Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United States and the United Kingdom. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew heavily from the genres of blues, rhythm and blues, and from country music. Rock music also drew strongly from a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, and incorporated influences from jazz, classical and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar, usually as part of a rock group with electric bass, drums, and one or more singers. Usually, rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become extremely diverse. Like pop music, lyrics often stress romantic love but also address a wide variety of other themes that are frequently social or political.
By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, and jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, which was influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene. New genres that emerged included progressive rock, which extended the artistic elements, glam rock, which highlighted showmanship and visual style, and the diverse and enduring subgenre of heavy metal, which emphasized volume, power, and speed. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and eventually alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge, Britpop, and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, and rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. The 2010s saw a slow decline in the cultural relevancy of the genre, being usurped by hip-hop as the most popular genre in the United States in 2017.
Rock music has also embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. Similarly, 1970s punk culture spawned the goth, punk, and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race, sex and drug use, and is often seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
is an American rock
band formed in Boston, Massachusetts
in 1970. The group consists of Steven Tyler
(vocals, guitars, keyboards), Joe Perry
(guitar), Tom Hamilton
(bass), Joey Kramer
(drums) and Brad Whitford
(guitar). Their style, which is rooted in blues
-based hard rock
, has come to also incorporate elements of pop rock
, heavy metal
, and rhythm and blues
, and has inspired many subsequent rock artists. They are sometimes referred to as "the Bad Boys from Boston" and "America's Greatest Rock and Roll Band".. As a partnership, the primary songwriting team of Tyler and Perry is often collectively known as the "Toxic Twins
Perry and Hamilton, originally in a band together called the Jam Band, met up with Tyler, Kramer, and guitarist Ray Tabano, and formed Aerosmith. In 1971, Tabano was replaced by Whitford, and the band began developing a following in Boston. They were signed to Columbia Records in 1972, and released a string of gold and platinum albums, beginning with their 1973 eponymous debut album, followed by Get Your Wings in 1974. In 1975, the band broke into the mainstream with the album Toys in the Attic, and their 1976 follow-up Rocks cemented their status as hard rock superstars. Draw the Line and Night in the Ruts followed in 1977 and 1979 respectively. Their first five albums have since attained multi-platinum status. Throughout the 1970s, the band toured extensively and charted a dozen Billboard Hot 100 singles, including their first Top 40 hit "Sweet Emotion" and the Top 10 hits "Dream On" and "Walk This Way". By the end of the decade, they were among the most popular hard rock bands in the world and developed a following of fans, often referred to as the "Blue Army". Drug addiction and internal conflict took their toll on the band, which led to the departures of Perry and Whitford in 1979 and 1981, respectively; they were replaced by Jimmy Crespo and Rick Dufay.
The band did not fare well between 1980 and 1984, releasing the album Rock in a Hard Place, which was certified gold but failed to match their previous successes.
Perry and Whitford returned to Aerosmith in 1984 and the band signed a new deal with Geffen Records. After a comeback tour, the band recorded Done with Mirrors (1985), which won some critical praise but failed to match commercial expectations. It was not until the band's collaboration with rap group Run–D.M.C. in 1986, and the 1987 multi-platinum release, Permanent Vacation, that they regained the level of popularity they had experienced in the 1970s. In the late 1980s and 1990s, the band scored several Top 40 hits and won numerous awards for music from the multi-platinum albums Pump (1989), Get a Grip (1993), and Nine Lives (1997), while they embarked on their most extensive concert tours to date. Their biggest hit singles (all of which reached the Top 20) during this time included "Dude (Looks Like a Lady)", "Angel", "Rag Doll", "Love in an Elevator", "Janie's Got a Gun", "What it Takes", "Livin' on the Edge", "Cryin'", and "Crazy". The band also became a pop culture phenomenon with popular music videos and notable appearances in television, film, and video games. In 1998, they achieved their first number-one hit with "I Don't Want to Miss a Thing" from Armageddon's soundtrack and the following year, their own roller coaster attraction opened at Walt Disney World. Their comeback has been described as one of the most remarkable and spectacular in rock history. Additional albums Just Push Play (which included the Top 10 hit "Jaded"), Honkin' on Bobo (a collection of blues covers), and Music from Another Dimension! followed in 2001, 2004, and 2012 respectively, and in 2008, they released Guitar Hero: Aerosmith, which is considered to be the best-selling band-centric video game. After 50 years of performing, the band continues to tour and record music, but is embarking on a farewell tour that will likely last several years. The band has an ongoing concert residency in Las Vegas that will last through mid 2020.
Aerosmith is the best-selling American hard rock band of all time, having sold more than 150 million records worldwide, including over 70 million records in the United States alone. With 25 gold albums, 18 platinum albums, and 12 multi-platinum albums, they hold the record for the most total certifications by an American band and are tied for the most multi-platinum albums by an American band. The band has scored twenty-one Top 40 hits on the Billboard Hot 100, nine number-one Mainstream Rock hits, four Grammy Awards, six American Music Awards, and ten MTV Video Music Awards. They were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2001, and were included among both Rolling Stone's and VH1's lists of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time at number 57 and number 30 respectively. In 2013, the band's principal songwriters, Tyler and Perry, were inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame, and in 2020, the band received the MusiCares Person of the Year award.
Sir Michael Philip Jagger
(born 26 July 1943) is an English singer, songwriter, actor, and film producer who gained worldwide fame as the lead singer and one of the founder members of the Rolling Stones
. Jagger's career has spanned over five decades, and he has been described as "one of the most popular and influential frontmen in the history of rock & roll". His distinctive voice and energetic live performances, along with Keith Richards
' guitar style, have been the trademark of the Rolling Stones throughout the band's career. Jagger gained press notoriety for his romantic involvements, and was often portrayed as a countercultural
Jagger was born and grew up in Dartford, Kent. He studied at the London School of Economics before abandoning his academic career to join the Rolling Stones. Jagger has written most of the Rolling Stones' songs together with Richards, and they continue to collaborate musically. In the late 1960s, Jagger began acting in films (starting with Performance and Ned Kelly), to a mixed reception. He began a solo career in 1985, releasing his first album, She's the Boss, and joined the electric supergroup SuperHeavy in 2009. Relationships with the Stones' members, particularly Richards, deteriorated during the 1980s, but Jagger has always found more success with the band than with his solo and side projects.
In 1989, Jagger was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, and in 2004 into the UK Music Hall of Fame with the Rolling Stones. As a member of the Stones, and as a solo artist, he reached number one on the UK and US singles charts with 13 singles, the Top 10 with 32 singles and the Top 40 with 70 singles. In 2003, he was knighted for his services to popular music.
Jagger has been married (and divorced) once, and has also had several other relationships. Jagger has eight children with five women. He also has five grandchildren and became a great-grandfather on 19 May 2014, when his granddaughter Assisi gave birth to daughter Ezra Key. Jagger's net worth has been estimated at $360 million.
Song of Innocence is the debut album by American composer and producer David Axelrod. It was released in October 1968 by Capitol Records.
Axelrod sought to capitalize on the experimental climate of popular music and composed the album as a suite-like tone poem interpreting Songs of Innocence, a 1789 illustrated collection of poems by William Blake. He recorded the album at Capitol Studios in Los Angeles with an orchestra and studio musicians from the Wrecking Crew collective, including keyboardist and conductor Don Randi, guitarist Al Casey, bassist Carol Kaye, and drummer Earl Palmer.
Song of Innocence is an instrumental jazz fusion record that incorporates elements of classical, rock, funk, pop, and theatre music. It is arranged for bass, drums, and string instruments, written in the rock idiom with tempos centered on rock-based patterns by Palmer. Axelrod used contrast in his orchestral compositions, interspersing their euphoric psychedelic R&B structures with dramatic, harrowing arrangements to reflect the supernatural themes found in Blake's poems. The music's reverent, psychedelic overtones evoke the poet's themes of innocence and spirituality.
The album was innovative for its application of rock and jazz techniques, but it was not commercially successful and confounded contemporary critics, who viewed it as an ambitious but foolish curiosity piece. In the 1990s, critics reassessed Song of Innocence as a classic, while leading disc jockeys in hip hop and electronica rediscovered and sampled the album's music. "Holy Thursday", the record's best-known song, was frequently sampled by hip hop producers. The renewed interest in Axelrod's work prompted Stateside Records to reissue Song of Innocence in 2000.
"Fighter" is a song recorded by American singer Christina Aguilera for her fourth studio album, Stripped (2002). The song was written by Aguilera and Scott Storch, and produced by the latter. It was released by RCA Records as the third single from Stripped on March 13, 2003. Inspired by Guns N' Roses' song "November Rain", "Fighter" was characterized as a hybrid of rock and R&B that incorporates elements of arena rock and rock and roll. The track sees Aguilera thanking a man who had done wrong to her for making her a "fighter."
"Fighter" received mostly positive reviews from music critics, who praised Aguilera's vocals and the song's empowering lyrics. The single peaked at number 20 on the US Billboard Hot 100 and was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). As of September 2014, "Fighter" has sold 1.184 million copies in the United States. Elsewhere, the song reached the top ten of several national music charts, including those in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the Netherlands.
A music video for "Fighter" was directed by Floria Sigismondi. Aguilera performed the track on four of her major concert tours: Justified and Stripped Tour (2003), The Stripped Tour (2003), Back to Basics Tour (2006–2008), and Liberation Tour (2018). "Fighter" has been covered by several artists, including Jordin Sparks and Darren Criss.
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Hard rock is a loosely-defined subgenre of rock music typified by a heavy use of aggressive vocals, distorted electric guitars, bass guitar, and drums, sometimes accompanied with keyboards. It began in the mid-1960s with the garage, psychedelic and blues rock movements. Hard rock developed into a major form of popular music in the 1970s, with bands such as the Who, Boston, Led Zeppelin, Deep Purple, Aerosmith, Kiss, Queen, AC/DC and Van Halen. During the 1980s, some hard-rock bands moved away from their hard-rock roots and more towards pop rock,
Established bands made a comeback in the mid-1980s and hard rock reached a commercial peak in the 1980s, with glam metal bands like Bon Jovi, and Def Leppard and the rawer sounds of Guns N' Roses, which followed up with great success in the later part of that decade.
Hard rock began losing popularity with the commercial success of R&B, hip-hop, urban pop, grunge and later Britpop in the 1990s. Despite this, many post-grunge bands adopted a hard rock sound, and the 2000s saw a renewed interest in established bands, attempts at a revival, and new hard-rock bands that emerged from the garage rock and post-punk revival scenes. Out of this movement came garage rock bands like the White Stripes, the Strokes, Interpol and, later, the Black Keys. In the 2000s only a few hard-rock bands from the 1970s and 1980s managed to sustain highly successful recording careers.