The term pogrom has multiple meanings, ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the term is usually applied to anti-Jewish violence in the Russian Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It has been extended to include any attacks against Jews and physical destruction of Jewish property, as well as looting of Jewish homes and businesses, throughout history. The characteristics of a pogrom vary widely, depending on the specific incidents, at times leading to, or culminating in, massacres. All outbreaks of antisemitic violence have become retrospectively known as pogroms.
The Russian-language term was adopted in the English language in order to describe the mass violence of 1881 and 1882 that was directed against Jews within the Pale of Settlement which was first created by Catherine the Great in what would become most of present-day Ukraine and Belarus, as well as parts of Lithuania, Moldova and Poland. The term pogrom is sometimes used, as well, to describe publicly sanctioned purgative attacks against non-Jewish ethnic or religious groups.
First recorded in 1882, the Russian word pogrom (погро́м, pronounced [pɐˈgrom]) is derived from the common prefix po- and the verb gromit' (громи́ть, pronounced [grɐˈmʲitʲ]) meaning "to destroy, to wreak havoc, to demolish violently". Its literal translation is "to harm". The noun "pogrom", which has a relatively short history, is used in English and many other languages as a loanword, possibly borrowed from Yiddish (where the word takes the form פאָגראָם). Its widespread circulation in today's world began with the antisemitic excesses in the Russian Empire in 1881–1883.
Anti-Jewish riots had already taken place in Europe during the Middle Ages. Jewish communities were targeted in the Black Death Jewish persecutions of 1348–1350, in Toulon in 1348, in Barcelona as well as in other Catalan cities, during the Erfurt massacre (1349), the Basel massacre, massacres in Aragon and in Flanders, as well as the "Valentine's Day" Strasbourg pogrom of 1349. Some 510 Jewish communities were destroyed during this period, extending further to the Brussels massacre of 1370. On Holy Saturday of 1389, a pogrom began in Prague that led to the burning of the Jewish quarter, the killing of many Jews, and the suicide of many Jews trapped in the main synagogue; the number of dead was estimated at 400–500 men, women and children.
The first atrocities against Jewish civilians, on a genocidal scale of destruction, were committed during the Khmelnytsky Pogroms of 1648–1657 in present-day Ukraine. Modern historians give estimates of the scale of the murders by Khmelnytsky's Cossacks ranging between 40,000 and 100,000 men, women and children, or perhaps many more.
The Russian Empire, which previously had very few Jews, acquired territories with large Jewish populations during the military Partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1772, 1793 and 1795 conducted jointly with the Austrian and Prussian armies, and resulting in Poland's elimination from the geopolitical map of Europe for the next 123 years. In conquered territories, a new political entity called the Pale of Settlement was formed in 1791 by Catherine the Great. Most Jewish people from the former Commonwealth were allowed to reside only within the Pale, including families expelled by royal decree from St. Petersburg, Moscow and other large Russian cities. The 1821 Odessa pogroms marked the beginning of the 19th century pogroms in Tsarist Russia; there were four more such pogroms in Odessa before the end of the century. Following the assassination of Alexander II in 1881 by Narodnaya Volya – blamed on the Jews by the Russian government, anti-Jewish events turned into a wave of over 200 pogroms by their modern definition, which lasted for several years. Jewish self-governing Kehillah were abolished by Tsar Nicholas I in 1844.
The first in 20th-century Russia was the Kishinev pogrom of 1903 in which 47 Jews were killed, hundreds wounded, 700 homes destroyed and 600 businesses pillaged. In the same year, pogroms took place in Gomel (Belarus), Smela, Feodosiya and Melitopol (Ukraine). Extreme savagery was typified by mutilations of the wounded. They were followed by the Zhitomir pogrom (with 29 killed), and the Kiev pogrom of October 1905 resulting in a massacre of approximately 100 Jews. In three years between 1903 and 1906, about 660 pogroms were recorded in Ukraine and Bessarabia; half a dozen more in Belorussia, carried out with the Russian government's complicity, but no anti-Jewish pogroms were recorded in Poland. At about that time, the Jewish Labor Bund began organizing armed self-defense units ready to shoot back, and the pogroms subsided for a number of years. According to professor Colin Tatz, between 1881 and 1920 there were 1,326 pogroms in Ukraine (see: Southwestern Krai parts of the Pale) which took the lives of 70,000 to 250,000 civilian Jews, leaving half a million homeless.
Large-scale pogroms, which began in the Russian Empire several decades earlier, intensified during the period of the Russian Civil War and the Revolution of 1917. Professor Zvi Gitelman (A Century of Ambivalence) estimated that only in 1918–1919 over 1,200 pogroms took place in Ukraine, thus amounting to the greatest slaughter of Jews in Eastern Europe since 1648. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn in his book Two Hundred Years Together provided additional statistics from research conducted by Nahum Gergel (1887–1931). Gergel counted 1,236 incidents of anti-Jewish violence and estimated that 887 mass pogroms occurred, the remainder being classified as "excesses" not assuming mass proportions. The Kiev pogroms of 1919, according to Gitelman, were the first of a subsequent wave of pogroms in which between 30,000 and 70,000 Jews were massacred across Ukraine. Of all the pogroms accounted for in Gergel's research, about 40 percent were perpetrated by the Ukrainian People's Republic forces led by Symon Petliura, 25 percent by the Ukrainian Green Army and various Ukrainian nationalist gangs, and 17 percent by the White Army, especially the forces of Anton Denikin. A further 8.5 percent of Gergel's total was attributed to pogroms carried out by men of the Red Army although these pogroms were not sanctioned by the Bolshevik leadership; the high command disarmed the regiments which had perpetrated pogroms. The Ukrainian People's Republic of Symon Petliura also issued orders condemning pogroms, but lacked authority to intervene. After May 1919 the Directory lost its role as a credible governing body; almost 75 percent of pogroms occurred between May and September of that year. Thousands of Jews were killed only for being Jewish, without any political affiliations.
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The instructions issued from above had only a limited impact on soldiers' attitudes toward violence against Jews, as related by author and future Nobel laureate Ivan Bunin. On May 15, 1919, Bunin wrote in his diary about yet another massacre:
Members of the Red Army in Odessa led a pogrom against the Jewish population in the town of Big Fountain. Ovsyaniko-Kulikovsky and the writer Kipen happened to be there and told me the details. Fourteen commissars and thirty Jews from among the common people were killed. Many stores were destroyed. The soldiers tore through the night, dragged the victims from their beds, and killed whomever they met. People ran into the steppe or rushed into the sea. They were chased after and fired upon – a genuine hunt, as it were. Kipen saved himself by accident – fortunately he had spent the night not in his home, but at the White Flower sanitorium. At dawn, a detachment of Red Army soldiers appeared. 'Are there any Jews here?' they asked the watchman. 'No, no Jews here.' 'Swear what you're saying is true!' The watchman swore, and they went on farther. Moisei Gutman, a cab [driver], was killed. He was a dear man who moved us from our dacha last fall.
Gergel's overall figures, which are generally considered conservative, are based on the testimony of witnesses and newspaper reports collected by the Mizrakh-Yidish Historiche Arkhiv which was first based in Kiev, then Berlin and later New York. The English version of Gergel's article was published in 1951 in the YIVO Annual of Jewish Social Science titled "The Pogroms in the Ukraine in 1918–1921."
In June 1919, during the Polish–Soviet War, the Jewish First Guard Battalion from Minsk – at the insistence of its own members – was deployed by the Bolsheviks against the Polish Army which included the First and the Second Lithuanian–Belarusian Divisions. The Jews had won the first skirmish, forcing them to retreat several kilometers. On 8 August 1919, Polish troops took over the city in Operation Minsk, killed 31 Jews merely suspected of supporting the Bolshevist movement, beat and attacked many more, looted 377 Jewish-owned shops (aided by the local civilians) and ransacked many private homes. The aftermath of the pogrom in Minsk was described on an emotional level by Rabbi Yechezkel Abramsky in July 1920. The "Morgenthau's report of October 1919 stated that there is no question that some of the Jewish leaders exaggerated these evils." According to Elissa Bemporad, the "violence endured by the Jewish population under the Poles encouraged popular support for the Red Army, as Jewish public opinion welcomed the establishment of the Belorussian SSR." Irrespective of war-zone violence, the Jewish political groups, communal institutions and cultural organizations of all stripes were active in the Second Polish Republic.
In the early 20th century, pogroms broke out elsewhere in the world as well. In 1904 in Ireland, the Limerick boycott caused several Jewish families to leave the town. During the 1911 Tredegar riot in Wales, Jewish homes and businesses were looted and burned over the period of a week, before the British Army was called in by then-Home Secretary Winston Churchill, who described the riot as a "pogrom". In 1919 there was a pogrom in Argentina, during the Tragic Week.
After the First World War, during the localized armed conflicts of independence, 72 Jews were killed and 443 injured in the 1918 Lwów pogrom. The following year, pogroms were reported by the New York Tribune in several cities in the newly reborn Poland. However, the reports were not only exaggerated but also manufactured by the German legation in Warsaw, quietly opposed to the rebirth of Poland after a century of imperial partitions. The German reports were delivered to Zionist headquarters and the foreign press elsewhere by the official services of the Wilhelmstrasse. Meanwhile, in the Mandatory Palestine under British administration, the Jews were targeted in the 1929 Hebron massacre and the 1929 Safed pogrom.
The first pogrom in Nazi Germany was the Kristallnacht, often called Pogromnacht, in which at least 91 Jews were killed, a further 30,000 arrested and incarcerated in Nazi concentration camps, over 1,000 synagogues burned, and over 7,000 Jewish businesses destroyed or damaged.
During World War II, Nazi German death squads encouraged local populations in German-occupied Europe to commit pogroms against Jews. Brand new battalions of Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz (trained by SD agents) were mobilized from among the German minorities. During Operation Barbarossa which lasted from June 22 to December 5, 1941, Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler established the Schutzmannschaft collaborationist auxiliary battalions and tasked them with carrying out pogroms behind the front lines.
A large number of pogroms occurred during the Holocaust at the hands of non-Germans. Perhaps the deadliest of these Holocaust-era pogroms was the Iași pogrom in Romania, in which as many as 13,266 Jews were killed by Romanian citizens, police and military officials.
On 1–2 June 1941, in the two-day Farhud pogrom in Iraq, "rioters murdered between 150 and 180 Jews, injured 600 others, and raped an undetermined number of women. They also looted some 1,500 stores and homes".
In June–July 1941, encouraged by the Einsatzgruppen in the city of Lviv – location of the Lwów ghetto – the Ukrainian People's Militia soon reorganized as the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police perpetrated two citywide pogroms in which around 6,000 Polish Jews were murdered, in retribution for alleged collaboration with the Soviet NKVD; the controversy surrounding the Lviv pogroms of 1941 is still debated today. On 12 October 1941 in Stanisławów, some 10,000–12,000 Jewish men, women and children were shot in the Jewish cemetery by the Germans and the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police during so-called "Bloody Sunday" (de). The shooters began firing at 12 noon, and continued without stopping by taking turns. It was the single largest massacre of Jews in the General Government prior to mass gassings of Aktion Reinhard.
In Lithuania, some local police led by Algirdas Klimaitis and Lithuanian partisans – consisting of LAF units reinforced by 3,600 deserters from the 29th Lithuanian Territorial Corps of the Red Army promulgated anti-Jewish pogroms in Kaunas along with occupying Nazis. On 25–26 June 1941, about 3,800 Jews were killed and synagogues and Jewish settlements burned.
During the Jedwabne pogrom of July 1941, some non-Jewish Poles burned at least 340 Jews in a barn (Institute of National Remembrance) in the presence of Nazi German Ordnungspolizei. The role of the German Einsatzgruppe B remains the subject of debate.
After the end of World War II, a series of violent antisemitic incidents occurred against returning Jews throughout Europe, particularly in the Soviet-occupied East where Nazi propagandists had extensively promoted the notion of a Jewish-Communist conspiracy (see Anti-Jewish violence in Poland, 1944–1946 and Anti-Jewish violence in Eastern Europe, 1944–1946). Anti-Jewish riots also took place in Britain in 1947.
In the Arab world, anti-Jewish rioters killed over 140 Jews in the 1945 Anti-Jewish Riots in Tripolitania. Following the start of the 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine, a number of anti-Jewish events occurred throughout the Arab world, some of which have been described as pogroms. In 1947, half of Aleppo's 10,000 Jews left the city in the wake of the Aleppo riots, while other anti-Jewish riots took place in British Aden and the French Moroccan cities of Oujda and Jerada.
According to Encyclopædia Britannica, "the term is usually applied to attacks on Jews in the Russian Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, [and] the first extensive pogroms followed the assassination of Tsar Alexander II in 1881", and the Wiley-Blackwell Dictionary of Modern European History Since 1789 states that pogroms "were antisemitic disturbances that periodically occurred within the tsarist empire." However, the term is widely used to refer to many events which occurred prior to the Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire. Historian of Russian Jewry John Klier writes in Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881–1882 that "By the twentieth century, the word 'pogrom' had become a generic term in English for all forms of collective violence directed against Jews." Abramson wrote that "in mainstream usage the word has come to imply an act of antisemitism", since while "Jews have not been the only group to suffer under this phenomenon ... historically Jews have been frequent victims of such violence".
The term is also used in reference to attacks on non-Jewish ethnic minorities, and accordingly some scholars do not include antisemitism as the defining characteristic of pogroms. Reviewing its uses in scholarly literature, historian Werner Bergmann proposes that pogroms should be "defined as a unilateral, nongovernmental form of collective violence initiated by the majority population against a largely defenseless ethnic group, and he states that pogroms occur when the majority expects the state to provide them with no assistance in overcoming a (perceived) threat from the minority," but he adds that in Western usage, the word's "anti-Semitic overtones" have been retained. Historian David Engel supports this, writing that "there can be no logically or empirically compelling grounds for declaring that some particular episode does or does not merit the label [pogrom]," but states that the majority of the incidents "habitually" described as pogroms took place in societies significantly divided by ethnicity and/or religion where the violence was committed by the higher-ranking group against a stereotyped lower-ranking group against whom they expressed some complaint, and with the belief that the law of the land would not be used to stop them.
There is no universally accepted set of characteristics which define the term pogrom. Klier writes that "when applied indiscriminately to events in Eastern Europe, the term can be misleading, the more so when it implies that 'pogroms' were regular events in the region and that they always shared common features." Use of the term pogrom to refer to events in 1918–19 in Polish cities including Kielce, Pinsk and Lwów, was specifically avoided in the 1919 Morgenthau Report and the word "excesses" was used instead because the authors argued that the use of the term "pogrom" required a situation to be antisemitic rather than political in nature, which meant that it was inapplicable to the conditions existing in a war zone, and media use of the term pogrom to refer to the 1991 Crown Heights riot caused public controversy. In 2008, two separate attacks in the West Bank by Israeli Jewish settlers on Palestinian Arabs were characterized as pogroms by then Prime Minister of Israel Ehud Olmert.
Werner Bergmann suggests a particularly unifying characteristic of all such incidents: "[b]y the collective attribution of a threat, the pogrom differs from other forms of violence, such as lynchings, which are directed at individual members of a minority group, while the imbalance of power in favor of the rioters distinguishes pogroms from other forms of riot (food riots, race riots or 'communal riots' between evenly matched groups); and again, the low level of organization separates them from vigilantism, terrorism, massacre and genocide".
This is a partial list of events for which one of the commonly accepted names includes the word "pogrom".
|Date||Pogrom name||Alternative name(s)||Deaths||Description|
|38||Alexandrian pogrom (name disputed)[a]||Alexandrian riots||Aulus Avilius Flaccus, the Egyptian prefect of Alexandria appointed by Tiberius in 32 CE, may have encouraged the outbreak of violence; Philo wrote that Flaccus was later arrested and eventually executed for his part in this event. Scholarly research around the subject has been divided on certain points, including whether the Alexandrian Jews fought to keep their citizenship or to acquire it, whether they evaded the payment of the poll-tax or prevented any attempts to impose it on them, and whether they were safeguarding their identity against the Greeks or against the Egyptians.|
|1066||Granada pogrom||1066 Granada massacre||4,000 Jews||A mob stormed the royal palace in Granada, which was at that time in Muslim-ruled al-Andalus, assassinated the Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela and massacred much of the Jewish population of the city.|
|1096||1096 pogroms||Rhineland massacres||2,000 Jews||Peasant crusaders from France and Germany during the People's Crusade, led by Peter the Hermit (and not sanctioned by the hierarchy of the Catholic Church), attacked Jewish communities in the three towns of Speyer, Worms and Mainz. They were the first Christian pogroms to be officially recorded.|
|1113||Kiev pogrom (name disputed)[b]||Kiev revolt||Rebellion sparked by the death of the Grand Prince of Kiev, in which Jews connected to the prince's economic affairs were among the victims|
|1349||Strasbourg pogrom||Strasbourg massacre|
|1506||Lisbon pogrom||Lisbon massacre||500 New Christians||After an episode of famine and bad harvests, a pogrom happened in Lisbon, Portugal, in which more than 500 "New Christian" (forcibly converted Jews) people were slaughtered and/or burnt by an angry Christian mob, in the first night of what became known as the "Lisbon Massacre". The killing occurred from 19 to 21 April, almost eliminating the entire Jewish or Jewish-descendant community residing in that city. Even the Portuguese military and the king himself had difficulty stopping it. The event is today remembered with a monument in S. Domingos' church.|
|1563||Polotsk pogrom (name disputed)[c]||Polotsk drownings||Following the fall of Polotsk to the army of Ivan IV, all those who refused to convert to Orthodox Christianity were ordered drowned in the Western Dvina river|
|1821–1871||First Odessa pogroms||The Greeks of Odessa attacked the local Jewish community, in what began as economic disputes|
|1881–1884||First Russian Tsarist pogroms||A large-scale wave of anti-Jewish riots swept through south-western Imperial Russia (present-day Ukraine and Poland) from 1881 to 1884 (in that period over 200 anti-Jewish events occurred in the Russian Empire, notably the Kiev, Warsaw and Odessa pogroms)|
|1881||Warsaw pogrom||2 Jews killed, 24 injured||Three days of rioting against Jews, Jewish stores, businesses, and residences in the streets adjoining the Holy Cross Church.|
|1902||Częstochowa pogrom (name disputed)||14 Jews||A mob attacked the Jewish shops, killing fourteen Jews and one gendarme. The Russian military brought to restore order were stoned by mob.|
|1903–1906||Second Russian Tsarist pogroms||2,000+ Jews||A much bloodier wave of pogroms broke out from 1903 to 1906, leaving an estimated 2,000 Jews dead and many more wounded, as many Jewish residents took arms to defend their families and property from the attackers. The 1905 pogrom against the Jewish population in Odessa was the most serious pogrom of the period, with reports of up to 2,500 Jewish people killed.|
|1903||First Kishinev pogrom||47 Jews (Included above)||Three days of anti-Jewish rioting sparked by anti-semitic articles in local newspapers|
|1904||Limerick pogrom (name disputed)[d]||Limerick boycott||None||An economic boycott waged against the small Jewish community in Limerick, Ireland, for over two years|
|1905||Second Kishinev pogrom||19 Jews (Included above)||Two days of anti-Jewish rioting beginning as political protests against the Tsar|
|1905||Kiev Pogrom (1905)||100 Jews (Included above)||Following a city hall meeting, a mob was drawn into the streets, proclaiming that "all Russia's troubles stemmed from the machinations of the Jews and socialists."|
|1906||Siedlce pogrom||26 Jews (Included above)||An attack organized by the Russian secret police (Okhrana). Anti-semitic pamphlets had been distributed for over a week and before any unrest begun, a curfew was declared.|
|1909||Adana pogrom||Adana massacre||30,000 Armenians||A massacre of Armenians in the city of Adana amidst the Countercoup (1909) resulted in a series of anti-Armenian pogroms throughout the district.|
|1911||Tredegar pogrom (name disputed)
|Tredegar riots||None||Jewish shops were ransacked and the army had to be brought in|
|1914||Anti-Serb pogrom in Sarajevo||Sarajevo frenzy of hate||2 Serbs||Occurred shortly after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.|
|1918||Lwów pogrom (name disputed)[f]||Lemberg massacre||52–150 Jews, 270 Ukrainians||During the Polish-Ukrainian War over three days of unrest in the city, an estimated 52–150 Jewish residents were killed and hundreds more were injured, with widespread looting carried out by Polish soldiers, as well as by lawless civilians, and local criminals. Two hundred and seventy Ukrainians were also killed during this incident. The Poles did not stop the pogrom until two days after it began. The independent investigations by the British and American missions in Poland stated that there were no clear conclusions and that foreign press reports were exaggerated.|
|1918-1919||Guba City Pogrom||3,000-10,000||Massacre of Mountain Jews in Azerbaijan by Armenian nationalist groups|
|1919||Kiev Pogroms (1919)||60+||A series of Jewish pogroms in various places around Kiev carried out by White Volunteer Army troops|
|1919||Pinsk pogrom (name disputed)[g]||Pinsk massacre||36 Jews||Mass execution of thirty-five Jewish residents of Pinsk in April 1919 by the Polish Army, during the opening stages of the Polish-Soviet War|
|1919–20||Vilna pogrom (name disputed)[h]||Vilna offensive||65+ Jews and non-Jews||As Polish troops entered the city, dozens of people connected with the Lit-Bel were arrested, and some were executed|
|1921||Tulsa pogrom||Tulsa race riot, Little Africa on Fire||Up to 300 Blacks||Destruction of the Greenwood community of Tulsa, the wealthiest black community in the United States, by a white mob with the support of authorities, following an unfounded accusation of sexual assault by a black man against a white woman.|
|1929||Hebron pogrom||Hebron massacre||67 Jews||During the 1929 Palestine riots, sixty-seven Jews were killed as the violence spread to Hebron, then part of Mandatory Palestine, by Arabs incited to violence by rumors that Jews were massacring Arabs in Jerusalem and seizing control of Muslim holy places.|
|1936||Przytyk pogrom (name disputed)[i]||Przytyk riot||2 Jews and 1 Polish||Some of the Jewish residents gathered in the town square in anticipation of the attack by the peasants, but nothing happened on that day. Two days later, however, on a market day, as Jewish historians Martin Gilbert and David Vital claim, peasants attacked their Jewish neighbors.|
|1938||November pogrom||Kristallnacht||91 Jews||Coordinated attacks against Jews throughout Nazi Germany and parts of Austria, carried out by SA paramilitary forces and non-Jewish civilians. Accounts from the foreign journalists working in Germany sent shock waves around the world.|
|1940||Dorohoi pogrom||53 Jews||Romanian military units carried out a pogrom against the local Jews, during which, according to an official Romanian report, 53 Jews were murdered, and dozens injured|
|1941||Iași pogrom||13,266 Jews||One of the most violent pogroms in Jewish history, launched by governmental forces in the Romanian city of Iaşi (Jassy) against its Jewish population.|
|1941||Antwerp Pogrom||0||One of the few pogroms of Belgian history. Flemish collaborators attacked and burned synagogues and attacked a rabbi in the city of Antwerp|
|1941||Bucharest pogrom||Legionnaires' rebellion||125 Jews and 30 soldiers||As the privileges of the paramilitary organisation Iron Guard were being cut off by Conducător Ion Antonescu, members of the Iron Guard, also known as the Legionnaires, revolted. During the rebellion and pogrom, the Iron Guard killed 125 Jews and 30 soldiers died in the confrontation with the rebels.|
|1941||Tykocin pogrom||1,400–1,700 Jews||Mass murder of Jewish residents of Tykocin in occupied Poland during World War II, soon after Nazi German attack on the Soviet Union.|
|1941||Jedwabne pogrom||340 Jews||The local rabbi was forced to lead a procession of about 40 people to a pre-emptied barn, killed and buried along with fragments of a destroyed monument of Lenin. A further 250-300 Jews were led to the same barn later that day, locked inside and burned alive using kerosene|
|1941||Pogrom in Krnjeuša||240 Croats||An organized attack in the territory of the Catholic parish of Krnjeuša in northwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina, carried out by Serb Chetniks against the local Catholic Croat population|
|1941||Farhud||180 Jewish Iraqis|
|1941||Lviv pogroms||4,000–8,000 civilian prisoners and 5,000 Jews||Massacres of civilian prisoners by Soviet forces prior to evacuation, followed by massacre of Jews by German and other forces. Subject of a protracted controversy|
|1946||Kunmadaras pogrom||4 Jews||A frenzy instigated by the crowd's libelous belief that some Jewish people had made sausage out of Christian children|
|1946||Miskolc pogrom||2 Jews||Riots started as demonstrations against economic hardships and later became anti-Semitic|
|1946||Kielce pogrom||38–42 Jews||Violence against the Jewish community centre, initiated by Polish Communist armed forces (LWP, KBW, GZI WP) and continued by a mob of local townsfolk.|
|1955||Istanbul pogrom||Istanbul riots||13–30 Greeks||Organized mob attacks directed primarily at Istanbul's Greek minority. Accelerated the emigration of ethnic Greeks from Turkey (Jews were also targeted in this event).|
|1956||1956 Ceylonese riots||1956 anti-Tamil pogrom||150 Primarily Tamils||1956 anti-Tamil pogrom or Gal Oya massacre/riots were the first ethnic riots that targeted the minority Tamils in independent Sri Lanka.|
|1958||1958 anti-Tamil pogrom||1958 anti-Tamil pogrom||300 Primarily Tamils||1958 anti-Tamil pogrom also known as 58 riots, refer to the first island wide ethnic riots and pogrom in Sri Lanka.|
|1964||Zanzibar Revolution||1964 anti-Arab pogrom||At least 80 killed and 200 injured during revolution (the majority were Arabs), up to 20,000 civilians killed in the aftermath.||The Zanzibar Revolution occurred in 1964 and led to the overthrow of the Sultan of Zanzibar and his mainly Arab government by local African revolutionaries. The revolution ended 200 years of Arab dominance in Zanzibar, and resulted in the merger of Zanzibar with Tanganyika to form the new nation of Tanzania. Commemorated on the island each year as independence day with anniversary celebrations and a public holiday.|
|1966||1966 anti-Igbo pogrom||A series of massacres directed at Igbo and other southern Nigerian residents throughout Nigeria before and after the overthrow (and assassination) of the Aguiyi-Ironsi junta by Murtala Mohammed.|
|1977||1977 anti-Tamil pogrom||300-1500 Primarily Tamils||The 1977 anti-Tamil pogrom followed the 1977 general elections in Sri Lanka where the Sri Lankan Tamil nationalistic Tamil United Liberation Front won a plurality of minority Sri Lankan Tamil votes in which it stood for secession.|
|1983||Black July||1983 anti-Tamil pogrom||400–3,000 Tamils||Over seven days mobs of mainly Sinhalese attacked Tamil targets, burning, looting and killing|
|1984||1984 anti-Sikh riots||1984 anti-Sikh pogrom||8,000 Sikhs||In October 1984 anti-Sikh pogrom in Delhi, and other parts of India, Sikhs in India were targeted|
|1988||Sumgait pogrom||26+ (or about 100-300) Armenians and 6+ Azeris (possibly rioters)||Mobs made up largely of ethnic Azeris formed into groups that went on to attack and kill Armenians both on the streets and in their apartments; widespread looting and a general lack of concern from police officers allowed the situation to worsen|
|1988||Kirovabad pogrom||3+ Soviet soldiers, 3+ Azeris and 1+ Armenian||Ethnic Azeris attacked Armenians throughout the city|
|1989||1989 Bangladesh pogroms||Attacks against Bengali Hindus, apparently as a reaction to the laying of the foundation of Ram temple adjacent to the disputed structure in Ayodhya|
|1990||Baku pogrom||90 Armenians, 20 Russian soldiers||Seven-day attack during which Armenians were beaten, tortured, murdered and expelled from the city. There were also many raids on apartments, robberies and arsons|
|1991||Crown Heights pogrom (disputed)[j]||Crown Heights riot||1 Jew and 1 non-Jew||A three-day riot that occurred in the Crown Heights section of Brooklyn, New York. The riots incited by the death of the seven-year-old Gavin Cato, unleashed simmering tensions within Crown Heights' black community against the Orthodox Jewish community. In its wake, several Jews were seriously injured; one Orthodox Jewish man, Yankel Rosenbaum, was killed; and a non-Jewish man, allegedly mistaken by rioters for a Jew, was killed by a group of African-American men.|
|1991||Mława pogrom||Five days of rioting in which a mob attacked Roma residents of the Polish town of Mława causing hundreds to flee in terror after the killing of a Polish pedestrian struck along with his companion in a hit-and-run by a Romani male driver.|
|2002||Gujarat pogrom||2002 Gujarat violence||790–2,000 Muslims and 254 Hindus||Inter-communal violence in the Indian state of Gujarat which lasted for approximately three days with the state government being accused of supporting or even instigating the riots|
|2004||March pogrom||2004 unrest in Kosovo||16 ethnic Serbs||Over 4,000 Serbs were forced to leave their homes, 935 Serb houses, 10 public facilities and 35 Serbian Orthodox church-buildings were desecrated, damaged or destroyed, and six towns and nine villages were ethnically cleansed according to Serbian media|
|2013||2013 Burma anti-Muslim riots||anti-Rohingya pogrom||Rohingya Muslims||Muslims called the Rohingyas were targeted in the Buddhist-majority Myanmar.|
The common usage of the term pogrom to describe any attack against Jews throughout history disguises the great variation in the scale, nature, motivation and intent of such violence at different times.
(Russian: "devastation" or "riot"), a mob attack, either approved or condoned by authorities, against the persons and property of a religious, racial, or national minority. The term is usually applied to attacks on Jews in the Russian Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Most contemporaries claimed that the pogroms were directed against Jewish property, not against Jews, a claim so far not contradicted by research.
The pogroms themselves seem to have largely followed a set of unwritten rules. They were directed against Jewish property only.
By the twentieth century, the word "pogrom" had become a generic term in English for all forms of collective violence directed against Jews. The term was especially associated with Eastern Europe and the Russian Empire, the scene of the most serious outbreaks of anti-Jewish violence before the Holocaust. Yet when applied indiscriminately to events in Eastern Europe, the term can be misleading, the more so when it implies that "pogroms" were regular events in the region and that they always shared common features. In fact, outbreaks of mass violence against Jews were extraordinary events, not a regular feature of East European life.
Engel states that although there are no "essential defining characteristics of a pogrom", the majority of the incidents "habitually" described as pogroms "took place in divided societies in which ethnicity or religion (or both) served as significant definers of both social boundaries and social rank.
The etymological roots of the term pogrom are unclear, although it seems to be derived from the Slavic word for "thunder(bolt)" (Russian: grom, Ukrainian: hrim). The first syllable, po-, is a prefix indicating "means" or "target". The word therefore seems to imply a sudden burst of energy (thunderbolt) directed at a specific target. A pogrom is generally thought of as a cross between a popular riot and a military atrocity, where an unarmed civilian, often urban, population is attacked by either an army unit or peasants from surrounding villages, or a combination of the two.
Note 45. It should be remembered that for all the violence and property damage caused by the 1881 pogroms, the number of deaths could be counted on one hand.Further information: Oleg Budnitskii (2012). Russian Jews Between the Reds and the Whites, 1917-1920. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 17–20. ISBN 978-0812208146.
The battalion 'forced the Poles to retreat several versts' [one verst is roughly equal to 1 kilometer].
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After the end of the fighting and as a result of the Polish victory, some of the Polish soldiers and the civilian population started a pogrom against the Jewish inhabitants. Polish soldiers maintained that the Jews had sympathized with the Ukrainian position during the conflicts
From The USHMM Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945.
It is impossible to determine what Krueger's exact responsibility was in connection with 'Bloody Sunday' [massacre of 12 October 1941]. It is clear that a massacre of such proportions under German civil administration was virtually unprecedented.
...Andric describes the "Sarajevo frenzy of hate" that erupted among Muslims, Roman Catholics, and Orthodox believers following the assassination on June 28, 1914, of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo...
Giuliani called the riots a pogrom.