The Austria Portal
Topographical map of Austria
(, ; German
: Österreich [ˈøːstɐʁaɪ̯ç] (listen)
), officially the Republic of Austria
(German: Republik Österreich
, listen), is a landlocked East Alpine
country in the southern part of Central Europe
. It is composed of nine federated states
r), one of which is Vienna
, Austria's capital and its largest city. It is bordered by Germany
to the northwest, Czech Republic
to the north, Slovakia
to the northeast, Hungary
to the east, Slovenia
to the south, and Switzerland
to the west. Austria occupies an area of 83,879 km2
(32,386 sq mi) and has a population of nearly 9 million people
. While German
is the country's official language
, many Austrians communicate informally in a variety of Bavarian dialects
Austria initially emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal dynasties in history. As an archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Early in the 19th century, Austria established its own empire, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation but pursued its own course independently of the other German states. Following the Austro-Prussian War and the compromise with Hungary, the Dual Monarchy was established.
Austria was involved in World War I under Emperor Franz Joseph following the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand, the presumptive successor to the Austro-Hungarian throne. After the defeat and the dissolution of the Monarchy, the Republic of German-Austria was proclaimed with the intent of the union with Germany, which eventually failed because of the Allied Powers and the state remained unrecognized. In 1919 the First Austrian Republic became the legal successor of Austria. In 1938, the Austrian-born Adolf Hitler, who became the Chancellor of the German Reich, achieved the annexation of Austria by the Anschluss. Following the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945 and an extended period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as a sovereign and self-governing democratic nation known as the Second Republic.
Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a directly elected Federal President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of the federal government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz, Salzburg and Innsbruck. Austria is consistently ranked in the top 20 richest countries in the world by GDP per capita terms. The country has achieved a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. Vienna consistently ranks in the top internationally on quality-of-life indicators.
The Second Republic declared
its perpetual neutrality
in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union
in 1995. It plays host to the OSCE
and is a founding member of the OECD
. Austria also signed the Schengen Agreement
in 1995, and adopted the euro
currency in 1999.
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Joseph Roth, born Moses Joseph Roth (September 2, 1894 – May 27, 1939), was a journalist and novelist, best known for his family saga Radetzky March (1932) about the decline and fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and for his novel of Jewish life, Job (1930) as well as the seminal essay 'Juden auf Wanderschaft' (1927; translated into English as The Wandering Jews), a fragmented account about the Jewish migrations from eastern to western Europe in the aftermath of World War I and the Russian Revolution. In the 21st century, publications in English of Radetzky March and of collections of his journalism from Berlin and Paris created a revival of interest in the author. Despite suffering from chronic alcoholism, Roth remained prolific until his premature death in Paris in 1939. His final novella, The Legend of the Holy Drinker (1939), is considered to be one his finest.
The following are images from various Austria-related articles on Wikipedia.
Bilingual German-Hungarian sign in Oberwart, Burgenland.
An overflow crowd watches the simultaneous outdoor broadcast of a performance in National Concert Hall by the Vienna Philharmonic conducted by Simon Rattle.
Austria3 - from left: Georg Danzer, Rainhard Fendrich, Wolfgang Ambros.
Wiener Sängerknaben (Vienna Boys' Chorus) during a concert at the Wiener Musikverein
Seasonal migration to pasture
View of one of the main stairs (Hauptstiege) in the University of Vienna
Linz, part of main square
Golden Hall, from which the Vienna New Year's concert is broadcast
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