Portal:Numismatics

The Numismatics Portal

Electrum coin from Ephesus, 520-500 BCE. Obverse: Forepart of stag. Reverse: Square incuse punch

Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, medals and related objects.

Specialists, known as numismatists, are often characterized as students or collectors of coins, but the discipline also includes the broader study of money and other means of payment used to resolve debts and exchange goods.

The earliest forms of money used by people are categorised by collectors as "Odd and Curious", but the use of other goods in barter exchange is excluded, even where used as a circulating currency (e.g., cigarettes or instant noodles in prison). As an example, the Kyrgyz people used horses as the principal currency unit, and gave small change in lambskins; the lambskins may be suitable for numismatic study, but the horses are not. Many objects have been used for centuries, such as cowry shells, precious metals, cocoa beans, large stones, and gems. (Full article...)

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Paget's unused design for silver coins depicting Edward VIII facing left

Thomas Humphrey Paget OBE (13 August 1893 – 30 April 1974) was an English medal and coin designer and modeller. Paget's designs are indicated by the initials 'HP'.

Paget was first approached by the Royal Mint in 1936 after the accession of King Edward VIII. Paget's recommendation had come via his earlier design for the obverse of a medal featuring the then-Prince of Wales. After some controversy regarding the direction the monarch was to face on the coinage (it had been tradition for each successive monarch to face in the opposite direction to the predecessor, but the King felt that the features of his left were better than his right), Paget's work was approved in two slightly differing designs: one for silver and another for non-silver. However, Edward's abdication meant that, apart from a few trial pieces, Paget's designs never reached the minting stage. Some did find their way out of the mint for testing purposes, and as such have become amongst the rarest and most collectable pieces of all sterling coinage. (Full article...)
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Reverse of a 1915 George V half-sovereign.

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Newfoundland 2 dollar coin

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The five dollar coin is the second-highest denomination coin of the Hong Kong dollar. It replaced the five dollar banknotes in 1976.

It was first issued as a 10-sided coin in 1976, under British rule. The coin was also made of copper-nickel but weighed 10.76 grams, was 31 mm in diameter and 2.08 mm thick. The obverse featured Arnold Machin's portrait of Queen Elizabeth II and the inscription Queen Elizabeth II. Its reverse featured a crowned British lion and the year of minting, as well as the country's name and the coin's denomination in both English and Chinese. (Full article...)

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HUP 100MB 1946 obverse.jpg
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100 000 000 b.‑pengő (1020 pengő). Highest numbered banknote issued during the worst hyperinflation in the history.

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Numismatic terminology

  • Bullion – Precious metals (platinum, gold and silver) in the form of bars, ingots or plate.
  • Error – Usually a mis-made coin not intended for circulation, but can also refer to an engraving or die-cutting error not discovered until the coins are released to circulation. This may result is two or more varieties of the coin in the same year.
  • Exonumia – The study of coin-like objects such as token coins and medals, and other items used in place of legal currency or for commemoration.
  • Fineness – Purity of precious metal content expressed in terms of one thousand parts. 90% is expressed as .900 fine.
  • Notaphily – The study of paper money or banknotes.
  • Scripophily – The study and collection of stocks and Bonds.

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Numismatic topics



List articles

Central banks • Currencies • Circulating currencies • Historical currencies • US community currencies • Canadian community currencies • Mints • Motifs on banknotes • Most expensive coins

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Most traded currencies

Most traded currencies by value
Currency distribution of global foreign exchange market turnover[1]
Rank Currency ISO 4217
code
Symbol or
abbreviation
Proportion of
daily volume,
April 2019
Proportion of
daily volume,
April 2022
1
U.S. dollar
USD
US$
88.3% 88.5%
2
Euro
EUR
32.3% 30.5%
3
Japanese yen
JPY
¥ / 円
16.8% 16.7%
4
Sterling
GBP
£
12.8% 12.9%
5
Renminbi
CNY
¥ / 元
4.3% 7.0%
6
Australian dollar
AUD
A$
6.8% 6.4%
7
Canadian dollar
CAD
C$
5.0% 6.2%
8
Swiss franc
CHF
CHF
5.0% 5.2%
9
Hong Kong dollar
HKD
HK$
3.5% 2.6%
10
Singapore dollar
SGD
S$
1.8% 2.4%
11
Swedish krona
SEK
kr
2.0% 2.2%
12
South Korean won
KRW
₩ / 원
2.0% 1.9%
13
Norwegian krone
NOK
kr
1.8% 1.7%
14
New Zealand dollar
NZD
NZ$
2.1% 1.7%
15
Indian rupee
INR
1.7% 1.6%
16
Mexican peso
MXN
$
1.7% 1.5%
17
New Taiwan dollar
TWD
NT$
0.9% 1.1%
18
South African rand
ZAR
R
1.1% 1.0%
19
Brazilian real
BRL
R$
1.1% 0.9%
20
Danish krone
DKK
kr
0.6% 0.7%
21
Polish złoty
PLN
0.6% 0.7%
22
Thai baht
THB
฿
0.5% 0.4%
23
Israeli new shekel
ILS
0.3% 0.4%
24
Indonesian rupiah
IDR
Rp
0.4% 0.4%
25
Czech koruna
CZK
0.4% 0.4%
26
UAE dirham
AED
د.إ
0.2% 0.4%
27
Turkish lira
TRY
1.1% 0.4%
28
Hungarian forint
HUF
Ft
0.4% 0.3%
29
Chilean peso
CLP
CLP$
0.3% 0.3%
30
Saudi riyal
SAR
0.2% 0.2%
31
Philippine peso
PHP
0.3% 0.2%
32
Malaysian ringgit
MYR
RM
0.1% 0.2%
33
Colombian peso
COP
COL$
0.2% 0.2%
34
Russian ruble
RUB
1.1% 0.2%
35
Romanian leu
RON
L
0.1% 0.1%
Other 2.2% 2.5%
Total[note 1] 200.0% 200.0%

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Sources

  1. ^ The total sum is 200% because each currency trade always involves a currency pair; one currency is sold (e.g. US$) and another bought (€). Therefore each trade is counted twice, once under the sold currency ($) and once under the bought currency (€). The percentages above are the percent of trades involving that currency regardless of whether it is bought or sold, e.g. the US dollar is bought or sold in 88% of all trades, whereas the euro is bought or sold 32% of the time.
  1. ^ "Triennial Central Bank Survey Foreign exchange turnover in April 2022" (PDF). Bank for International Settlements. 27 October 2022. p. 12. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-10-27. Retrieved 2022-10-29.
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