found in many other expressions and names. Its equivalent cognate in Arabic is salaam, sliem in Maltese, Shlama in Syriac-Assyrian and sälam in Ethiopian Semitic languages from the Proto-Semitic root Š-L-M.

Etymology[]

In Hebrew, words are built on "roots", generally of three consonants. When the root consonants appear with various vowels and additional letters, a variety of words, often with some relation in meaning, can be formed from a single root. Thus from the root sh-l-m come the words shalom ("peace, well-being"), hishtalem ("it was worth it"), shulam ("was paid for"), meshulam ("paid for in advance"), mushlam ("perfect"), and shalem ("whole").

In translations of the Bible, shalom may be translated as peace (English), paz (Spanish and Portuguese), paix (French), pace (Italian), or pax (Latin). The concept of peace is important in Christianity.

Biblically, shalom is seen in reference to the well-being of others (Genesis 43:27, Exodus 4:18), to treaties (I Kings 5:12), and in prayer for the wellbeing of cities or nations (Psalm 122:6, Jeremiah 29:7).

The meaning of completeness, central to the term shalom, can also be confirmed in related terms found in other Semitic languages. The Assyrian term salamu means to be complete, unharmed, paid/atoned. Sulmu, another Assyrian term, means welfare. A closer relation to the idea of shalom as concept and action is seen in the Arabic root salaam, meaning to be safe, secure and forgiven, among other things.

In expressions[]

The word "shalom" can be used for all parts of speech; as a noun, adjective, verb, adverb, and interjection. It categorizes all shaloms. The word shalom is used in a variety of expressions and contexts in Hebrew speech and writing:

Jewish religious principle[]

In Judaism, Shalom (peace), is one of the underlying principles of the Torah: "Her ways are pleasant ways and all her paths are shalom (peace)".[5]" The Talmud explains, "The entire Torah is for the sake of the ways of shalom".[6] Maimonides comments in his Mishneh Torah: "Great is peace, as the whole Torah was given in order to promote peace in the world, as it is stated, 'Her ways are pleasant ways and all her paths are peace'".[7]

In the book Not the Way It's Supposed to Be: A Breviary of Sin, author Cornelius Plantinga described the Old Testament concept of shalom:

The webbing together of God, humans, and all creation in justice, fulfillment, and delight is what the Hebrew prophets call shalom. We call it peace but it means far more than mere peace of mind or a cease-fire between enemies. In the Bible, shalom means universal flourishing, wholeness and delight – a rich state of affairs in which natural needs are satisfied and natural gifts fruitfully employed, a state of affairs that inspires joyful wonder as its Creator and Savior opens doors and welcomes the creatures in whom he delights. Shalom, in other words, is the way things ought to be.[8]

Use as name[]

Name for God[]

The Talmud says, "the name of God is 'Peace'", therefore, one is not permitted to greet another with the word shalom in places such as a bathroom.[9]

Biblical references make many Christians teach that "Shalom" is one of the sacred names of God.[10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]

Name for people[]

Shalom is also common in modern Hebrew in Israel, as a given name or a surname. It is usually used by men as a given name but there are women named Shalom as well such as the model Shalom Harlow.

Name of organizations[]

Shalom can be part of an organization's name.

For example, the names of the following organizations and places refer to "peace" between Israel and its Arab neighbors:

Name of synagogues or structures[]

Shalom is used as part of other names, such as for synagogues, as in:

Name of events[]

Other[]

See also[]

References[]

  1. ^ Glamour of the Grammar in the Jerusalem Post
  2. ^ "Blue Letter Bible". Archived from the original on 2012-07-11.
  3. ^ "Old Testament Hebrew Lexicon". Bible Study Tools.
  4. ^ Rabbis Drs. Andrew Goldstein & Charles H Middleburgh, ed. (2003). Machzor Ruach Chadashah (in English and Hebrew). Liberal Judaism.
  5. ^ Proverbs 3:17
  6. ^ Talmud, Gittin 59b
  7. ^ Maimonides, Mishneh Torah, The Laws of Chanukah 4:14
  8. ^ "Shalom: The Real Utopia".
  9. ^ Shabbat 10b from Judges 6:24
  10. ^ Stone, Nathan J. Names of God, pg. 6, Moody Publishers, 1987
  11. ^ "The Names of God: Jehovah Shalom". blogs.blueletterbible.org.
  12. ^ Fanning, Don. "Theology Proper," pg. 25(2009).
  13. ^ F.E. Marsh dealing with the comprehensiveness of the word shalom is the personification of Peace...and a name of God, Lockyer, Herbert. All the Divine Names and Titles in the Bible. pg. 41, 47, Zondervan, 1988
  14. ^ Hemphill, Ken. "How Excellent are Thy Names," Christianity Today 45.13 (2001): 95-97
  15. ^ Diamond, James Arthur. Converts, Heretics, and Lepers: Maimonides and the Outsider. University of Notre Dame Press, 2007
  16. ^ Trepp, Leo. "Jeremiah and We." European Judaism: A Journal for the New Europe, Vol. 27, No.1, Bergham Books (1994): 29-36
  17. ^ Spangler, Ann, ed. GW, Names of God Bible. Pg. 81, Baker Books, 2011
  18. ^ Williams, Cathy Q. "Black Online, Doctoral Psychology Graduates' Academic Achievement: A Phenomenological Self-Directed Learning Perspective." (2015)
  19. ^ Spangler, Ann. Praying the names of God: a daily guide. Pg. 9, Zondervan, 2004

Sources[]