O. Henry

O. Henry
Portrait by W. M. Vanderweyde, 1909
Portrait by W. M. Vanderweyde, 1909
BornWilliam Sidney Porter
(1862-09-11)September 11, 1862
Greensboro, North Carolina, CSA now USA
DiedJune 5, 1910(1910-06-05) (aged 47)
New York City, US
Pen nameO. Henry, Olivier Henry, Oliver Henry[1]
GenreShort story

William Sydney Porter (September 11, 1862 – June 5, 1910), better known by his pen name O. Henry, was an American short story writer. His stories are known for their surprise endings.


Early life[]

William Sidney Porter was born on September 11, 1862, in Greensboro, North Carolina. He changed the spelling of his middle name to Sydney in 1898. His parents were Dr. Algernon Sidney Porter (1825–88), a physician, and Mary Jane Virginia Swaim Porter (1833–65). William's parents had married on April 20, 1858. When William was three, his mother died after giving birth to her third child, and he and his father moved into the home of his paternal grandmother. As a child, Porter was always reading, everything from classics to dime novels; his favorite works were Lane's translation of One Thousand and One Nights and Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy.[2]

Porter graduated from his aunt Evelina Maria Porter's elementary school in 1876. He then enrolled at the Lindsey Street High School. His aunt continued to tutor him until he was 15. In 1879, he started working in his uncle's drugstore in Greensboro, and on August 30, 1881, at the age of 19, Porter was licensed as a pharmacist. At the drugstore, he also showed his natural artistic talents by sketching the townsfolk.

Life in Texas[]

Porter as a young man in Austin

Porter traveled along with Dr. James K. Hall to Texas in March 1882, hoping that a change of air would help alleviate a persistent cough he had developed. He took up residence on the sheep ranch of Richard Hall, James Hall's son, in La Salle County and helped out as a shepherd, ranch hand, cook, and baby-sitter. While on the ranch, he learned bits of Spanish and German from the mix of immigrant ranch hands. He also spent time reading classic literature.

Porter's health did improve. He traveled with Richard to Austin, Texas in 1884, where he decided to remain and was welcomed into the home of Richard's friends, Joseph Harrell and his wife. Porter resided with the Harrells for three years. He went to work briefly for the Morley Brothers Drug Company as a pharmacist. Porter then moved on to work for the Harrell Cigar Store located in the Driskill Hotel. He also began writing as a sideline and wrote many of his early stories in the Harrell house.

As a young bachelor, Porter led an active social life in Austin. He was known for his wit, story-telling and musical talents. He played both the guitar and mandolin. He sang in the choir at St. David's Episcopal Church and became a member of the "Hill City Quartette", a group of young men who sang at gatherings and serenaded young women of the town.

The Porter family, early 1890s – Athol, daughter Margaret, William

Porter met and began courting Athol Estes, 17 years old and from a wealthy family. Historians believe Porter met Athol at the laying of the cornerstone of the Texas State Capitol on March 2, 1885. Her mother objected to the match because Athol was ill, suffering from tuberculosis. On July 1, 1887, Porter eloped with Athol and they were married in the parlor of the home of Reverend R. K. Smoot, pastor of the Central Presbyterian Church, where the Estes family attended church. The couple continued to participate in musical and theater groups, and Athol encouraged her husband to pursue his writing. Athol gave birth to a son in 1888, who died hours after birth, and then daughter Margaret Worth Porter in September 1889.

Porter's friend Richard Hall became Texas Land Commissioner and offered Porter a job. Porter started as a draftsman at the Texas General Land Office (GLO) on January 12, 1887, at a salary of $100 a month, drawing maps from surveys and fieldnotes. The salary was enough to support his family, but he continued his contributions to magazines and newspapers. In the GLO building, he began developing characters and plots for such stories as "Georgia's Ruling" (1900), and "Buried Treasure" (1908). The castle-like building he worked in was even woven into some of his tales such as "Bexar Scrip No. 2692" (1894). His job at the GLO was a political appointment by Hall. Hall ran for governor in the election of 1890 but lost. Porter resigned on January 21, 1891, the day after the new governor, Jim Hogg, was sworn in.

Porter as a clerk at the First National Bank in Austin, c. 1892

The same year, Porter began working at the First National Bank of Austin as a teller and bookkeeper at the same salary he had made at the GLO. The bank was operated informally, and Porter was apparently careless in keeping his books and may have embezzled funds. In 1894, he was accused by the bank of embezzlement and lost his job but was not indicted at the time.

He then worked full-time on his humorous weekly called The Rolling Stone, which he started while working at the bank. The Rolling Stone featured satire on life, people, and politics and included Porter's short stories and sketches. Although eventually reaching a top circulation of 1,500, The Rolling Stone failed in April 1895 because the paper never provided an adequate income. However, his writing and drawings had caught the attention of the or at the Houston Post.

Porter and his family moved to Houston in 1895, where he started writing for the Post. His salary was only $25 a month, but it rose steadily as his popularity increased. Porter gathered ideas for his column by loitering in hotel lobbies and observing and talking to people there. This was a technique he used throughout his writing career.

While he was in Houston, federal auditors audited the First National Bank of Austin and found the embezzlement shortages that led to his firing. A federal indictment followed, and he was arrested on charges of embezzlement.

Flight and return[]

Porter in his thirties

Porter's father-in-law posted bail to keep him out of jail. He was due to stand trial on July 7, 1896, but the day before, as he was changing trains to get to the courthouse, he got scared. He fled, first to New Orleans and later to Honduras, with which the United States had no extradition treaty at that time. Porter lived in Honduras for six months, until January 1897. There he became friends with Al Jennings, a notorious train robber, who later wrote a book about their friendship.[3] He holed up in a Trujillo hotel, where he wrote Cabbages and Kings, in which he coined the term "banana republic" to qualify the country, a phrase subsequently used widely to describe a small, unstable tropical nation in Latin America with a narrowly focused, agrarian economy.[4]

Porter had sent Athol and Margaret back to Austin to live with Athol's parents. Unfortunately, Athol became too ill to meet Porter in Honduras as he had planned. When he learned that his wife was dying, Porter returned to Austin in February 1897 and surrendered to the court, pending trial. Athol Estes Porter died from tuberculosis (then known as consumption) on July 25, 1897.

Porter had little to say in his own defense at his trial and was found guilty on February 17, 1898, of embezzling $854.08. He was sentenced to five years in prison and imprisoned on March 25, 1898, at the Ohio Penitentiary in Columbus, Ohio. Porter was a licensed pharmacist and was able to work in the prison hospital as the night druggist. He was given his own room in the hospital wing, and there is no record that he actually spent time in the cell block of the prison. He had 14 stories published under various pseudonyms while he was in prison but was becoming best known as "O. Henry", a pseudonym that first appeared over the story "Whistling Dick's Christmas Stocking" in the December 1899 issue of McClure's Magazine. A friend of his in New Orleans would forward his stories to publishers so that they had no idea that the writer was imprisoned.

Porter was released on July 24, 1901, for good behavior after serving three years. He reunited with his daughter Margaret, now age 11, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where Athol's parents had moved after Porter's conviction. Margaret was never told that her father had been in prison—just that he had been away on business.

Later life and death[]

Porter's most prolific writing period started in 1902, when he moved to New York City to be near his publishers. While there, he wrote 381 short stories. He wrote a story a week for over a year for the New York World Sunday Magazine. His wit, characterization, and plot twists were adored by his readers but often panned by critics.

Porter married again in 1907 to childhood sweetheart Sarah (Sallie) Lindsey Coleman, whom he met again after revisiting his native state of North Carolina. Sarah Lindsey Coleman was herself a writer and wrote a romanticized and fictionalized version of their correspondence and courtship in her novella Wind of Destiny.[5]

Porter was a heavy drinker, and by 1908, his markedly deteriorating health affected his writing. In 1909, Sarah left him, and he died on June 5, 1910, of cirrhosis of the liver, complications of diabetes, and an enlarged heart. After funeral services in New York City, he was buried in the Riverside Cemetery in Asheville, North Carolina.[6] His daughter Margaret Worth Porter had a short writing career from 1913 to 1916. She married cartoonist Oscar Cesare of New York in 1916; they were divorced four years later. She died of tuberculosis in 1927 and was buried next to her father.


Portrait used as frontispiece in Waifs and Strays (posthumous, 1917)

O. Henry's stories frequently have surprise endings. In his day he was called the American answer to Guy de Maupassant. While both authors wrote plot twist endings, O. Henry's stories were considerably more playful, and are also known for their witty narration.

Most of O. Henry's stories are set in his own time, the early 20th century. Many take place in New York City and deal for the most part with ordinary people: policemen, waitresses, etc.

O. Henry's work is wide-ranging, and his characters can be found roaming the cattle-lands of Texas, exploring the art of the con-man, or investigating the tensions of class and wealth in turn-of-the-century New York. O. Henry had an inimitable hand for isolating some element of society and describing it with an incredible economy and grace of language. Some of his best and least-known work is contained in Cabbages and Kings, a series of stories each of which explores some individual aspect of life in a paralytically sleepy Central American town, while advancing some aspect of the larger plot and relating back one to another.

Cabbages and Kings was his first collection of stories, followed by The Four Million. The second collection opens with a reference to Ward McAllister's "assertion that there were only 'Four Hundred' people in New York City who were really worth noticing. But a wiser man has arisen—the census taker—and his larger estimate of human interest has been preferred in marking out the field of these little stories of the 'Four Million.'" To O. Henry, everyone in New York counted.

He had an obvious affection for the city, which he called "Bagdad-on-the-Subway",[7] and many of his stories are set there—while others are set in small towns or in other cities.

His final work was "Dream", a short story intended for the magazine The Cosmopolitan but left incomplete at the time of his death.[8]

Among his most famous stories are:

Pen name[]

Porter used a number of pen names (including "O. Henry" or "Olivier Henry") in the early part of his writing career; other names included S.H. Peters, James L. Bliss, T.B. Dowd, and Howard Clark.[9] Nevertheless, the name "O. Henry" seemed to garner the most attention from ors and the public, and was used exclusively by Porter for his writing by about 1902. He gave various explanations for the origin of his pen name.[10] In 1909 he gave an interview to The New York Times, in which he gave an account of it:

It was during these New Orleans days that I adopted my pen name of O. Henry. I said to a friend: "I'm going to send out some stuff. I don't know if it amounts to much, so I want to get a literary alias. Help me pick out a good one." He suggested that we get a newspaper and pick a name from the first list of notables that we found in it. In the society columns we found the account of a fashionable ball. "Here we have our notables," said he. We looked down the list and my eye lighted on the name Henry, "That'll do for a last name," said I. "Now for a first name. I want something short. None of your three-syllable names for me." "Why don't you use a plain initial letter, then?" asked my friend. "Good," said I, "O is about the easiest letter written, and O it is." A newspaper once wrote and asked me what the O stands for. I replied, "O stands for Olivier, the French for Oliver." And several of my stories accordingly appeared in that paper under the name Olivier Henry.[11]

William Trevor writes in the introduction to The World of O. Henry: Roads of Destiny and Other Stories (Hodder & Stoughton, 1973) that "there was a prison guard named Orrin Henry" in the Ohio State Penitentiary "whom William Sydney Porter ... immortalised as O. Henry".

According to J. F. Clarke, it is from the name of the French pharmacist Etienne Ossian Henry, whose name is in the U.S. Dispensary which Porter used working in the prison pharmacy.[12]

Writer and scholar Guy Davenport offers his own hypothesis: "The pseudonym that he began to write under in prison is constructed from the first two letters of Ohio and the second and last two of penitentiary."[10]


The O. Henry Award is a prestigious annual prize named after Porter and given to outstanding short stories.

A film was made in 1952 featuring five stories, called O. Henry's Full House. The episode garnering the most critical acclaim[13] was "The Cop and the Anthem" starring Charles Laughton and Marilyn Monroe. The other stories are "The Clarion Call", "The Last Leaf", "The Ransom of Red Chief" (starring Fred Allen and Oscar Levant), and "The Gift of the Magi".

The O. Henry House and O. Henry Hall, both in Austin, Texas, are named for him. O. Henry Hall, now owned by the Texas State University System, previously served as the federal courthouse in which O. Henry was convicted of embezzlement.

Porter has elementary schools named for him in Greensboro, North Carolina (William Sydney Porter Elementary)[14] and Garland, Texas (O. Henry Elementary), as well as a middle school in Austin, Texas (O. Henry Middle School).[15] The O. Henry Hotel in Greensboro is also named for Porter, as is US 29 which is O. Henry Boulevard.

In 1962, the Soviet Postal Service issued a stamp commemorating O. Henry's 100th birthday. On September 11, 2012, the United States Postal Service issued a stamp commemorating the 150th anniversary of O. Henry's birth.[16]

On November 23, 2011, Barack Obama quoted O. Henry while granting pardons to two turkeys named "Liberty" and "Peace".[17] In response, political science professor P. S. Ruckman Jr. and Texas attorney Scott Henson filed a formal application for a posthumous pardon in September 2012, the same month that the U.S. Postal Service issued its O. Henry stamp.[18] Previous attempts were made to obtain such a pardon for Porter in the administrations of Woodrow Wilson, Dwight Eisenhower, and Ronald Reagan,[19] but no one had ever bothered to file a formal application.[20] Ruckman and Henson argued that Porter deserved a pardon because (1) he was a law-abiding citizen prior to his conviction; (2) his offense was minor; (3) he had an exemplary prison record; (4) his post-prison life clearly indicated rehabilitation; (5) he would have been an excellent candidate for clemency in his time, had he but applied for pardon; (6) by today's standards, he remains an excellent candidate for clemency; and (7) his pardon would be a well-deserved symbolic gesture and more.[18]

O. Henry's love of language inspired the O. Henry Pun-Off, an annual spoken word competition began in 1978 that takes place at the O. Henry House.


Short stories[]


Uncollected short stories:

  • "Tictocq, the Great French Detective" (1894)
  • "Tictocq, the Great French Detective; or, A Soubrette’s Diamonds" (1894)
  • "A Blow All 'Round" (1895)
  • "A Chicago Proposal" (1895)
  • "A Fishy Story" (1895)
  • "A Foretaste" (1895)
  • "A Literal Caution" (1895)
  • "A Philadelphia Diagnosis" (1895)
  • "A Thousand Dollar Poem, was what the Literary Judgment of the Business Manager Lost for the Paper" (1895)
  • "All Right" (1895)
  • "And Put Up a Dime" (1895)
  • "Arrived" (1895)
  • "As Her Share" (1895)
  • "Ballad of the Passionate Eye" (1895)
  • "Cheaper in Quantities" (1895)
  • "Didn't Want Him Back" (1895)
  • "Do You Know?" (1895)
  • "Enlarging His Field" (1895)
  • "Entirely Successful" (1895)
  • "Extremes Met" (1895)
  • "False to His Colors" (1895)
  • "Family Pride" (1895)
  • "He Was Behind With His Board" (1895)
  • "Her Reckoning" (1895)
  • "His Last Chance" (1895)
  • "Making the Most of It" (1895)
  • "Might Be" (1895)
  • "Military or Millinery?" (1895)
  • "No Chestnuts Were Served" (1895)
  • "No Earlier" (1895)
  • "Not Hers" (1895)
  • "Not Official Statistics, However" (1895)
  • "Palmistry" (1895)
  • "Prodigality" (1895)
  • "Professional, But Doubtful" (1895)
  • "Prudent Precautions" (1895)
  • "Same Thing" (1895)
  • "Self Conceit" (1895)
  • "Silver Question Settled" (1895)
  • "Sunday Journalism, Memoranda of the Sabbath Editor of the New York Daily for Next Sunday's Contents" (1895)
  • "The Fate It Deserved" (1895)
  • "The Man at the Window" (1895)
  • "The Modern Kind" (1895)
  • "The New Hero" (1895)
  • "The Odor Located" (1895)
  • "The Teacher Taught" (1895)
  • "The White Feather" (1895)
  • "Uncle Sam's Wind" (1895)
  • "Whole Handfuls" (1895)
  • "Will She Fight as She Jokes? Here Are Some Translations of Recent Spanish Humour" (1895)
  • "Yellow Specials, Latest Style of News Write Ups adopted by the sulphur-hued journals" (1895)
  • "A Tragedy" (1896, as The Postman)
  • "At an Auction" (1896)
  • "Telegram" (1896)
  • "His Courier" (1902)
  • "The Flag" (1902)
  • "The Guardian of the Scutcheon" (1903, as Olivier Henry)
  • "The Lotus and the Cockleburrs" (1903)
  • "The Point of the Story" (1903, as Sydney Porter)
  • "The Quest of Soapy" (1908)
  • "A Christmas Pi" (1909, as O. H-nry)
  • "Adventures in Neurasthenia" (1910)
  • "Last Story" (1910)


Uncollected poems:

  • "Already Provided" (1895)
  • "Archery" (1895)
  • "At Cockcrow" (1895)
  • "Honeymoon Vapourings" (1895)
  • "Never, Until Now" (1895)
  • "Ornamental" (1895)
  • "The Imported Brand" (1895)
  • "The Morning glory" (1895)
  • "The White Violet" (1895)
  • "To Her" (XRay) Photograph" (1895)
  • "Unseeing" (1895)
  • "Promptings" (1899)
  • "Sunset in the Far North" (1901)
  • "The Captive" (1901)
  • "Uncaptured Joy" (1901)
  • "April" (1903)
  • "Auto Bugle Song" (1903)
  • "June" (1903)
  • "Remorse" (1903)
  • "Spring in the City" (1903)
  • "To a Gibson Girl" (1903)
  • "Two Chapters" (1903)
  • "A Floral Valentine" (1905)


  • Later Definitions (1895)
  • The Reporter’s Private Lexicon (1903)
  • Letter 1883 (1912)
  • Letters 1884, 1885 (1912)
  • Letters 1905 (1914)
  • Letters from Prison to his Daughter Margaret (1916)
  • Letter 1901 (1917)
  • Letters (1921)
  • Letters to Lithopolis: from O. Henry to Mabel Wagnalls (1922)
  • Letters (1923)
  • Letter (1928)
  • Letters 1906, 1909 (1931)
  • Letters, etc. of 1883 (1931)


  1. ^ "The Marquis and Miss Sally", Everybody's Magazine, vol 8, issue 6, June 1903, appeared under the byline "Oliver Henry"
  2. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1922). "Henry, O." . Encyclopædia Britannica (12th ed.). London & New York.
  3. ^ "Biography: O. Henry". North Carolina History. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
  4. ^ Malcolm D. MacLean (Summer 1968). "O. Henry in Honduras". American Literary Realism, 1870–1910. 1 (3): 36–46. JSTOR 27747601.
  5. ^ Current-Garcia, Eugene (1993). O. Henry: A Study of the Short Fiction (First ed.). New York City: Twayne Publishers, Macmillan Publishing Co. p. 123. ISBN 0-8057-0859-6.
  6. ^ Asheville's Riverside Cemetery
  7. ^ Henry, O. "A Madison Square Arabian Night," from The Trimmed Lamp: "Oh, I know what to do when I see victuals coming toward me in little old Bagdad-on-the-Subway. I strike the asphalt three times with my forehead and get ready to spiel yarns for my supper. I claim descent from the late Tommy Tucker, who was forced to hand out vocal harmony for his pre-digested wheaterina and spoopju." The Trimmed Lamp, Project Gutenberg text
  8. ^ Henry, O. "Dream". Read Book Online website. Archived from the original on October 19, 2014. Retrieved April 22, 2014.
  9. ^ "Porter, William Sydney (O. Henry)". Ncpedia.org.
  10. ^ a b Guy Davenport, The Hunter Gracchus and Other Papers on Literature and Art, Washington, D.C.: Counterpoint, 1996.
  11. ^ "'O. Henry' on Himself, Life, and Other Things" (PDF), New York Times, April 4, 1909, p. SM9.
  12. ^ Joseph F. Clarke (1977). Pseudonyms. BCA. p. 83.
  13. ^ Crowther, Bosley (October 17, 1952). "THE SCREEN IN REVIEW; Four O. Henry Short Stories Offered in Fox Movie at Trans-Lux 52d Street". New York Timws. Retrieved November 17, 2017.
  14. ^ Arnett, Ethel Stephens (1973). For Whom Our Public Schools Were Named, Greensboro, North Carolina. Piedmont Press. p. 245.
  15. ^ "O. Henry Middle School, Austin, TX". Archive.austinisd.org. Archived from the original on October 4, 2011. Retrieved March 25, 2014.
  16. ^ "Celebrating Master Storyteller O. Henry's 150th Birthday Anniversary". U.S. Postal Service. About.usps.com. Retrieved March 25, 2014.
  17. ^ Mark Memmot, "Obama Quotes O. Henry on 'Purely American' Nature of Thanksgiving", The Two-Way, NPR.org. Retrieved September 26, 2013.
  18. ^ a b Jim Schlosser, "Please Mr. President, Pardon O. Henry Archived September 28, 2013, at the Wayback Machine", O. Henry Magazine, October 2013. Retrieved September 26, 2013.
  19. ^ "Presidential Pardons: Few from Obama, and None for O. Henry". Go.bloomberg.com. February 21, 2013. Archived from the original on June 26, 2014. Retrieved March 25, 2014.
  20. ^ Edith Evan Asbury, "For O. Henry, a Hometown Festival", The New York Times, April 13, 1985. Retrieved September 26, 2013.

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