English in New Mexico refers to varieties of Western American English and Chicano English native to the U.S. state of New Mexico. Other languages in the region include New Mexican Spanish, Navajo, and numerous other Native American languages.
History [ ]
Mexican–American War, all of New Mexico's inhabitants came under the governance of the English-speaking United States, and for the next 100 years, the number of English speakers increased, especially because of trade routes: Old Spanish Trail and the Santa Fe Trail. New Mexico was culturally isolated after the New Mexico Campaign of the American Civil War. Aside from the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway, the isolation was similar to the time that New Mexico was culturally isolated from the rest of Spanish America.
In 1910, English became the most-widely spoken language in New Mexico, but
New Mexican Spanish remains throughout the state and so is given a special status of recognition. After statehood, the Spanish dialect continued to evolve, alongside newcomers, because of increases in travel, for example, along U.S. Route 66. Some words, such as , have become coyote loanwords into American English after they had been so prevalent in New Mexican English.
Phonology [ ]
According to 2006 dialect research, Albuquerque and Santa Fe natives speak
Western American English but with a local development: a full–fool merger (or near-merger) in which pool, for example, merges with pull. In this north-central region of the state, studies have also documented a  local type of Chicano English, Northern New Mexico Chicano English, primarily spoken by rural Hispanic New Mexicans and characterized by a unique vowel shift. Such studies show that the English of bilingual New Mexican Chicanos has been found to have a lower/shorter/weaker voice-onset time than that of typical monolingual New Mexicans and that the former are more likely to show  monophthongization of .
Vocabulary [ ]
Scholarship on the English of New Mexico mentions mostly the region's unique vocabulary. The vocabulary of the Spanish and
Native American languages has mixed with the English of New Mexico, leading to unique loanwords and interjections. Multiple places across New Mexico also have names originating from various language other than English, including New Mexican Spanish, Navajo, and Tiwa; thus, some places have multiple names.
Words and phrases [ ]
Some characteristic usage in English (often borrowed from Spanish):
('gulch', 'creek') is frequently used in the English of New Mexico, as on this sign for a paved Albuquerque drainage ditch that was once a natural ravine.
A la máquina [ä lä ˈmäːkinä] (literally 'to the machine' in Spanish): usually used as a startled expression, sometimes shortened to a la.
: the word for ' Acequia ditch' in Spanish, common within the entire Rio Grande Valley.
Canales: Spanish for ' rain and street gutters', heard in the northern parts of the state.
Coke: any generic carbonated soft drink, as also commonly is used in Southern American English. In Santa Fe and Albuquerque, however, it is often  soda. 
Corazón: the word for ' heart' in Spanish, can be connotative of sweetheart/dear, courage, and spirit.
(contraction of Howdy how do you do): used as a greeting in Western American English, including Texan English and throughout rural New Mexico. 
O sí (seguro): literally 'Oh yeah (sure)' in Spanish, is used either as an ironic reaction or as a sincere questioning of a statement.
Ombers [ˈɒmbɚːz]: an interjection commonly used to express playful disapproval or shaming of another, similar to . tsk tsk
Sick to the stomach: from Northern American English, a term to describe feeling very upset, worried, or angry. Vigas: Spanish for ' rafters', especially common in the north of the state.
Miscellaneous features [ ]
Or what and or no are added to ends of sentences to emphasize or seek confirmation of the prior question, as in "Can you see, or no?" or "Are we late, or what?" New Mexico chile has had such a large impact on New Mexico's cultural heritage that it has even been entered into the , spelled Congressional Record chile, not chili. In New Mexico, there is a differentiation for chili, which most New Mexicans equate to chili con carne.
See also [ ]
Notes [ ]
References [ ]
Al-Deaibes, Mutasim (November 2014). "Romanized Arabic–English Code-switching on Facebook" (PDF). 11th High Desert Linguistics Conference. High Desert Linguistics Society . Retrieved – via ResearchGate. November 5, 2015
"American English Dialect Recordings" (PDF). Center for Applied Linguistics . Retrieved – via August 29, 2014 Library of Congress.
Balukas, Colleen; Koops, Christian (2014). "Spanish-English bilingual voice onset time in spontaneous code-switching". International Journal of Bilingualism. doi: 10.1177/1367006913516035. ISSN 1367-0069 . Retrieved . May 25, 2015
Boyle, Elizabeth; Evans, Anne-Marie (2008). . Cambridge Scholars Pub. Reading America: New Perspectives on the American Novel ISBN 978-1-84718-777-2 . Retrieved – via Google Books. November 4, 2015
Busby, M. (2004). . The Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Regional Cultures. Greenwood Press. pp. 270–271. The Southwest ISBN 978-0-313-32805-3 . Retrieved – via Google Books. August 29, 2014
"Center for Applied Linguistics" (PDF). Washington, DC . Retrieved – via August 29, 2014 Library of Congress. Results of the survey at "Browse by". American Memory. Library of Congress . Retrieved . August 29, 2014
Dobie, J. Frank (1948). "The Coyote's Name in Human Speech". The New Mexico Quarterly. University of New Mexico Press. 18 (2) . Retrieved . June 22, 2018
Domenici, Pete (2004). "Resolution to express the sense of the Senate regarding English plus other languages". . Congressional Record United States Congress. 145 (Pt. 8: May 24, 1999 to June 8 1999). ISBN 978-0-16-073054-2 . Retrieved – via Google Books. May 27, 2015
Edgerton, S. Y.; de Lara, J. P. (2001). . University of New Mexico Press. Theaters of Conversion: Religious Architecture and Indian Artisans in Colonial Mexico ISBN 978-0-8263-2256-2 . Retrieved – via Google Books. November 16, 2015
Gilbert, G. G.; Ornstein-Galicia, J. L. (1978). . Janua Linguarum: Series Minor. Walter de Gruyter GmbH. Problems in applied educational sociolinguistics: Readings on language and culture problems of United States ethnic groups ISBN 978-90-279-7726-7 . Retrieved – via Google Books. November 4, 2015
Hernández, Pilar (1993). "Vowel shift in Northern New Mexico Chicano English". Mester. 22: 227–234.
Hinckley, J. (2012). . MBI Publishing. The Route 66 Encyclopedia ISBN 978-1-61058-688-7 . Retrieved – via Google Books. May 27, 2015
"IDEA – International Dialects of English Archive". Accents and Dialects of New Mexico. May 6, 2015 . Retrieved . May 19, 2015
Julyan, Bob; Till, Tom (1999). New Mexico's Wilderness Areas: The Complete Guide. Big Earth Publishing.
Kessell, J. L. (1995). Kiva, Cross & Crown: The Pecos Indians and New Mexico, 1540-1840. Southwest Parks and Monuments Association. ISBN 978-1-877856-56-3.
King, L. S. (2009). . Frommer's Complete Guides. Wiley. p. 27. Frommer's Santa Fe, Taos and Albuquerque ISBN 978-0-470-43795-7 . Retrieved – via Google Books. May 31, 2015
Labov, William; Ash, Sharon; Boberg, Charles (2006), The Atlas of North American English, Berlin: Mouton-de Gruyter, pp. 187–208, ISBN 3-11-016746-8
Madrid, A. L. (2011). . Transnational Encounters: Music and Performance at the U.S.–Mexico Border Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-987611-2 . Retrieved – via Google Books. August 3, 2015
Miller, Joseph; Federal Writers' Program (2013) . . The WPA Guide to New Mexico: The Colorful State Works Progress Administration / Trinity University Press. ISBN 978-1-59534-229-4 . Retrieved – via Google Books. November 16, 2015
Montaño, M. C. (2001). . University of New Mexico Press. p. 254. Tradiciones Nuevomexicanas: Hispano Arts and Culture of New Mexico ISBN 978-0-8263-2137-4 . Retrieved – via Google Books. May 31, 2015
"New Mexico". Worldmark Encyclopedia of the States. June 10, 2010 . Retrieved – via Encyclopedia.com. June 22, 2018
Skandera, P. (2007). . Topics in English Linguistics [TiEL]. De Gruyter. Phraseology and Culture in English ISBN 978-3-11-019786-0 . Retrieved – via Google Books. October 23, 2015
Smith, A.; Kraig, B. (2013). . Oxford University Press. p. 382. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America ISBN 978-0-19-973496-2 . Retrieved – via Google Books. May 31, 2015
Valdez, Roberto (2011). . Some Homelands and Place Names of New Mexico Council on Geographic Names and Authorities (COGNA) Conference 2011. Empresas de R.V . Retrieved – via YouTube. May 31, 2015
Valle, S. D. (2003). . Bilingual education and bilingualism. Multilingual Matters. p. 15. Language Rights and the Law in the United States: Finding Our Voices ISBN 978-1-85359-658-2 . Retrieved – via Google Books. May 27, 2015
Vaux, Bert; Golder, Scott (2003). "The Harvard Dialect Survey". Harvard University Linguistics Department. Archived from the original on October 2, 2011.
Weigle, M.; Levine, F.; Stiver, L. (2009). . Telling New Mexico: A New History Museum of New Mexico Press. ISBN 978-0-89013-579-2 . Retrieved – via Google Books. November 16, 2015 Wilson, Damian (May 21, 2015). . New Mexico News Port The Burqueno Dialect . Retrieved – via YouTube. May 25, 2015