Phags-pa (Unicode block)

(64 code points)
ScriptsPhags Pa
Major alphabetsMongolian
Assigned56 code points
Unused8 reserved code points
Unicode version history
5.056 (+56)
Note: [1][2]

Phags-pa is a Unicode block containing characters from the 'Phags-pa script promulgated as a national script by Kublai Khan. It was used primarily in writing Mongolian and Chinese, although it was intended for the use of all languages of the Mongol Empire.


Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
1.^ As of Unicode version 13.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

The block has six variation sequences defined for standardized variants.[3] They use U+FE00 VARIATION SELECTOR-1 (VS01):

Variation sequences for reversed shaping
U+ A856 A85C A85E A85F A860 A868
base code point
base + VS01 ꡖ︀ ꡜ︀ ꡞ︀ ꡟ︀ ꡠ︀ ꡨ︀

Note that four vowel letters have positional variants:

Positional forms of I, U, E, and O
Character Orientation Isolate Initial Medial Final
U+A85E PHAGS-PA LETTER I regular ꡞ‍ ‍ꡞ‍ ‍ꡞ
reversed ꡞ︀ ꡞ︀‍ ‍ꡞ︀‍ ‍ꡞ︀
U+A85F PHAGS-PA LETTER U regular ꡟ‍ ‍ꡟ‍ ‍ꡟ
reversed ꡟ︀ ꡟ︀‍ ‍ꡟ︀‍ ‍ꡟ︀
U+A860 PHAGS-PA LETTER E regular ꡠ‍ ‍ꡠ‍ ‍ꡠ
reversed ꡠ︀ ꡠ︀‍ ‍ꡠ︀‍ ‍ꡠ︀
U+A861 PHAGS-PA LETTER O regular ꡡ‍ ‍ꡡ‍ ‍ꡡ


The following Unicode-related documents record the purpose and process of defining specific characters in the Phags-pa block:

Version Final code points[a] Count L2 ID WG2 ID Document
5.0 U+A840..A877 56 L2/00-055 N2163 (pdf, doc) Sato, T. K. (2000-01-06), Soyombo and Pagba (old Mongol scripts)
L2/03-224 Baxter, William H. (2003-07-10), Email on 'Phags-pa
L2/03-246 Quejingzhabu; West, Andrew (2003-08-12), Letter commenting on Phags-pa encoding
L2/03-269 West, Andrew; Fynn, Christopher (2003-08-16), E-mail questions and answers on Phags-pa encoding
L2/03-229R3 N2622 West, Andrew (2003-09-18), Proposal to encode the Phags-pa script
L2/03-366 N2666 Principles on Encoding Phags-pa Script, 2003-10-20
L2/03-374 West, Andrew (2003-10-22), Response to N2666 (Principles on Encoding Phags-pa Script)
N2912 Constable, Peter (2004-01-22), Open Issues on Phags-pa Encoding
L2/04-085 N2706 Summary of Voting on ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2 N 3696 : Project Subdivision Proposal for ISO/IEC 10646: 2003/Amendment 1, 2004-02-03
L2/04-112 N2719 West, Andrew (2004-03-10), Response to Comments on Phags-pa Proposal in N2706
L2/04-134 N2745 HPhags-pa script encoding, 2004-04-02
L2/04-174 N2771 West, Andrew (2004-06-01), Comments on Chinese-Mongolian joint proposal to encode the Hphags-pa script (N2475)
L2/04-275 N2829 Chen, Zhuang; Jia La, Sen; He Xi Ge Du, Ren; Tumurtogoo, Domi; Everson, Michael; Sekiguchi; Constable, Peter; Whistler, Ken; Freytag, Asmus (2004-06-22), Consensus on the encoding of the Phags-pa script in the PDAM code chart
L2/04-414 N2870 Summary of the Revised User's Agreement Related to Phags-pa Script, 2004-10-25
L2/04-412 N2869 Proposal to Encode the Phags-Pa Script, 2004-11-17
L2/04-413 N2869c Cover letter to Updated proposal to encode the Phags-pa Script, 2004-11-17
L2/04-415 N2871 Some Problems on the Encoding of the Phags-pa Script, 2004-11-17
L2/05-036 N2922 Consensus on Encoding Phags-pa Script, 2005-01-25
L2/05-059 Whistler, Ken (2005-02-03), "1. Phags-pa", WG2 Consent Docket, Part 2: Unicode 5.0 Issues
L2/05-026 Moore, Lisa (2005-05-16), "WG2 - Unicode 5.0 Consent Docket (B.1.16)", UTC #102 Minutes
L2/05-219 N2964 A User’s Agreement Related to Phags-pa Script, 2005-08-05
L2/05-255 N2972 West, Andrew (2005-08-17), Glyph Forms for PHAGS-PA LETTER YA and PHAGS-PA LETTER ALTERNATE YA
L2/05-257 N2979 West, Andrew (2005-09-01), Phags-pa Glyphs
L2/05-270 Whistler, Ken (2005-09-21), "F. Phags-pa Glyphs", WG2 Consent Docket (Sophia Antipolis)
L2/05-279 Moore, Lisa (2005-11-10), "Consensus 105-C29", UTC #105 Minutes
N2953 (pdf, doc) Umamaheswaran, V. S. (2006-02-16), "7.2.1", Unconfirmed minutes of WG 2 meeting 47, Sophia Antipolis, France; 2005-09-12/15
L2/12-360 Esfahbod, Behdad; Pournader, Roozbeh (2012-11-05), Mongolian and 'Phags-Pa Shaping
L2/12-343R2 Moore, Lisa (2012-12-04), "B.14.5 Mongolian Shaping", UTC #133 Minutes
L2/13-146 N4435 Suignard, Michel (2013-05-27), Presentation of vertical scripts
L2/13-132 Moore, Lisa (2013-07-29), "B.1.7 Presentation of vertical scripts", UTC #136 Minutes
N4403 (pdf, doc) Umamaheswaran, V. S. (2014-01-28), "11.1.2 Presentation of Vertical scripts (Mongolian and Phags-pa)", Unconfirmed minutes of WG 2 meeting 61, Holiday Inn, Vilnius, Lithuania; 2013-06-10/14
L2/18-278 Dyi-Yuaan, Lo (2018-08-30), A Glyph Error of 'Phags-pa Alternate YA (U+A86D)
L2/18-280 N5012 West, Andrew (2018-08-30), Discussion of 'Glyph Error of 'Phags-pa Alternate YA'
L2/18-272 Moore, Lisa (2018-10-29), "C.5.1 A Glyph Error of 'Phags-pa Alternate YA (U+A86D)", UTC #157 Minutes
  1. ^ Proposed code points and characters names may differ from final code points and names


  1. ^ "Unicode character database". The Unicode Standard. Retrieved 2016-07-09.
  2. ^ "Enumerated Versions of The Unicode Standard". The Unicode Standard. Retrieved 2016-07-09.
  3. ^ "Unicode Character Database: Standardized Variation Sequences". The Unicode Consortium.