Protests against Rodrigo Duterte

Protests against Rodrigo Duterte
EDSA Shrine, Robinsons Corporate Bldg. - panoramio.jpg
The EDSA Shrine, one of the main venue of the protests.
Date November 18, 2016 — ongoing
(1 year, 2 months and 6 days)
Location Philippines (mainly Metro Manila)
Caused by
  • Putting the all-out war, extrajudicial killings and war on drugs to an end
  • Termination of martial law
  • Resumption of peace talks
  • Opposing of death penalty from being effective
  • Resignation of Duterte from office
Resulted in Death penalty not implemented
Parties to the civil conflict

Left-wing groups:

Opposition organizations and institutions:

Various organization names:

  • Movement Against Tyranny
  • #YouthResist[1]

Other figures:

  • Youth and farmer groups
  • Moro and Lumad people

Supported by:

Liberal Party
Lead figures
Non-centralized leadership
Injuries 60+ (10 protesters, 50 police)[2]
Arrested 88+[3]

The protests against Rodrigo Duterte, the 16th President of the Philippines, began on November 18, 2016 following the burial of late president Ferdinand Marcos, which Duterte supported.[4] Duterte had been criticized locally and internationally due to his implementation of war on drugs in the country. These series of protests are conducted by several left-wing groups and other opponent figures.

Major protests[]

Duterte, 2016

War on drugs and extrajudicial killings[]

Since his inauguration on June 30, Duterte implemented the war against illegal drugs in the country, promising to kill thousands of people involved in the drug trade.[5][6] This campaign was criticized by local politicians and international human rights, and was attracted by international media, due to human rights violations and high number of killings amid drug campaign.

The youngest known person killed in the drug operation is the 17-year-old student, Kian Loyd delos Santos, from Caloocan, on August 16, 2017.[7] The killing sparked the controversy among the local politicians and militant groups, and triggered massive protest in the country.[8] The family of Delos Santos, on August 25, filed murder and torture charges against police officers involved in the drug operation.[9]

Burial of Ferdinand Marcos[]

During his 2016 presidential campaign, Duterte supported the burial of late President and dictator Ferdinand Marcos at the Heroes' Cemetery in Taguig.[10] On November 8, 2016, the Supreme Court permitted Marcos' burial in a 9–5–1 vote.[11] Marcos was buried at the Heroes' Cemetery on November 18.[12] Following his burial, protests — organized by, mostly, youths from various universities, militant groups and local politicians — sparked in the whole country.[13][14][15][16]

Phasing out of jeepneys[]

A series of protest and strike action staged by jeepney drivers in the Philippines to oppose the government's plan to phaseout jeepneys over 15 years old. The strike, which started on February 6 and 27, caused hundreds of passengers to be stranded.[17][18] As a result of protests, classes in the country were suspended, as well as the government work.[19][20][21] Transport groups resumed the protests on September 24[22] and October 14 to 16.[23] On October 18, 2017, Duterte said that on January 1, next year, "If you can’t modernize that, leave. You’re poor? Son of a bitch, go ahead, suffer in poverty and hunger, I don’t care.”[24] However, Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board (LTFRB) chairman Martin Delgra said the next day that Duterte's call was only his "expression of urgency".[25] It's proposal of jeepney modernization will displace 270,000 jeepneys nationwide and around 650,000 drivers and it costs up to P1.6 million.[24]

"Walk for Life"[]

The "Walk for Life" was a mass demonstration organized by the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) protesting the reintroduction of the death penalty and call for an end to killings amid the country's ongoing "war on drugs" initiated by President Duterte. Held on February 18, 2017, the march gathered approximately 20,000 Filipino Catholics in Manila. The church had led the revolutions that successfully toppled former Presidents Ferdinand Marcos in 1986 and Joseph Estrada in 2001.[26]

On January 30, 2017, the CBCP issued a statement opposing the revival of the death penalty.[27] CBCP President Socrates Villegas called on the Filipino people to join a rally, which the CBCP had called a "Walk for Life", opposing the killings amid the country's war on drugs. The rally was set for February 18, 2017.[27] About 20,000 people (or 10,000: by police estimate) joined the Saturday event.[28] Among those who joined the rally was Senator Leila de Lima, a critic of Duterte who opposes the war on drugs.[29]

Declaration of martial law following Marawi crisis[]

A five-month-long armed conflict in Marawi, Lanao del Sur, that started on 23 May 2017, between Philippine government security forces and militants affiliated with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), including the Maute and Abu Sayyaf Salafi jihadist groups.[30] The battle also became the longest urban battle in the modern history of the Philippines.[31] Following the clash, Duterte declared martial law in the whole Mindanao.[32]

State of the Nation Address protests[]

2017 (July 24)[]

Several groups led the protest on the day of President Duterte's second State of the Nation Address (SONA). According to Renato Reyes, secretary general of Bayan, the president’s promises of improvements during his first SONA still remained unfulfilled, including issues on contractualization, land reforms, and economic policy.[33] Reyes also said that, “Under his administration, regularization has already happened: It is now regular to kill drug suspects, regular to sabotage peace talks, regular to militarize, and regular to spread fake news and disinformation.”[34] Also, labor unions Kilusang Mayo Uno and Alyansa ng mga Manggagawa Laban sa Kontraktwalisasyon led similar protests, calling "to resume peace talks and to end martial law in Mindanao."[35][36] About 5,000 members of Bagong Alyansang Makabayan from Roxas City, 3,000 in Iloilo City, 2,500 in Kalibo, 500-800 in Cebu City, and 500 in Estancia, Iloilo joined the protest, concerning an end to contractualization, land reform, free education and jeepney modernization.[37] Also, about 300 Lumad people joined the protest, calling to stop the martial law.[38] At midnight, around 100 anti-Duterte protesters held a candle vigil, led by Senator Risa Hontiveros, condemning the extrajudicial killings and extension of martial law in Mindanao. Hontiveros called Duterte's second SONA a "fake".[39]

At night, Duterte confronted the protesters for the first time.[40]

National Day of Protest[]

On September 21, 2017, coinciding with the 45th anniversary of the declaration of martial law in 1972 by late President Marcos, nationwide protests — also known as "National Day of Protest" — are conducted by various groups against the government's implementation of war on drugs and the ongoing martial law in the whole of Mindanao under the administration of President Rodrigo Duterte.[41][42] As the day of protest approaching, Duterte officially suspended the work in government offices and classes in public schools at all levels nationwide in order to give way of the protest.[43] Duterte even dared the communist New People's Army "to bring the protests to Manila, as he vowed not to arrest them."[44]

Left-wing activists and opposition of Duterte accused him of abuses and authoritarianism similar to that of the late dictator Marcos.[45] Vice President Leni Robredo states that “If we do not remember the past, we are condemned to repeat it. Sadly those who are deceived do not even know that they are walking a doomed path.”[45] In Plaza Miranda, about 500 pro-Duterte rallyists occupied in front of the Quiapo Church.[46] Teddy Casiño said to Duterte that "he is the subject of the protest", after the latter declares September 21 a day of protest.[47] Pro and anti-Duterte rallyists also engaged in chant battle.[47]

"Lord, Heal Our Land"[]

On November 5, 2017, the Catholic Church held a prayer rally and healing mass along the EDSA highway, the site of the People Power Revolution, to oppose the extrajudicial killings. The procession was attended by around 3,500 people.[48] CBCP president and Lingayen-Dagupan Archbishop Socrates Villegas said:

“Let us ask that our prayers for the country’s healing be answered. The November 5 activity has no colors. It will stand for transparency, clarity of vision, purity of heart. We won’t be there to shout and hold a rally. We will pray and whisper to Jesus’ heart to ask for forgiveness, forgiveness for the country that sinned.”[49]

Administration opponent groups such as Movement Against Tyranny and Tindig Pilipinas were present at the event.[49] They clarified that the event was to only express frustration, not the "destabilization."[50] Opposition politicians such as Senators Bam Aquino, Franklin Drilon, Risa Hontiveros[51] and Antonio Trillanes were also present.[48]

2017 ASEAN Summit and Trump's visit to the Philippines[]

Protests erupted from November 9—14, 2017, thousands staged the protest against the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Summit hosted by the Philippines.[52][53] Their call was to ban the visit of U.S. President Donald Trump, who visited the country to attend ASEAN-related summits as a dialogue partner.[54] It is because, according to student leader Elijah San Pedro, Trump seemingly "to have dragged the Philippines into his war rhetorics against North Korea."[55] Atty. Aaron Pedrosa of SANLAKAS also said that Mamasapano massacre and the war in Marawi were created by the U.S.-led War on Terror.[55] Karapatan Alliance for the Advancement of People's Rights slammed the Trump administration for "'funding' the administration's war on drugs."[55] The Philippine Coast Guard reported that protesters attempted to bribe fishermen to get them close to the United States Embassy.[56] A group of protesters led by Anakbayan managed to reached the gate of Philippine International Convention Center, despite tight security.[57]

Militant group Kalipunan ng Damayang Mahihirap (Kadamay) also staged protests against Trump.[58][59] A group said that the ₱15.5-billion ($292 million) budget of the ASEAN Summit could have been used for the poor.[60] Aside from Trump, protesters also burned the images of Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe, Russian President Vladimir Putin, and Chinese Premier Li Keqiang, whom "protesters said are responsible for the anti-Filipino and imperialistic agenda allegedly promoted by the Duterte administration."[61]

Anti-riot police used water cannon and sonic alarm to repel activists.[62] Bagong Alyansang Makabayan, led by Renato Reyes, have the Trump's effigy — with four rotating hands shaped into the swastika symbol and President Rodrigo Duterte can be seen behind — burned.[62] Despite being fired by the water cannon, the protesters continue to push forward against the blocking police.[63] It is reported that 20 members of militant groups were injured after engaged the clash with the police.[64] Trump arrived in the country on November 12.[65]

Black Friday Protest for Freedom[]

A protest for press freedom staged by National Union of Journalists of the Philippines in Quezon City and other parts of the country such as Bacolod and Zamboanga City[66] on the evening of January 19, 2018,[67][68][69] following the revocation of online news site Rappler by Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) eight days prior.[70][71] At the same time, National Bureau of Investigation has issued a subpoena against CEO Maria Ressa, former reporter Reynaldo Santos, and businessman Benjamin Bitanga for violating the anti-cybercrime act.[72] The protest was attended by 300 people, wearing black T-shirts, against the attacks on press freedom by the government.[66][73] Rappler is known to be critical of the Duterte administration.[74] Presidential Spokesperson Harry Roque said that Duterte has no involvement in the SEC's decision.[75] Roque said that the Friday protest “is a testament that freedom is alive and democracy is alive in the Philippines.”[76] Nevertheless, opposition figures such as Kadamay chairperson Gloria Arellano and Senator Leila de Lima slammed Duterte for his actions against Rappler.[77] Other bloggers and journalists were also present at the protest.[78]



Students of the Ateneo de Manila University along Katipunan Avenue protesting against the burial of former President Marcos.


January – June[]

July – December[]


January – June[]


Shibby de Guzman, then a 13-year-old student from St. Scholastica's College, Manila who stood up against the burial of Marcos and war on drugs, is included in the Time's 30 Most Influential Teens of 2017.[142]

See also[]


  1. ^ "Youth groups to stage alternative to Duterte’s ‘fake news Sona"
  2. ^ For the protesters:
    Mar 24, 2017: 1 (Reference)
    November 12, 2017: 9 (Reference)

    For the police
    November 15, 2017: 50 (Reference)
  3. ^ April 3: 80 (Reference)
    July 21, 2017: 8 (Reference)
  4. ^ a b "Millennials lead protests vs Marcos burial". Philippine Daily Inquirer. November 20, 2016. 
  5. ^ "Philippines president Rodrigo Duterte urged people to kill drug addicts". Associated Press. July 1, 2016. Retrieved July 8, 2016 – via The Guardian.
  6. ^ "Obama throws planned meeting with Philippines leader into doubt…". Reuters.
  7. ^ "17-year-old student gunned down by cops in anti-drug operations". CNN Philippines. 
  8. ^ "17-year-old's death jolts senators to speak vs killings". The Philippine Star. 
  9. ^ "Murder, torture raps filed vs. police over Kian's death". CNN Philippines. 
  10. ^ "Duterte in Ilocos Norte: I will allow Marcos' burial in Heroes' Cemetery". Rappler
  11. ^ Cabacungan, Gil (November 9, 2016). "SC votes, 9-5, for burial of Marcos at Libingan". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved January 8, 2018. 
  12. ^ Guinto, Joel (November 18, 2016). "Late dictator Marcos buried at Libingan ng mga Bayani". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs. Retrieved January 8, 2018. 
  13. ^ "SC ‘allows Marcos burial at the Libingan ng mga Bayani’. Manila Bulletin.
  14. ^ "Marcos to be buried at Heroes' Cemetery today". Rappler.
  15. ^ "VP, senators disappointed and sad as Supreme Court allows burial in hero's cemetery for Marcos". CNN Philippines.
  16. ^ "Drilon on Marcos burial: A thief even in death". GMA News.
  17. ^ Pascual, Jekki (February 6, 2017). "Libo-libo, stranded dahil sa tigil-pasada kontra jeepney phaseout". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved February 27, 2017. 
  18. ^ "Jeepney drivers to hold strike Monday". ABS-CBN News. February 25, 2017. Retrieved February 27, 2017. 
  19. ^ "Class cancellations for Monday, February 6, 2017". GMA News. February 6, 2017. Retrieved February 27, 2017. 
  20. ^ "No classes, gov't work nationwide on Oct. 16". Sun.Star
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  22. ^ "Transport strike vs jeepney modernization set for September 25". Rappler. 
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  25. ^ "Duterte’s deadline to upgrade jeepneys only ‘an expression of urgency,’ Delgra says". Archive from the original. GMA News.
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  27. ^ a b "CBCP: We can work with administration". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 
  28. ^ a b "Thousands of Catholics join rally vs death penalty, EJKs". SunStar Manila. 
  29. ^ a b "Tens of thousands of Filipino Catholics protest against death penalty and Duterte's drug war". 
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  32. ^ "Duterte declares martial law in Mindanao". CNN.
  33. ^ "Malawakang kilos protesa ihihahanda na ng iba't-ibang grupo sa araw ng SONA" (UNTV News and Rescue via YouTube). 
  34. ^ a b "Protesters hit Duterte's 'wrong regularization'". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 
  35. ^ "Groups prepare for SONA protests". CNN Philippines. 
  36. ^ "NTG: Mga militante, nagkikilos-protesta na vs. administrasyong Duterte; may mga dala ring effigy" (in Tagalog). GMA News — via YouTube.
  37. ^ "Protesters at 2nd Sona not as friendly". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 
  38. ^ "300 'Lumads' join protest during Duterte's 2nd Sona". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 
  39. ^ "Anti-Duterte protesters, nagsagawa ng candle lighting vigil sa Batasan Hills, QC" (UNTV). 
  40. ^ "Bandila: Duterte, hinarap ang mga raliyista matapos ang SONA" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs — via YouTube.
  41. ^ "Thousands join national protest to remind Filipinos of Marcos' Martial Law". Rappler. 
  42. ^ "IN PHOTOS: From Luzon to Mindanao, a day of protest vs return of martial law". Rappler
  43. ^ "Duterte officially declares September 21 as 'National Day of Protest'". SunStar Philippines. 
  44. ^ "Sept. 21 National Day of Protest—Duterte". The Standard. 
  45. ^ a b "WATCH | NATIONAL DAY OF PROTEST: Activists warn against emergence of dictatorship". News5. 
  46. ^ "UPDATE: PH holds 'National Day of Protest'". The Manila Times. 
  47. ^ a b "Pro-Duterte, anti-Martial Law groups engage in chant battle on Mendiola". Rappler. 
  48. ^ a b Jalea, Mary Gleefer (November 5, 2017). "EDSA prayer rally held vs extrajudicial killings". The Manila Times. Retrieved January 12, 2018. 
  49. ^ a b "No politics, just prayers for healing in Edsa rally". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 
  50. ^ "'Lord Heal Our Land' an expression of frustration, not destabilization — organizers". GMA News. 
  51. ^ "Senators join Edsa march to push for end to drug killings". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  52. ^ "Violence marks ASEAN 2017 protests in Manila". Rappler. 
  53. ^ "SCHEDULE: Protest activities during ASEAN Summit 2017". Rappler. Archived from the original.
  54. ^ a b "'Not welcome in PH': Filipino activists set fire to Trump effigy". Rappler. 
  55. ^ a b c "Why groups are protesting Trump's PH visit". 
  56. ^ Talabong, Rambo (November 10, 2017). "Philippine Coast Guard to arrest ASEAN Summit protesters at Manila Bay". Rappler. Retrieved January 11, 2018. 
  57. ^ "Small group of ASEAN summit protesters reach PICC gate". Rappler. 
  58. ^ "'P15-B ASEAN summit budget should have gone to the poor' – Kadamay". Rappler.
  59. ^ "Activists picket US Embassy ahead of Trump visit". The Philippine Star.
  60. ^ "'P15-B ASEAN summit budget should have gone to the poor' – Kadamay". Rappler.
  61. ^ Militant groups clash with police in anti-Trump rally". CNN Philippines.[dead link]
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  63. ^ "Anti-riot cops block protesters". Tempo. 
  64. ^ "UPDATE: Anti-Trump protesters, cops clash; militants claim 20 injured". The Manila Times. 
  65. ^ "Trump arrives in PH for ASEAN Summit". Rappler. 
  66. ^ a b "Press freedom wears black in media rallies". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 
  67. ^ "Palace: 'Black Friday' protest shows freedom, democracy alive". Philippine Star (January 19, 2018). 
  68. ^ "Journos, militant groups join ‘Black Friday’ protest". SunStar Philippines
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  70. ^ "SEC cancels Rappler's license to do business". CNN Philippines
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  73. ^ "Groups protest 'attacks' on press freedom". CNN Philippines. 
  74. ^ "Sociologist: Duterte's media criticism has grave implications on news practice". CNN Philippines. 
  75. ^ "Rappler sees Malacañang hand in license revocation". CNN Philippines.
  76. ^ "WATCH | BLACK FRIDAY: ‘Bloggers for Freedom’ blast ‘moves to silence, scare’ media as Palace vows maximum tolerance". News5.
  77. ^ Gloria Arellano: "Sinasanay na ang mamamayan sa kalakaran ng karahasan at panunupil (The masses are being trained in the ways of violence and silencing of dissent)."
    Leila de Lima: "Wala na talagang tatalo sa kapal ng mukha ni Duterte at ng kanyang rehimen," she said. "Huwag magwalang kibo o magkibit-balikat lang sa hayagang kasinungalingan, kayabangan, at pag-abuso sa kapangyarihan ng rehimeng Duterte. Dahil kung ngayon, Rappler, malamang bukas, ikaw na." ("Nothing will beat the shamelessness of Duterte and his regime. Let us not brush aside the lies, the boastfulness and the abuses of the Duterte regime. If it's Rappler today, it might be you tomorrow.") (Source from CNN Philippines) (Archived from the original).
  78. ^ "Media practitioners, bloggers gear up for Black Friday protest in QC". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 
  79. ^ "Anti-Marcos protesters occupy EDSA People Power Monument". Rappler – via YouTube. 
  80. ^ "MGA RALIYISTA, WALA NA RAW TIWALA KAY DUTERTE". (in Tagalog). News5 — via YouTube.
  81. ^ "24 Oras: Jim Paredes at Duterte Youth na nagpunta sa rally sa EDSA, nagkainitan". (in Tagalog). GMA News — via YouTube.
  82. ^ "International Women's Day, sinabayan ng protesta" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs — via YouTube.
  83. ^ "#OccupyBulacan | Urban poor group vows to continue barricade in gov’t housing projects"
  84. ^ "UB: 'Palit-Bise' rally, isinagawa sa Luneta kasunod ng 'Palit-Ulo' na pahayag ni VP Robredo".(in Tagalog). GMA News — via YouTube.
  85. ^ "TV Patrol: Kritiko ni VP Robredo, nagsagawa ng rally sa Qurino Grandstand". (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs — via YouTube.
  86. ^ "Bandila: Martial law sa Mindanao, sinalubong ng protesta sa Mendiola". (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs — via YouTube.
  87. ^ "TV Patrol: Martial law, ipinrotesta ng ilang grupo ". (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs — via YouTube.
  88. ^ "Unang taon sa puwesto ni Pres. Duterte, sinalubong ng kabi-kabilang protesta". News5
  89. ^ "TV Patrol: Martsa vs. pagpatay ng 'drug suspects', isinagawa sa Caloocan". ABS-CBN News via YouTube
  90. ^ "Students protest war on drugs killing spree". GMA News. July 18, 2017. 
  91. ^ "TV Patrol: Sesyon sa martial law extension, binulabog ng protesta ". (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs — via YouTube.
  92. ^ Youth party joins ‘Black Friday’ protest vs drug killings, state fascism. Kabataan. Archived from the original.
  93. ^ "Kilos-protesta para sa binatilyong biktima ng anti-drug war ng pamahalaan, isasagawa mamayang gabi". 
  94. ^ "Mga iba't-ibang grupo, nag-rally sa EDSA para kondenahin ang pagpatay kay Kian delos Santos". UNTV. 
  95. ^ "IN PHOTOS: OFWs protest Kian slay". Rappler. 
  96. ^ "Grupo ng kabataan nagsagawa ng kilos protesta upang humingi ng hustisya sa kabataang biktima ng EJK" (in Tagalog). UNTV — via YouTube.
  97. ^ "TV Patrol: Serye ng patayan, kinondena ng iba't ibang grupo" (TV Patrol: Series of killings, condemned by various groups.) ABS-CBN News on YouTube.
  98. ^ "TV Patrol: Ika-100 kaarawan ni Marcos, sinalubong ng mga protesta". (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs — via YouTube.
  99. ^ "Motorists told: Avoid Asean dry run routes". Philippine Daily Inquirer. October 7, 2017. Retrieved October 7, 2017.  Archived.
  100. ^ "TV Patrol: Mga kilos-protesta, ikinasa sa ika-45 anibersaryo ng batas militar ni Marcos" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News on YouTube.
  101. ^ "Malawakang kilos-protesta laban sa administrasyong Duterte, isasagawa sa Sept. 21". UNTV. 
  102. ^ a b "Palace issues proclamation on National Day of Protest". Manila Bulletin. 
  103. ^ "Only gov't work, classes in public schools are suspended on Sept. 21". Manila Bulletin. 
  104. ^ "BT: Mga tagasuporta ni Pres. Duterte, may kilos-protesta rin" (in Tagalog). GMA News — via YouTube.
  105. ^ "Student activists storm PUP president office to protest alledged campus repression". Rappler via Facebook. 
  106. ^ "LOOK: Dating DAR Sec. Rafael Mariano sa forum ng mga magsasaka sa Q.C. Memorial Circle (LOOK: Former DAR Sec. Rafael Mariano in the forum of farmers in Q.C. Memorial Circle)". News5. Facebook.  Archived from the original.
  107. ^ "PIRMA HINDI PORMA | Ilang grupo, nanawagan kay Pangulong Duterte na pirmahan ang waiver para buksan ang umanoy secret bank accounts" (SIGNATURE NOT FORMING | Some groups, calling on President Duterte to sign the waiver to open the secret bank accounts). News5. Facebook
  108. ^ @markzambrano (14 Oct 2017). "Breaking news: Militants call on Pres. Duterte to sign the waiver on the secrecy of bank to deposits over allegations of unexplained wealth & corruption" (Tweet) – via Twitter.  (Archived)
  109. ^ "Mga larawang nakunan kahapon ng Joint Quick Response Team (JQRT) kung saan makikitang hindi konektado sa jeepney transport strike ang protesta ng ilang militanteng grupo.". Archived from the original. People's Television Network. Facebook
  110. ^ "LTFRB: PH not crippled by October 17 transport strike". Rappler. 
  111. ^ "Malacañang defends 2-day gov't work, class suspension". Rappler. 
  112. ^ "Transport strike barely affected commuters – Palace". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 
  113. ^ "ANTI-DU30 RALLY | Ilang grupo ng kabataan, kinalampag ang Malacañang". Archived from the original. News5. Facebook
  114. ^ "Group claims more than 80 farmers have been killed under Duterte admin". GMA News. 
  115. ^ @marllybondoc (18 Oct 2017). "Launching of Coalition for Land, Against Martial Law and Oppression (CLAMOR)" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 11 Jan 2018 – via Twitter. 
  116. ^ "TV Patrol: Ilang magsasaka, nangalampag sa DAR" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News. YouTube
  117. ^ "LOOK | Nasa 500 magsasaka, nag-rally sa labas ng Camp Aguinaldo para iprotesta ang umano'y pagkamatay ng dalawang magsasaka sa ilalim ng administrasyong Duterte". News5. Facebook
  118. ^ "LOOK | Libu-libong magsasaka mula sa iba't ibang panig ng bansa, nagmartsa papuntang Mendiola para iprotesta ang karahasan at isulong ang programa para sa mga magsasaka". News5. Facebook. (Archived)
  119. ^ "‘MANLABAN SA EJK’ | Mga abugado, bumuo ng grupong tumutuligsa sa EJK kaugnay ng war on drugs". (Archived)
  120. ^ "Cebu archbishop hits EJKs ahead of EDSA procession". Rappler. 
  121. ^ "Church calls on public to join activities". Cebu Daily News. 
  122. ^ "TV Patrol: Panawagan vs. 'EJK', idinaan sa misa at prusisyon". (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs — via YouTube. Note: Skip to 1:39 for Alejano and Trillanes.
  123. ^ "Groups of women call for justice, shelter for EJK kin's victim". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved November 24, 2017. 
  125. ^ "Revolutionary gov't threats 'cheapen' sacrifice of PH heroes – LP". Rappler. Retrieved November 30, 2017. 
  126. ^ "Bonifacio Day rallies set to push, protest Duterte's revolutionary gov't". Archived from the original. Rappler.
  127. ^ "Supporters, critics of Philippines' Duterte protest". Digital Journal. 
  128. ^ "Robredo relies on Duterte's word as die-hard supporters rally for RevGov". Manila Bulletin. 
  129. ^ "UP Oblation Run 2017 calls for halt in killings, resumption of peace talks". ABS-CBN News. 
  130. ^ "Duterte signs proclamation cancelling peace talks with Reds". ABS-CBN News. 
  131. ^ "Bandila: Mga aktibista, nangangambang madamay sa pag-aresto ng mga rebeldeng komunista". ABS-CBN News. 
  132. ^ "Bandila: Mga bakwit mula Mindanao, tutol sa pagpapalawig ng batas militar".
  133. ^ "TV Patrol: Iba't ibang grupo, nangalampag para sa karapatang pantao" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs — via YouTube.
  134. ^ "TV Patrol Bicol - Dec 11, 2017". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs — via YouTube. Note: Skip to 9:07 for the protest.
  135. ^ "Bandila: Pagpapalawig ng batas militar sa Mindanao, inulan ng protesta". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs — via YouTube.
  136. ^ "De Lima ordered arrested by RTC".
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