|Native to||Angola, Zambia|
Angola (as "Nganguela" or "Ganguela")
Luchazi (Lucazi, Chiluchazi) is a Bantu language of Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Namibia and Zambia. Luchazi is the principal language of the Ngangela Group. Ngangela is a term coined by the Vimbundu traders and missionaries in 18th century to describe the tribes occupying the area of eastern-central Angola. Ngangela simply means people of the east. Ethnically distinct varieties, many of which are subsumed under the generic term Ngangela, are all "fully intelligible". These are: Luchazi itself, Nyemba, Mbwela of Angola (Ambuella, Shimbwera, not to be confused with Mbwela of Zambia), Nkangala, Mbunda, Luimbi (Lwimbi), Yauma, Songo, Chimbandi and Ngondzela.
The following table displays all the consonants in Luchazi:
|prenasalized||ᵐpʰ ᵐb||ⁿtʰ ⁿd||ᶮd͡ʒ||ᵑkʰ ᵑɡ|
The position of the speech-organs in producing the consonants is different from the positions taken in producing the similar sounds in European languages. T and D, for example, are lower than in English but higher than in Portuguese. L is flatter-tongued than in either English or Portuguese. Practically all the consonants have similar differences. The language contains many consonantal glides, including the prenasalized plosives and the voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate (the ts sound).
|Diphthongs||eɪ aɪ au ia ie |
io iu ua ue ui uo
The close front vowel (i), when occurring before another vowel, becomes a semi-consonant and is written y, unless it is immediately preceded by a consonant, when it remains i. Examples: yange, viange.
The vowels have the so-called Continental or Italian values. They are shorter when unstressed and are prolonged when doubled or when stressed at the end of a word.
Short when unstressed or before two consonants or y or s and in monosyllabic adverbs, as a in tata, paya, asa, hanga. Prolonged when doubled or stressed at the end of a word or syllable. Example: ku laako.
Short when unstressed, as a in hete, seze. Short with the value of e in henga, lenda before two consonants. Exceptions are hembo and membo (due to coalescence of vowels). Many words derived from Portuguese have the short vowel though not followed by two consonants. Examples: pena, papelo, luneta, ngehena, etc. Prolonged when stressed at the end of a word.
Short when unstressed or before two consonants, as e in citi, linga. In monosyllabics it is short, as i in it. Examples: ni, ndi. Prolonged when stressed. Examples: ti, fui.
Short when unstressed, as o in soko, loto. Short, with value of o in onga, yoya, kosa, luozi, ndo, before two consonants or y or s, and sometimes before z and in some monosyllables. The o is long in zoza and ngozi. Sometimes prolonged when stressed at the end of a word. Example: to.
Short, when unstressed or before two consonants or before s, as u in futuka, mbunga, kusa.
Luchazi is written using the Latin alphabet, with most characters representing the same sound as in English, with some exceptions. c is pronounced like ch in church, n followed by k or g is always nasal like ng in ring, the sound of v is bilabial instead of labiodental.
The Luchazi language, for reasons of greater speed in utterance and or economy of effort, has marked combinatory changes, that are harmonious to the ear of the Ngangela people. These changes are of three kinds: (1) coalescence of two vowels into one, (2) elision of a vowel or an entire syllable, and (3) umlaut (vowel mutation).
Coalescence occurs when the inseparable pronoun (nominative or objective), or the tense particles na or ka precede a verb beginning with a vowel. The preposition na coalesces with the following pronoun if the latter begins with a vowel, and the negating particle ka coalesces with the inseparable pronoun of the third person singular. The general rules are:
|Coalescence of Vowel||Example|
|a coalesces with a forming a||nambe (na ambe)|
|a coalesces with e forming e||veca (va eca)|
|a coalesces with i forming e||u nemi (u na imi)|
|a coalesces with o forming o||voca (va oca)|
|a coalesces with u forming o||vi noumu (vi na umu)|
|i coalesces with i forming i||ime (i ime)|
|u coalesces with u forming u||ume (u ume)|
Some VaLuchazi tend to coalesce k and i forming c, as landacana for landakiana.
A number of nouns beginning with li drop this prefix when preceded by the locatives ha, ku or mu. Examples: hembo (ha limbo), kuihia (ku lihia), muzimo (mu lizimo), muilu (mu lilu), etc. Some nouns, which originally had the prefix li, have lost it, but it reappears in the alliterative concord. Examples: sisa liange (originally lisisa liange).
The personal pronoun, third person singular, is elided before the tense particle na, but if the indicative pronoun precedes it, it reoccurs. Examples: na handeka, but, vi a na handeka.
Coalescence and elision are also very common in the case of the personal possessive pronouns and certain nouns expressing relationships. Examples: tatetu (tata yetu), sukuluange (sukulu yange), kukueni (kuku yeni), muanetu (muana uetu), yaliange (yala yange), mpanjenu (mpanji yenu), etc. The copula is always suppressed after the noun muana, and often after muntu. Examples: muana mpanga (muana ua mpanga), Muntu cilema (Muntu ua cilema), etc.
The change of a root vowel sound by the influence of a vowel in a following syllable is noted when the negative particle ka precedes the inseparable pronoun u, when the preposition na precedes a pronoun beginning with u, and when the copulative particle is followed by a pronoun beginning with u, etc. Examples: ko u hasa (ka u hasa), no uze (na uze), no ukeuo (na ukeuo), ndoho yo uze (ndoho ya uze), yo u keze (ya u keze), etc.
In most European languages stress is the chief element in accent and the elementary and secondary are the only ones usually indicated, and stress is therefore often made a synonym for accent. But in the treatment of the Luchazi language such usage is not sufficient. There are two kinds of accent:
The stress regularly falls upon the penultimate (next to the last) syllable, except in some foreign words. As a rule, the addition of a suffix causes the accent to move forward to the new penult. This is called rhythmic stress as compared with the former, which is called etymological stress. However, the addition of the locative and other enclitic suffixes does not change the stress except in the negative conjugation. In the latter the addition of the enclitics causes the stress to move to the preceding syllable. Example: Nja vuíleko — ka nja vuiléko. In the case of monosyllabic verbs the accent falls upon the preceding monosyllable. Example: U ye. The monosyllabic adverbs always receive the accent. Example: Ci vuka tó.
Semantic tone is a very important feature of the Luchazi language as it serves to distinguish homographs and tenses. Examples: kanda, not yet; ku kanda, to forbid; ku kanda, to dig up peanuts (groundnuts); nja tava, I assented (in the indefinite past); nja tava, I assented (just now); nja ku panga, I have worked habitually (past tense of frequentative mood); nja ku panga, I shall work (immediate future tense of indicative mood).
Sometimes the stress accent and the musical accent fall on the same syllable but very often they are separated. When a strong musical accent falls on the antepenultima or preantepenultima, a weak musical accent usually falls on the ultima. Perhaps in time the scale of tone or pitch may be worked out so as to permit a scientific marking of its quality. If we take the homographs ku vumbika (to bury rubbish) and ku vumbika (to show honour or grace to), as examples, calling the united stress and musical accents of the first homograph "1" (as being the strongest), then in the second homograph the stress accent will be lower or "2", the strongest musical accent will be "3", the weak musical accent of the ultima will be "4" and the unaccented antepenultima will be "5".
One cannot overemphasize the importance of acquiring correct accentuation. Some words are highly accented, and as vuzaluke (madness) and ntsenkulu (ancient times); while others seem almost devoid of tone quality, as pandakanenuko (add to it) and vusikumukilo (descent).
The last syllable of verbs in the singular of the imperative mode is often accented, and so is the final syllable of demonstrative pronouns when the speaker wishes to indicate the more or less exact location of the object referred to. This is usually accompanied with a raising of the head and a pointing with the lips. Examples: panga, linga, kuze, cize.
For emphasis the final syllable of a verb may be changed to e and accented strongly, the tone being prolonged, as Tua pangele pange (We worked a very long time). In calling to someone the voice is raised on the last syllable. Often e is substituted for the final syllable or added to it. If the distance be great, ho is added (the voice being dropped on ho).
The nouns are inflected by means of prefixes to show number or state. The noun consists of two parts: the root (or stem) and the prefix. There are eight main classes of nouns distinguished from one another by their singular and plural prefixes. This classification of nouns is an arbitrary division. Since classes 3, 4 and 5 take the same plural prefix in most cases, they might be looked upon as one class. Or, classes 4, 5 and 7 might be split up into six classes instead of three. Most nouns belonging to the eight classes and their subclasses have both singular and plural prefixes, but there are many nouns that have only the singular and others that have only the plural.
|Class||Singular Prefix||Plural Prefix||Proto-Bantu Class|
In addition to the eight main classes and the subclasses there are the locative classes and the verbal noun class. These may be simple or be complex compounds as to structure.
There are many subclasses and these are classified according to their alliterative concord, but even in this there is a lack of homogeneity, as a number of these nouns will take two sets of harmonic particles, using one set with the possessive pronouns and another set with other modifiers. The leading subclasses are:
|Subclass||Singular Prefix||Plural Prefix|
There are three parts namely: the Class Prefix, the Harmonic Copula, and the Adjective Prefix as seen in the tables below.
|Class||Noun Prefix||Copula||Adjective Prefix|
|Class||Noun Prefix||Copula||Adjective Prefix|
The classification is according to the structure of Luchazi and does not follow the European grammatical systems.
It may be used independently of the verb, after prepositions, when the verb is understood but not expressed, in a compound subject or object, in comparisons, for emphasis, and with the intensive pronoun "self". Examples: Yange (singular), Yetu (plural)
|1||ikeye, yakeye, likeye, liakeye||vakevo|
It is always used as the immediate subject of a verb and is never omitted except in the imperative mode. It may be used with the verb understood, viz Nji muntu (I am a person/human). The objective form of the pronoun is used in the accusative and also in the dative when no preposition is used. In the following table, of the three forms of the pronoun shown in the Nominative case, the first is the one used with most tenses whether past, present or future; the second is used with some past tenses, some present and future; the third is used in the habitual mood and the conditional.
|Class||Nominative - Singular||Objective - Singular||Nominative - Plural||Objective - Plural|
|1||a, u ua, a ue,e||mu||va, va, ve||va|
|2||u, ua, ue||u||i, ya, ye||i|
|3||vu, vua, vue||vu||a, a, e,||a|
|4||li, lia, lie||li||a, a, e||a|
|5||lu, lua, lue||lu||a, a, e||a|
|-||-||-||zi, zia, zie||zi|
|6||ci, ca, ce||ci||vi, via, vie||vi|
|7||i, ya, ye||i||zi, zia, zie||zi|
|-||-||-||vi, via, vie||vi|
|8||ka, ka, ke||ka||tu, tua, tue||tu|
|Verbal Noun||ci, ca, ce||vi||-||-|
|Locatives||ha, ha, he||ha||-||-|
|Loc.||ku, kua, kue||ku||-||-|
|Loc.||mu, mua, mue||mu||-||-|
It is conjunctive since it connects a clause to its antecedent. It is demonstrative in that its main force seems to be to point out or emphasize its antecedent.
|2||u, ua||i, ya|
|5||lu, lua||a, zi, zia|
|6||ci, ca||vi, via|
|7||i, ya||zi, zia, vi, via|
|Verbal Noun||ci, ca||-|
The pronoun of Class 1 may be used for all persons. As to whether you should use the simpler form (i, u, vu, li) or the form with -a (ya, ua, vua, lia), depends on the speaker.
It is often followed by the interrogative pronouns iya (who) or -ka (which, what) with the prefix of the class referred to. With the preposition nga, the negative indicative pronoun forms ants etc., which is used in conditional verbal construction.
It is made up of the indicative pronoun plus the particle o, except in the singular of Class 1, which is irregular.
There is a general enclitic -ndzo, which may be suffixed to nouns, verbs, pronouns, adverbs, etc., to give the meaning of "then" with strong emphasis. Examples: angendzo, vikandzo.
The rule is: the enclitic pronoun of the possessor follows the copula of the thing possessed. -ange (singular) -etu (plural), -ove (singular) -enu (plural), -eni (singular) -avo (plural). For the remaining classes the possessive is the same as the enclitic.
It consists of the indicative pronoun plus the constant vene. This pronoun is also used with a noun or the enclitic pronoun to show possession, as ivenevio, vaveneneco, ivene, vavene. An a is often added to the stem when it shows possession, as ivenea, vaveneaco,
Li is not a pronoun but a particle prefixed to verbs to give them a reflexive or reciprocal meaning.
The Pronoun is mukua (Plural vakua), some grammarians consider it a demonstrative pronoun.
The interrogative pronouns, who, which, and what, are rendered by iya (plural veya) and vika. Others are lika, muka, ueya, vueya.
The indefinite pronoun include vose, uose, viose, vamo, umosi, nkala, ku, uahi, viahi, cipue
There are four groups of simple demonstrative pronoun with their corresponding plural.
|Class||Group 1 - Singular||Group 2 - Singular||Group 3 - Singular||Group 4 - Singular||Group 1 - Plural||Group 2 - Plural||Group 3 - Plural||Group 4 - Plural|
As a rule the demonstrative pronoun follows the noun it modifies, as cifuti cino, muti ou, but sometimes for emphasis it is placed before, as uno muaka, eli litangua.