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Location of Germany within Europe 

Germany (German: Deutschland German pronunciation: [ˈdɔʏtʃlant]), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland, About this soundlisten ), is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North seas to the north, and the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, and France, Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres (137,988 sq mi), and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With nearly 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying entirely in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a very decentralized country. Its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Dortmund and Essen. The country's other major cities are Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Leipzig, Dresden, Bremen, Hannover, and Nuremberg.

Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity. A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815. The German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights.

In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states (most notably excluding Switzerland and Austria) unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic. The Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, World War II and the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American, British, and French occupation zones, and East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone. Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990.

Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic with an elected president. It is a great power with a strong economy; it has the world's fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and the fifth-largest by PPP. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods. A developed country with a very high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, and a tuition-free university education.

The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993. It is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, and the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, philosophers, musicians, film people, sportspeople, entrepreneurs, scientists, engineers, and inventors. Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. Read more...

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In the news

7 December 2018 – Christian Democratic Union of Germany leadership election, 2018
Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer succeeds Angela Merkel as the new chairperson of the Christian Democratic Union, one of the major political parties in Germany. (The Guardian)
5 December 2018 – Death and state funeral of George H. W. Bush
U.S. President Donald Trump and former U.S. Presidents George W. Bush, Jimmy Carter, Barack Obama, and Bill Clinton attend the ceremony alongside German chancellor Angela Merkel and Britain's Prince Charles. (The Guardian)
29 November 2018 –
The German chemical and pharmaceutical company Bayer is to cut 12,000 jobs by the end of 2021 as part of an overhaul following its acquisition of Monsanto earlier in 2018. (CNN)
29 November 2018 – 2018 G20 Buenos Aires summit
An emergency landing delays German chancellor Angela Merkel's arrival at the summit due to a complete shutdown of the onboard-ground communication system aboard the official Airbus A340-313 Konrad Adenauer. (Der Spiegel) (BBC News)
23 November 2018 –
Workers at Amazon distribution centers in Germany and Spain protest labour conditions in a strike coinciding with the Black Friday shopping peak. (AP via WSFA) (Reuters)
11 November 2018 – Killing of Jamal Khashoggi, Foreign relations of Saudi Arabia
Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan says that recordings related to the killing of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi were issued to Saudi Arabia, the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany and France. (CNN)
7 November 2018 – Premiership of Justin Trudeau, History of the Jews in Canada
Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau issues an apology for the country's role in turning away the MS St. Louis, a ship carrying over 900 Jewish refugees fleeing persecution in Nazi Germany. (BBC) (Washington Post)
30 October 2018 – List of serial killers by number of victims
German convicted serial killer and former nurse Niels Högel begins his third trial (previous convictions were in 2008 and 2015), this time in Oldenburg, for additional patient murders by administering fatal doses of medication between 1999–2005 which may include his assignment as one of Germany's worst serial killers since World War II. At the beginning of the trial, Högel confesses to the murder of 100 of his patients. (BBC), (Deutsche Welle)

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