Portal:Iran


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به درگاه سرزمین ایران خوش آمدید
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Iran, (Persian: ايران‎, Īrān; pronunciation: [iːˈɾɒn]), officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ايران‎, transliteration: Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Īrān), formerly known internationally as Persia, is a country in Western Asia. The 18th largest country in the world, Iran is approximately the size of the United Kingdom, France, Spain, and Germany combined and has a population of over 82 million people. Iran borders Armenia, Azerbaijan, to the north-west, Russia and Kazakhstan through the Caspian Sea to the north, Turkmenistan to the north-east, Afghanistan and Pakistan to the east, and Turkey and Iraq to the west. In addition, it borders the Persian Gulf, an important oil-producing area, and the Caspian sea. Shi'a Islam is the official state religion and Persian the official language. The political system of Iran comprises several intricately connected governing bodies and is based on the 1979 Constitution. The highest state authority is the Supreme Leader, currently served by Ali Khamenei.

Iran has one of the oldest histories in the world, extending more than 5000 years, and throughout history, Iran has been of geostrategic importance because of its central location in Eurasia and Western Asia. Iran is a founding member of the UN, NAM, OIC, OPEC, and ECO. Iran as a major regional power occupies an important position in the world economy due to its substantial reserves of petroleum and natural gas, and has considerable regional influence in Western Asia. The name Iran is a cognate of Aryan and literally means "Land of the Aryans."

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The economy of Iran is the seventeenth largest in the world by purchasing power parity (PPP) and twenty-fifth by nominal gross domestic product. The country is the world's largest non-WTO economy and a member of Next Eleven. The economy of Iran is a mixed and transition economy with a large public sector and some 50% of the economy centrally planned. It is diversifed with over 40 industries directly involved in the Tehran Stock Exchange. Yet, most of the country's exports are oil and gas, accounting for a majority of government revenue in 2010. A unique feature of Iran's economy is the presence of large religious foundations, whose combined budgets make up more than 30% of central government spending. Due to its relative isolation from the global markets, Iran was initially able to avoid falling into recession in the aftermath of the 2008 global financial crisis. However, due to increasingly stringent sanctions imposed by the international community as a result of the country's nuclear program, the economy has started to shrink in 2012. Oil exports have halved, and Iraq has overtaken Iran in oil output for the first time since the 1980s. In September 2012, the Iranian currency fell to a record low of 23,900 rials to the US dollar. Distortions resulting from a combination of price controls and subsidies, particularly on food and energy, continue to burden the economy. Contraband, administrative controls, corruption, and other restrictive factors undermine the potential for private sector-led growth. High oil prices in recent years have enabled Iran to amass well over $100 billion in foreign exchange reserves. Whilst this has aided self-sufficiency and domestic investment, double-digit unemployment and inflation remain problematic. Iran's educated population, economic inefficiency, and insufficient foreign and domestic investment have prompted an increasing number of Iranians to seek employment overseas, resulting in a significant "brain drain".

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A Paykan seen here in the countryside.
Cr: Fabienkhan

An old model of Peykan near Chaldoran, West Azerbaijan, Iran.

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Alexander fighting the Persian king Darius III. From Alexander Mosaic, Naples National Archaeological Museum
Alexander was a king of Macedon, a state in northern ancient Greece. Born in Pella in 356 BC, Alexander was tutored by Aristotle until the age of 16. By the age of thirty, he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from the Ionian Sea to the Himalayas. Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of decisive battles, most notably the battles of Issus and Gaugamela. He subsequently overthrew the Persian King Darius III and conquered the entirety of the Persian Empire. At that point, his empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River. Alexander's settlement of Greek colonists and the resulting spread of Greek culture in the east resulted in a new Hellenistic civilization, aspects of which were still evident in the traditions of the Byzantine Empire in the mid-15th century. Alexander became legendary as a classical hero in the mold of Achilles, and he features prominently in the history and myth of Greek and non-Greek cultures. He became the measure against which military leaders compared themselves, and military academies throughout the world still teach his tactics.

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Mohsen Kadivar
There are approximately 100,000 clerics in Iran and over 60,000 of them are in Qom. Most of them are theology students who have been studying there for many years, between 10-25 years on average.... Every student has to study a minimum of 25 years before he can attain the status of ‘ayatollah’, however most students spend 10 years studying in the hawza.

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