North Korean Air Force

Korean People's Army Air and Anti-Air Force
조선인민군 항공 및 반항공군
Roundel of North Korea.svg
KPAAF roundel
Founded1945; 73 years ago (1945)
Country North Korea
AllegianceKim Jong-un[1]
TypeAir force
RoleAerial warfare
Size110,000 personnel
940[2]-1,300 aircraft of which over 800 combat aircraft, 300 helicopters and 300 transport aircraft.[3]
Part ofKorean People's Army
Garrison/HQPyongyang, North Korea
Nickname(s)"Korean People's Air Force", "KPAF", "KPAAF", "NKAF", "North Korean air force" "DPRKAF"
EngagementsKorean War
Vietnam War[4]
Commanders
Commander-in-chiefGeneral Ri Pyong-chol[5]
Notable
commanders
VMAR Cho Myong-rok
Col. Gen. Oh Gum-chol
Insignia
FlagFlag of the Korean People's Army Air Force.svg
Aircraft flown
AttackSu-7, Q-5, Su-25, Yak-18
BomberIl-28
FighterChengdu F-7B, Shenyang F-5, Shenyang F-6, MiG-21, MiG-23, MiG-29
HelicopterMD Helicopters MD 500, Mil Mi-2, Mil Mi-8 Mil Mi-14, Mil Mi-24
TrainerL-39, Shenyang FT-2
TransportIL-76, An-24, An-2

The Korean People's Army Air and Anti-Air Force (KPAAF or KPAF; Chosŏn'gŭl: 조선인민군 항공 및 반항공군; Chosŏn inmin'gun hangkong mit banhangkonggun; Hanja: 朝鮮人民軍 航空 및 反航空軍) is the unified military aviation force of North Korea. It is the second largest branch of the Korean People's Army comprising an estimated 110,000 members.[6] It possesses 940 aircraft of different types, mostly of old Soviet and Chinese origin. Its primary task is to defend North Korean airspace.[7]

History[]

The Korean People's Army Air and Anti-Air Force began as the "Korean Aviation Society" in 1945. It was organized along the lines of flying clubs in the Soviet Union. In 1946, the society became a military organization and became an aviation division of the Korean People's Army (KPA). It became a branch of the army in its own right in November 1948.[8] The KPAF incorporates much of the original Soviet air tactics, as well as North Korean experience from the UN bombings during the Korean War.

The KPAF has on occasion deployed abroad.[9] It deployed a fighter squadron to North Vietnam during the Vietnam war.[10] Kim Il-sung reportedly told the North Korean pilots "to fight in the war as if the Vietnamese sky were their own."[11]

On April 15, 1969, MiG-21s of the KPAF shot down a Lockheed EC-121 Warning Star in international waters, in the Sea of Japan.[12]

In 1973, a North Korean flight of MiG-21s deployed to Bir Arida to help defend southern Egypt during the Yom Kippur War.[13]

In 1990-91, North Korea activated four forward air bases near the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ).

Organization[]

Capabilities[]

The KPAF operates a wide range of fighter and attack aircraft. North Korea is one of the few nations still operating the obsolete MiG-17, MiG-19, MiG-21 and MiG-23 fighters, yet it operates more modern and fairly capable MiG-29 fighters. The KPAF's most numerous fighter is the MiG-21, which is somewhat obsolete but still a worthy foe in air-to-air combat, if maintained properly and crewed by experienced pilots. An assessment by US analysts GlobalSecurity.org reported that the air force "has a marginal capability for defending North Korean airspace and a limited ability to conduct air operations against South Korea."[14]

North Korea operates a wide variety of air defence equipment, from short-range MANPADS and ZPU-4 machine guns, to long-range SA-5 Gammon SAM systems and large-calibre AA artillery guns. North Korea has one of the densest air defence networks in the world. Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle bombers provide a medium-range attack platform, despite being generally obsolete. A large part of the ground attack aircraft are kept in heavily fortified hangars, some of which are capable of withstanding a nearby nuclear blast. Stealth capacity is known in the KPAF through researching in radar-absorbing paint and inventory deception.[15]

Operational doctrine[]

North Korean Ilyushin Il-10 at Kimpo International Airport, South Korea, on 21 September 1950.

Given North Korea's experience with heavy U.S. bombardments in the Korean War, its aim has been mainly to defend North Korean airspace. The heavy reliance on fighter aircraft, Surface-to-air missile and Anti-aircraft warfare reflects this. However, since nearly all of North Korea's aircraft inventory consists of aging and obsolete Soviet and Chinese aircraft, the primary goal of the air force may have changed in the last years to providing ground support for the land forces and threatening South Korean population centers and military targets with a massive air attack.[citation needed]

In this way, North Korea could try to maintain military parity with South Korea by using its air force as a deterrent, much like its ballistic missiles, instead of trying to maintain a technological parity in aircraft types for individual air-to-air roles. This seems to be confirmed by the recent redeployment of 120 mostly obsolete fighters, bombers and transport aircraft closer to the demilitarized zone, even though 440 modern aircraft are also based near the DMZ. Given the production, storage and use of a vast chemical and biological, as well as a small nuclear, weapons inventory by North Korea, this change in doctrine is even more significant.[citation needed]

Personnel[]

From 1978 to 1995, General Jo Myong-rok was the commander of the air force. In October 1995, he was promoted to vice-marshal and appointed Chief of the KPA General Political Bureau and a member of the Korean Workers' Party Central Military Committee. His place as commander of the Air Force was taken by Colonel General Oh Gum-chol.

Annual flying hours[]

The number of annual flying hours (AFH) per pilot is, like almost every other aspect of the KPAF, very hard to estimate. Most sources on the subject abstain from giving hard numbers, but all of them estimate the average annual flying hours per pilot as being 'low' to 'very low'. The number of annual flying hours is of course very important in estimating the individual skill and experience of the pilots of an air force: more annual flying hours suggests better trained pilots. Most estimates present a rather grim picture: AFH per pilot for the KPAF are said to be only 15 or 25[16] hours per pilot each year - comparable to the flying hours of air forces in ex-Soviet countries in the early 1990s. In comparison, most NATO fighter pilots fly at least 150 hours a year. Ground training, both in classrooms, on instructional airframes or in a flight simulator can only substitute for 'the real thing' to a certain degree, and the low number of modern jet trainers in the KPAF arsenal points to a very modest amount of flying time for the formation of new pilots.

There are a number of possible explanations for the low AFH: concern over the aging of equipment, scarcity of spare parts - especially for the older aircraft - difficulties with worn airframes, fear of defection and the scarcity of fuel are all contributing factors. It is very likely however that some 'elite' pilots and regiments receive considerably more flying hours. Especially those equipped with modern aircraft and tasked with homeland defence - like the 57th regiment flying MiG-29s and the 60th regiment flying MiG-23s - are receiving multiple times the average AFH per pilot; however, aging equipment, the scarcity of fuel and the general economic crisis in North Korea will affect these regiments as well, and keep their AFH low compared to NATO AFH.

Agence France-Presse reported on January 23, 2012 that the KPAF had conducted more flight training than average in 2011.

The Chosun Ilbo reported on March 29, 2012 that the KPAF had dramatically increased the number of flights to 650 per day.[17]

Tongil News reported on July 20, 2013 that KPAF's fighter jets and helicopters conducted 700 sorties a day for 11 days as reported by a source in South Korean government on March 13 after Key Resolve military exercise started on March 11. 700 hours of sorties is considered by the United States military as the capability to wage all-out war.[18]

Structure[]

Following is a list of bases where North Korean Army Air Force aircraft are permanently based.[19][20]

Air bases[]

Northwestern area (1st Air Combat Division, HQ Kaechon)
Base Location Units Notes
Uiju Airfield Uiju County40°08′59″N 124°29′53″E / 40.14972°N 124.49806°E / 40.14972; 124.49806 24th Bomber Regiment Il-28 (Harbin B-5s)
Panghyon Naamsi 39°55′57.517″N 125°12′24.804″E / 39.93264361°N 125.20689000°E / 39.93264361; 125.20689000 49th Fighter Regiment F-5A(MiG-17F)
Taechon Airfield 39°54′12″N 125°29′13″E / 39.90333°N 125.48694°E / 39.90333; 125.48694 5th Air Transport Wing
Kaech'on Airfield 39°44′45″N 125°53′43″E / 39.74583°N 125.89528°E / 39.74583; 125.89528 HQ, 1st Air Combat Command
35th Fighter Regiment
HQ
MiG-19/J-6.
Fighter base with 2500 m runway.
Pukch'ang Airport 39°29′50″N 125°58′32″E / 39.49722°N 125.97556°E / 39.49722; 125.97556 60th Air Fighter Wing (1 ACC)
Air Transport Wing (5 TD)
MiG-23ML/MiG-23UB/MiG-15UTI
H500D/H500E/500D.
This base was where most new Soviet fighter
aircraft were delivered during the 1960s.[21]
Samjangkol Air Transport Wing (6 TD) Mi-2
Sunchon Airport South Pyongan Province 39°24′43″N 125°53′25″E / 39.41194°N 125.89028°E / 39.41194; 125.89028 55th Air Fighter Wing (1 ACC) Su-25K/Su-25UBK/Su-7BMK
MiG-29/MiG-29UB[22]
Kanch'on Air Transport Wing (6 TD) Mi-4/Z-5/Mi-8/Mi-17/Mi-2
West Coast and Pyongyang area (1st Air Combat Division) - HQ: Kaechon

Pyongyang is also the location of HQ, KPAAF[23]

West coast and Pyongyang area (5th Transport Division) - HQ: Taechon
DMZ area (3rd Air Combat Division) - HQ: Hwangju
East Coast area (2nd Air Combat Division) - HQ: Toksan
East Coast area (6th Transport Division) - HQ: Sondok
Far Northeast area (8th Training Division) - HQ: Orang

Aircraft[]

Current inventory[]

A North Korean Shenyang J-6
A North Korean MiG-29S, 2003
A former Indonesian Lim-5 on display in the United States in North Korean markings
Aircraft Origin Type Variant In service Notes
Combat Aircraft
MiG-21 Soviet Union fighter 26[27]
MiG-23 Soviet Union fighter-bomber 56[27]
MiG-29 Russia multirole 35[27]
Sukhoi Su-7 Soviet Union fighter-bomber 18[27]
Sukhoi Su-25 Russia attack 34[27]
Ilyushin Il-28 Soviet Union medium bomber H-5 80[27] Chinese-built variant designated the H-5
Shenyang F-5 People's Republic of China fighter 106[27] derivative of the MiG-17
Shenyang J-6 People's Republic of China fighter F-6 97[27] license built MiG-19
Chengdu J-7 People's Republic of China fighter F-7 120[27] license built MiG-21
Transport
An-24 Ukraine heavy transport 1[27]
Helicopters
MD 500 United States light utility 84[27] aircraft were illegally obtained by circumventing U.S. export controls [28]
PZL Mi-2 Poland utility 46[27]
Mil Mi-8 Soviet Union utility 40[27]
Mil Mi-14 Soviet Union ASW / SAR 8[27]
Mil Mi-24 Russia attack 20[27]
Mil Mi-26 Russia transport 4[27]
Trainer Aircraft
Shenyang F-5 People's Republic of China jet trainer FT-5 135[27]
Shenyang FT-2 People's Republic of China jet trainer 30[27] Chinese production of the MiG-15UTI

Armament[]

The KPAAF use the R-23 missile similar to this one.
Name Origin Type Notes
Air-to-air missile
AA-10 Russia air-to-air missile 60 medium range missiles[29]
AA-11 Russia air-to-air missile
AA-8 Soviet Union air-to-air missile 190 missiles[29]
AA-2 Soviet Union air-to-air missile 1050 missiles[29]
AA-7 Soviet Union air-to-air missile 250 missiles[29]

Equipment[]

Name Origin Type In service Notes
SAM
S-200 Soviet Union SAM system ~75 missiles[29]
S-125 Neva/Pechora Russia SAM system ~300 missiles[29]
S-75 Dvina Soviet Union SAM system ~1950 missiles[29]
SA-7 Russia MANPADS ~2000 units[29]
Air Defence Artillery
ZSU-57-2 Soviet Union self-propelled ~250[29] tracked self-propelled anti-aircraft system
ZSU-23-4 Soviet Union self-propelled ~250[29] tracked self-propelled anti-aircraft system

Ranks and uniforms[]

Ranks[]

The Korean People's Air Force has five categories of ranks: general officers, senior officers, junior officers, non-commissioned officers, and airmen.

Enlisted[]

Equivalent
NATO Code
OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
North Korea North Korea
(Edit)
Master Aircrew rank insignia v (North Korea).svg Flight Sergeant rank insignia v (North Korea).svg Sergeant rank insignia v (North Korean Air Force).svg Junior Sergeant rank insignia v (North Korean Air Force).svg Corporal rank insignia v (North Korean Air Force).svg Senior Aircraftman rank insignia v (North Korea).svg Leading Aircraftman rank insignia v (North Korea).svg Aircraftman rank insignia v (North Korea).svg No equivalent
T'ŭkmu-sangsa
특무상사
Sangsa
상사
Chungsa
중사
Hasa
하사
Sanggŭp-pyŏngsa
상급병사
Chungŭp-pyŏngsa
중급병사
Hagŭp-pyŏngsa
하급병사
Chŏnsa
전사
Sergeant Major Master Sergeant Sergeant First Class Staff Sergeant Sergeant Corporal Airman First Class Airman

Officers[]

Equivalent
NATO code
OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) and student officer
North Korea North Korea
(Edit)
No equivalent Captain General Superior General Middle General Junior General Captain Commander Superior Commander Middle Commander Junior Commander Captain Lieutenant Superior Lieutenant Middle Lieutenant Junior Lieutenant Unknown
General of the Air Force
(대장)
Colonel General
(상장)
Lieutenant General
(중장)
Major General
(소장)
Senior Colonel
(대좌)
Colonel
(상좌)
Lieutenant Colonel
(중좌)
Major
(소좌)
Captain
(대위)
First Lieutenant
(상위)
Second Lieutenant
(중위)
Third Lieutenant
(소위)

Marshals[]

Occasionally KPA Air Force officers are promoted above General of the Air Force. In that case, they wear an army-style uniform, since ranks from Vice-Marshal and above are not divided into army, navy and air force.[30]

Supreme commanders Marshals
Generalissimo rank insignia (North Korea).svg Marshal of the DPRK rank insignia.svg Marshal of the KPA rank insignia.svg Vice-Marshal rank insignia (North Korea).svg
Ranks in Korean Tae wonsu
대원수
Konghwaguk Wonsu
공화국원수
Wonsu
원수
Ch'asu
차수
Ranks Generalissimo Marshal of the DPRK Marshal of the KPA Vice Marshal

Uniforms[]

Generally as a separate service in the KPA, the service wears the same KPA uniforms but with air force blue peaked caps (especially for officers) or kepi-styled caps for men and berets for women, worn with their full dress uniforms. Pilots wear helmets and flight suits when on parade and when in flight duty while air defense personnel wear the same duty dress uniforms as their ground forces counterparts but with air force blue borders on the caps.

Defections[]

Due to the political condition of North Korea, several North Korean pilots from the KPAF defected with their jets. These incidents include:

See also[]

References[]

  1. ^ "North Korean military takes oath of loyalty". www.enca.com.
  2. ^ "Flightglobal - World Air Forces 2015 (PDF)" (PDF). Flightglobal.com.
  3. ^ https://www.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/pubs/Military_and_Security_Developments_Involving_the_Democratic_Peoples_Republic_of_Korea_2015.PDF
  4. ^ Richard M Bennett. "Missiles and madness". Asia Times.
  5. ^ One report claimed that General Ri Pyong-chol was executed in August 2014; George Petras, North Korea executions under Kim Jong Un USA Today, 2016-02-10
  6. ^ North Korea Country Study, pp. 18-19
  7. ^ "KPAF". GlobalSecurity.org.
  8. ^ Edwards, Paul M. (2010). "Korean People's Air Force (KPAF)". Historical Dictionary of the Korean War (2nd ed.). Lanham: Scarecrow Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-8108-7461-9.
  9. ^ Bennett, Richard (August 18, 2006). "Missiles and madness". Asia Times. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
  10. ^ Gady, Franz-Stefan War of the Dragons: Why North Korea Does Not Trust China September 29, 2017 The Diplomat Retrieved September 29, 2017
  11. ^ Gluck, Caroline N Korea admits Vietnam war role July 7, 2001 BBC News Retrieved September 30, 2017
  12. ^ "N Korea in 'US spy plane' warning". 11 June 2006 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
  13. ^ Leone, Dario. "The Aviationist". An unknown story from the Yom Kippur war: Israeli F-4s vs North Korean MiG-21s. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  14. ^ Pike, John. "Korean People's Army Air Force - North Korea".
  15. ^ "North Korea 'develops stealth paint to camouflage fighter jets'". 23 August 2010 – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
  16. ^ Intelligence experts analyse 'North Korean fighter jet crash', The Telegraph, 18 August 2010
  17. ^ "N.Korea Steps Up Air Force Training Flights". The Chosun Ilbo (English Edition) archived at archive.org. 2012-03-29. Archived from the original on March 30, 2012. Retrieved 2013-03-24. North Korea has stepped up the number of training flights since last month to as many as 650 sorties a day. The North Korean air force is conducting training flights even on weekends [...]
  18. ^ http://www.tongilnews.com/news/articleView.html?idxno=103371
  19. ^ North Korean Special Weapons Facilities, Federation of American Scientists, 2006.
  20. ^ North Korean Air Forces, Scramble, Dutch Aviation Society, 2006. Archived January 17, 2010, at WebCite
  21. ^ Preliminary Assessment of BLACK SHIELD Mission 6847 over North Korea Archived 2010-11-05 at the Wayback Machine., Central Intelligence Agency, 29 January 1968
  22. ^ "MIG 29 in Sunchon". Retrieved 12 August 2011.
  23. ^ Green, William; Fricker, John (1958). "The Korean People's Armed Forces Air Force". The air forces of the world, their history, development and present strength. London: Macdonald. p. 189. OCLC 671468610.
  24. ^ "The North Korean Air Force by Google Earth". freekorea.us.
  25. ^ Mizokami, Kyle. "North Korea's Secret Strategy in a War with America: Go Underground". The National Interest.
  26. ^ "North Korea's Thunderbird Runways". 19 May 2008.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "World Air Forces 2016 pg. 22". Flightglobal Insight. 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  28. ^ "North Korea's Illegally Supplied Helicopters Emerge". businessinsider.com. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Trade Registers. Armstrade.sipri.org. Retrieved on 29 May 2015
  30. ^ Tertitskiy, Fyodor (March 14, 2017). "North Korea's baffling personalized rank insignia, explained". NK News.
  31. ^ "NK pilot defector promoted to colonel". 16 November 2010.

External links[]