Relaxed pronunciation

Relaxed pronunciation (also called condensed pronunciation or word slurs) is a phenomenon that happens when the syllables of common words are slurred together. It is almost always present in normal speech, in all natural languages but not in some constructed languages, such as Loglan or Lojban, which are designed so that all words are parsable.

Some shortened forms of words and phrases, such as contractions or weak forms can be considered to derive from relaxed pronunciations, but a phrase with a relaxed pronunciation is not the same as a contraction. In English, where contractions are common, they are considered part of the standard language and accordingly used in many contexts (except in very formal speech or in formal/legal writing); however, relaxed pronunciation is markedly informal in register. This is also sometimes reflected in writing: contractions have a standard written form, but relaxed pronunciations may not, outside of eye dialect.

Certain relaxed pronunciations occur only in specific grammatical contexts, the exact understanding of which can be complicated. See trace (linguistics) for some further info.

English[]

The following sections contain common words said with relaxed pronunciation in American English, along with pronunciations given in IPA, and a common written indication of this pronunciation where applicable:

Of, have, and to[]

The words of, to, and have all tend to elide to nothing more than a schwa [ə] in many common situations. This sometimes leads to spelling confusion, such as writing "I could of..." instead of "I could have..." or "I could've".

"Would" can also get contracted ("I'd have done things differently."), which usually yields [ɾə] ("I would have..." can be pronounced [aɪɾə]).
Note: The [v] in "have" and "of" is usually retained before a vowel sound (e.g. in "I could have asked...").

You[]

"You" tends to elide to [jə] (often written "ya"). Softening of the preceding consonant also may occur: (/t/ + /jə/ = [tʃə], /d/ + /jə/ = [dʒə], /s/ + /jə/ = [ʃə], and /z/ + /jə/ = [ʒə]). This can also happen with other words that begin with [j] (e.g. "your", "yet", "year"). In some dialects, such as Australian English, this is not a relaxed pronunciation but compulsory: got you [ˈɡɔtʃjʉː] (never *[ˈɡɔtjʉː])[citation needed].

Other[]

Dutch[]

Examples of the Dutch as spoken in the Netherlands include:

Often, especially in Belgian Dutch, the -t at the end of the word is omitted.

German[]

A wide range of possible pronunciations can be found in the negatory 'nicht ("not") depending on the dialect region.

See also Synalepha

Russian[]

The most notable example in Russian language is the greeting здравствуйте ([ˈzdrastvujtʲɪ]), which is colloquially pronounced [ˈzdrastʲɪ]. Other examples include:

Contracted forms are usually found only in colloquial contexts, but they can occur in poetry.

For example, look at the verse from the Russian translation of Avesta (Mihr Yasht, verse 129):

На колеснице Митры,
Чьи пастбища просторны,
Стрел тыща златоустых

"On a side of the chariot of Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, stand a thousand ... arrows, with a golden mouth."

This contrasts with contracted forms found in colloquial speech in that it is used to keep the original rhythm. The previous verse (verse 128) has a literary form:

На колеснице Митры,
Чьи пастбища Просторны,
Из жил оленьих тысяча
Отборных тетивы

"On a side of the chariot of Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, stand a thousand bows well-made, with a string of cowgut".

French[]

Among other relaxed pronunciations, tu as (you have) is frequently elided to t'as in colloquial French or tu es (you are) to t'es. The same with je suis (I am) to j'suis or ch'uis (very informal, or regional), and je (ne) sais pas (I don't know) to j'sais pas or ch'ais pas (very informal, or regional). Moreover, most of the negative forms ne or n' are lost in non-formal discussion. The expression, "Qu'est-ce que..." is little used in colloquial speech for forming the interrogative, but when it is, in very informal use, it is shortened:

"Qu'est-ce que tu veux ?" becomes... "Qu'est-c'tu veux ?"

"Qu'est-ce que tu as dit?" becomes... "Qu'est-c't'as dit?"

A more complex sentence, such as "il ne savait peut-être plus ce qu'il faisait" ("Perhaps he knew no more what he was doing"), can become "i n'savait p'têt plus c'qui v'zait" [in savεp tεt plys kiv zε], or even further relaxed, "i sa'ait têt' pu c'qui v'zait" [i saεp tεt pys kiv zε].[1]

Spanish[]

Forms of the verb estar ("to be") are often shortened by dropping the first syllable (as if the verb were *tar)[citation needed].

Often, d will turn into its approximant, the Voiced dental fricative, which is "softer"; and when placed between two vowels it might disappear in relaxed pronunciation[citation needed].

As such, the d in the final -ado of past participles can disappear: Estoy cansado ("I am tired") is heard as Toy cansao; this is also applied to the final -ido, as in *Me perdío ("I got lost"). This phenomenon is often perceived as uncultured, and can lead to hypercorrections like *bacalado instead of bacalao ("cod")[citation needed].

Hiatus between two words will often lead to these merging[citation needed], with del being the grammatically correct form of de el. If the merged word is small enough, it might be omitted entirely[citation needed]:

Some dialects like Andalusian Spanish lose the syllable-final s. Since it is important as a mark of plurals, it is substituted with vowel opening[citation needed].

Portuguese[]

Examples:

= está ([it/she/he] is)
tamém = também (also)
ma = uma (a/one)
'vambora = vamos embora (let's go)
'bora = vamos embora (let's go)
pra, pa = para (to)
= você (you)
home = homem (man)
= vou (I will) (In Portugal 'ô' is the standard pronunciation of 'ou')
portuga, tuga = português (both for the Portuguese people and language)
para + o = pro -further contraction-> po.
para + a = pra -> pa.
para + os = pros -> pos.
para + as = pras -> pas.
num = não (no/don't. It is just used in the beginning or middle of a sentence).
né? = não é? (it is equivalente to the tag questions).
d'uma = de uma (of a).

In some dialects, que (that) is reduced to the "q" sound:

que + a = q'a
que + o = q'o
que + ela = q'ela (that she)
que + ele = q'ele (that he)
que + é = q'é (that is)
que + foi = q'foi (that was), etc...

In Portugal, the mute 'e' and the final unstressed vowels are often elided:

perigo = prigo (danger)
mete água = met água (put water)
muito mais = muit mais (much more)
fala inglês = fal inglês (speaks english) (if the following word starts with a consonant, the final 'a' cannot be elided)

Japanese[]

Japanese can undergo some vowel deletion or consonant mutation in relaxed speech. While these are common occurrences in the formation of some regular words, typically after the syllables ku or tsu, as in 学校 gakkō (学 gaku + 校 ) "school" or 出発 shuppatsu (出 shutsu + 発 hatsu) "departure", in rapid speech, these changes can appear in words that did not have them before, such as suizokkan for suizokukan 水族館 "aquarium." Additionally, the syllables ra, ri, ru, re and ro sometimes become simply n or when they occur before another syllable beginning with n or d, and disappear entirely before syllabic n. This can happen within a word or between words, such as 分かんない wakannai "I dunno" for 分からない wakaranai "I don't know" or もう来てんだよ mō kite n da yo "they're already here" for もう来ているんだよ mō kite iru n da yo.

Relaxed pronunciation also makes use of several contractions.

Turkish[]

Examples:

In all of these cases, the pronounced length of the initial vowel is slightly extended, though in the case of "napıyon" the terminal vowel maintains its initial length or, if anything, is shortened.

Urdu[]

In Urdu, it is common to elide the sound /h/ ˂ہ˃ in normal speech. For example, آپ کہاں جا رہے ہیں āp kahāṅ jā rahay haiṅ will be pronounced آپ کاں جا رے ایں āp kān ja rai aiṅ.

See also[]

References[]

  1. ^ Die Symptyx im spontanen französischen Redefluss , Les Editions du Troubadour, accessed December 14, 2013.

External links[]