Panagis Kalkos

Panagis Kalkos (Greek: Παναγής Κάλκος, 1818–1875) was one of the first Greek architects of the modern Greek state. Educated in Munich, he is a representative of a strict neoclassic style in architecture. He built some of the most characteristic neoclassic buildings, both public and private, of Athens, many of which still survive today.

Biographical information[]

Panagis Kalkos (or Kalkos-Vretos[1]) was born in 1818 into an old Athenian family. His father, Michael, was killed during the siege of the Acropolis during the Greek War of Independence and he, himself, was taken prisoner.[2]

After the creation of the independent Greek state, he worked as an employee of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. From 1837 he started studies in architecture with a scholarship provided by King Otto. Upon his return to Greece, he was employed as an architect at the Ministry of Internal Affairs. It has been reported that with this capacity he worked as an assistant of the Bavarian architects Riedel and Hoch, who built the Royal Palace upon the plans of Friedrich von Gaertner.

From 1851 onwards he collaborates with the Greek Archaeological Service for the survey of the monuments on the Acropolis of Athens. His plans of the Erechtheion were published in 1853.[3]

He was a member of the commission constituted in 1860 upon the initiative of the Municipal Council of Athens for the drawing of a topographical plan of the capital.[4] He died in Athens on 18 November 1875.[1]

Main works[]

Several well known buildings are included among Kalkos's works:

Kalkos also contributed in the completion of the following buildings.


  1. ^ a b c Kokkou, 235.
  2. ^ Eleftheroudakis Encyclopedia, p. 109.
  3. ^ Kokkou, 80–81.
  4. ^ Biris Κ. Η., 108–109.
  5. ^ Vogiatzi, Ι. Markassioti Ν., Chorianopoulou, Μ., 22.
  6. ^ Kokkou, 185.
  7. ^ Vogiatzi, Ι. Markassioti Ν., Chorianopoulou, Μ., 537.
  8. ^ Biris Κ. Η., 150.
  9. ^ Biris, Μ. G., 74–76.
  10. ^ Biris Μ., Kardamitsi-Adami, 152, 156.
  11. ^ Kokkou, 195–201.
  12. ^ Mallouchou-Tufano, 142, subnote 195.
  13. ^ Biris Κ. Η., 207–208.
  14. ^ 14. Biris Κ. Η., 206.
  15. ^ Biris, Μ., Kardamitsi-Adami, 168.
  16. ^ Biris Κ. Η., 149.
  17. ^ Vogiatzi, Ι. Markassioti Ν., Chorianopoulou, Μ., 212.
  18. ^ Biris Κ. Η., 133
  19. ^ Biris Κ. Η., 206–207.
  20. ^ Kokkou, 228.