Separatism

Separatism is the advocacy of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group. As with secession, separatism conventionally refers to full political separation. Groups simply seeking greater autonomy are not separatist as such.[1] Some critics[who?] equate separatism with religious segregation, racial segregation, or sex segregation, but most separatists[who?] argue that separation by choice may serve useful purposes and is not the same as government-enforced segregation. There is some academic debate about this definition, and in particular how it relates to secessionism, as has been discussed online.[2]

Separatist groups practice a form of identity politics, or political activity and theorizing founded in the shared experiences of the group's members. Such groups believe attempts at integration with dominant groups compromise their identity and ability to pursue greater self-determination.[3] However, economic and political factors usually are critical in creating strong separatist movements as opposed to less ambitious identity movements.[4]

Motivations[]

Support for Catalan independence is based on the idea that Catalonia is a nation

Groups may have one or more motivations for separation, including:[5]

Governmental responses[]

In 1861, the American Civil War started after a separatist movement of southern US states seceded from the United States.

How far separatist demands will go toward full independence, and whether groups pursue constitutional and nonviolent action or armed violence, depend on a variety of economic, political, social and cultural factors, including movement leadership[6] and the government's response.[4] Governments may respond in a number of ways, some of which are mutually exclusive. Some include:[7]

Most governments suppress any separatist movement in their own country, but support separatism in other countries.

Ethnic separatism[]

Ethnic separatism is based more on cultural and linguistic differences than religious or racial differences, which also may exist. Ethnic separatist movements include the following:

Eurasia
Mural for Catalan independence in Belfast.
Silesians demonstrating in Katowice (in Silesia).
Welsh demonstrating in Cardiff.
Pro-Russian separatists in Donetsk, eastern Ukraine.
Africa
Oromo Liberation Front rebels in Kenya armed with AK-47 rifles.
Americas
Australasia

Racial separatism[]

Some separatist groups seek to separate from others along racial lines. They oppose interracial marriage and integration with other races and seek separate schools, businesses, churches and other institutions; and often separate societies, territories, countries, and governments.

Territories considered for "Aztlán"

Religious separatism[]

Sikhs in London protesting against the Indian government

Religious separatist groups and sects want to withdraw from some larger religious groups and/or believe they should interact primarily with coreligionists.[citation needed]

Geographic and socioeconomic separatism[]

Kabyle protesters in Paris holding the Berber flag.

Gender and sexist separatism[]

The relationship between gender and separatism is complex and warrants more research.[37] Separatist feminism is women's choosing to separate from ostensibly male-defined, male-dominated institutions, relationships, roles and activities.[38] Lesbian separatism advocates lesbianism as the logical result of feminism. Some separatist feminists and lesbian separatists have chosen to live apart in intentional community, cooperatives, and on land trusts.[39] Queer nationalism (or "Gay separatism") seeks a community distinct and separate from other social groups.[40][41]

See also[]

Lists[]

General[]

References[]

  1. ^ Doyle, Don (2010). Secession as an International Phenomenon. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 9-780-8203-3008-2.
  2. ^ "Secessionism and Separatism Monthly Series: "Secession and Secessionism" by Alexandar Pavković - H-Nationalism - H-Net". networks.h-net.org.
  3. ^ Identity Politics. Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University. November 2, 2007.
  4. ^ a b See D.L. Horowitz's "Patterns of Ethnic Separatism", originally published in Comparative Studies in Society and History, 1981, vol 23, 165-95. Republished in John A. Hall, The State: Critical Concepts, Routledge, 1994.
  5. ^ Spencer, Metta (1998). Separatism: Democracy and Disintegration. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 2–4. ISBN 9780847685851.
  6. ^ Link to: Chima, Jugdep. "Effects of Political Leadership on Ethnic Separatist Movements in India" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hotel, Chicago, Illinois, April 12, 2007, (PDF); Chima, Jugdep. "How Does Political Leadership Affect the Trajectories of Ethnic Separatist Insurgencies?: Comparative Evidence from Movements in India" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott Wardman Park, Omni Shoreham, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, September 01, 2005 (PDF).
  7. ^ Metta Spencer, 5-6.
  8. ^ "Εκδήλωση και ψήφισμα στο Δελβινάκι για την Επέτειο Αυτονομίας της Βορείου Ηπείρου". himara.gr.
  9. ^ "Who were the Celts? ... Rhagor". Amgueddfa Cymru – National Museum Wales website. Amgueddfa Cymru – National Museum Wales. May 4, 2007. Archived from the original on September 17, 2009. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
  10. ^ The Bavaria's right to separate itself from the Federal Republic of Germany "Das Recht auf Eigenstaatlichkeit" [The Right to Statehood] (in German). landesverband.bayernpartei.de. October 28, 2006. Archived from the original on July 21, 2013. Retrieved August 3, 2013.
  11. ^ Harold E. Glass, Ethnic Diversity, Elite Accommodation and Federalism in Switzerland, Publius, Vol. 7, No. 4, Federalism and Ethnicity (autumn, 1977), 31-48. Oxford University Press.
  12. ^ a b Reviews of Katharine Adeney Federalism and Ethnic Conflict Regulation in India and Pakistan, Palgrave MacMillan, 2007.
  13. ^ Muini, S.D.; Rupesinghe, Kumar; Tishkov, Valery A. (1996). "Ethnic conflict, federalism, and democracy in India". Ethnicity and Power in the Contemporary World. United Nations University Press. ISBN 978-92-808-0908-4.
  14. ^ "China issues call to crush Tibetan 'separatists'". Agence France-Presse. 2009-02-19. Retrieved 2010-07-29.
  15. ^ African Ethnicities University of Florida online library.
  16. ^ Excerpt from book Ethnic Conflicts in Africa, Okwudiba Nnoli, Distributed by African Books Collective, 1998, 417 Archived 2008-05-17 at the Wayback Machine, University of Florida online library.
  17. ^ "Niger, hit by Tuareg revolt, adopts anti-terror law". Reuters. April 20, 2008.
  18. ^ a b Professor Predicts 'Hispanic Homeland' Archived 2012-11-07 at the Wayback Machine, Associated Press, 2000
  19. ^ Leo, John (June 13, 2007). "Let the Segregation Commence, Separatist graduations proliferate at UCLA". City Journal.
  20. ^ Levit, Nancy (August 29, 2005). Embracing Segregation: The Jurisprudence of Choice and Diversity in Race and Sex Separatism in Schools (PDF). University of Illinois Law Review. University of Illinois. p. 455. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 19, 2009.
  21. ^ Arenson, Karen W. (April 19, 2006). "CUNY Program to Help Black Men Is Called Discriminatory". New York Times.
  22. ^ Dobratz, Betty A.; Shanks-Meile, Stephanie L. (Summer 2006). "Strategy of White Separatism". Journal of Political and Military Sociology.
  23. ^ Howell, Nancy B. "Radical Relatedness and Feminist Separatism". Archived from the original on 2008-06-24.
  24. ^ Brooke, James (12 May 1993). "Santa Cruz Journal; White Flight in Brazil? Secessionist Caldron Boils" – via www.nytimes.com.
  25. ^ Foer, Franklin (November 23, 1997). "Racial Integration". Slate.
  26. ^ Barlow, Rich (April 26, 2008). "Topic turns to Wright case". Boston Globe.
  27. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica on religious separatists".
  28. ^ Goodwin, John Abbot (1888). The Pilgrim republic: an historical review of the colony of New Plymouth. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 1. pilgrims.
  29. ^ "Christian separatist on trial in Indonesia". BBC. British Broadcasting Corporation. August 19, 2002.
  30. ^ Brummitt, Chris (April 5, 2002). "Christian separatist leader threatens to raise independence flags in Maluku". Associated Press. Archived from the original on February 15, 2011.
  31. ^ Hussain, Syed Zarir (December 31, 2002). "Christian separatist group in Tripura target tribal Hindus". Indo-Asian News Service.
  32. ^ "Christian separatist ready for new home". Ventura County Star. June 9, 2007. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  33. ^ "Colorado Rep. disavows ties to SC Christian separatist group". Associated Press. October 9, 2005.
  34. ^ Pinson, Koppel S. (1958). Simon Dubnow. pp. 13–69.
  35. ^ Lucotte G, Smets P; Smets (December 1999). "Origins of Falasha Jews studied by haplotypes of the Y chromosome". Human Biology. 71 (6): 989–993. PMID 10592688.
  36. ^ Punj, Blbir (June 16, 2006). "The Ghost of Khalistan". Sikh Times.
  37. ^ "Secessionism and Separatism Monthly Series: "Gendering Secession" by Jill Vickers - H-Nationalism - H-Net". networks.h-net.org.
  38. ^ Frye, Marilyn; Meyers, Diana Tietjens (1997). Some Reflections on Separatism and Power. Feminist Social Thought: A Reader. Routledge. pp. 406–414.
  39. ^ Joyce Cheney, Lesbian Land, Word Weavers Press, 1976.
  40. ^ Mark K. Bloodsworth-Lugo, In-Between Bodies: Sexual Difference, Race, and Sexuality, SUNY Press, 2007, ISBN 0-7914-7221-3
  41. ^ Richard D. Mohr, Gays/Justice: A Study of Ethics, Society, and Law, Columbia University Press, 1988, ISBN 0-231-06735-6

Further reading[]

External links[]