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The Nepalese Civil War, known popularly as the Maoist Conflict (Nepali: माओवादी जनयुद्ध; IAST:māovādī janayuddha), Maoist Insurgency or Maoist Revolution, was a ten-year-long armed conflict between the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) (CPN-M) and the government of Nepal, fought from 1996 to 2006. The insurgency period was popularly known as Maovadi Dwandakaal (Nepali: द्वन्दकाल) in Nepal. The rebellion was launched by the CPN-M on 13 February 1996 with the main aim of overthrowing the Nepalese monarchy and establishing a People's Republic. It ended with the Comprehensive Peace Accord signed on 21 November 2006. The conflict was characterized by lynchings, massacres, purges, captures and autonomous rule, spread of communist teachings, conflicts against the authority and crimes against humanity. The revolution resulted in deaths of over 17,000 people involving civilians, insurgents, army and police personnels, and internally displaced hundreds of thousands of people (mostly in rural Nepal). According to INSEC, 1,665 out of the deaths that occurred during the Civil War were female victims, with government forces being responsible for approximately 85 percent of the killings of females. This revolution succeeded in overthrowing the 240 years old HinduShah monarchy of Gorkha and established secularrepublican regime which resulted in political, social and cultural change in Nepal popularly termed Krambhanga (Breach of Continuity).
More than 17,000 people (including both civilians and armed forces) were killed during the conflict, including over 4,000 Nepalis killed by Maoists from 1996-2005, and over 8,200 Nepalis killed by government forces from 1996-2005. In addition, an estimated 100,000 to 150,000 people were internally displaced as a result of the conflict. Furthermore, this conflict disrupted most rural development activities.
On 22 May 1994, the CPN(UC)/UPFN was split in two. The militant faction later renamed itself the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), or CPN(M). This faction described the government forces, mainstream political parties, and the monarchy, as "feudal forces". The armed struggle began on 13 February 1996, when the CPN(M) carried out 7 simultaneous attacks over 6 districts.:333 Initially, the Nepali government mobilized the Nepal Police to contain the insurgency. The Royal Nepal Army was not involved in direct fighting because the conflict was regarded as a matter for which the police would sustain control. Controversy grew regarding the army not assisting the police during insurgent attacks in remote areas. On 19 July 2001, Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala resigned over his inability to tackle the Maoist insurgency, and over the refusal of the army to take part in the conflict.:335 On 25 July 2001, the government of Sher Bahadur Deuba and the Maoist insurgents declared a ceasefire, and held peace talks from August–November of that year.:335 The failure of these peace talks resulted in the return to armed conflict, beginning when the Maoists attacked an army barracks in Dang District in western Nepal, on 22 November.:335 Overnight, the army was unleashed against the insurgents, mobilizing both tanks and artillery. The insurgency situation changed dramatically in 2002, as the number of attacks by both sides increased greatly, and more people died than in any other year of the war.:309
The government responded to the insurgency by banning anti-monarchy statements, imprisoning journalists, and shutting down newspapers accused of siding with the insurgents. Several rounds of negotiations, accompanied by temporary ceasefires, were held between the insurgents and the government. The government categorically rejected the insurgents' demand for elections to a constituent assembly, for fear that it would result in the abolition of the monarchy by a popular vote. At the same time, the Maoists refused to recognize the installation of a constitutional monarchy. In November 2004, the government rejected both the Maoists' request to negotiate directly with King Gyanendra rather than via Prime Minister Deuba, and the Maoists' request for discussions to be mediated by a third party such as the United Nations.
Throughout the war, the government controlled the main cities and towns, whilst the Maoists dominated the rural areas. This was a result of the fact that almost all government institutions were located in either the capital city Kathmandu, or the headquarters of a district. In August 2004, even Kathmandu came under rebel control, as the Maoists performed a week-long blockade of the city.
Under the aegis of the global War on Terror and with the stated goal of averting the development of a "failed state" that could serve as a source of regional and international instability, the United States, United Kingdom, and India, among other nations, provided extensive military and economic aid to the Nepali government. On 1 February 2005, in response to the inability of the relatively democratic government to restore order, King Gyanendra seized full control of Nepal in an attempt to definitively end the insurgency. He proclaimed, "democracy and progress contradict one another... in pursuit of liberalism, we should never overlook an important aspect of our conduct, namely discipline." As a result of this takeover, the United Kingdom and India both suspended their material support for Nepal.:337 On 5 May 2005, in response to the takeover by King Gyanendra, 7 political parties began talks to form a Seven Party Alliance (SPA).:338 On 22 November 2005, with support from the Indian government, Maoist rebels and the SPA jointly issued a 12-point resolution, which described autocratic monarchy as the main obstacle to "democracy, peace, prosperity, social upliftment and an independent and sovereign Nepal", and included a commitment to hold elections to a constituent assembly and for the Maoist rebels to renounce violence.:339
In 2006, violent conflict decreased significantly, and instead, the year was dominated by pro-democracy demonstrations.:339 Throughout April 2006, pro-democracy demonstrations were held across Nepal, and over 400 protesters in Kathmandu were arrested, while tens of others were injured. On 21 April, King Gyanendra announced that he would return the Prime Ministership to the SPA, but this offer was rejected by both the Maoist rebels and the SPA.:339 On 24 April, King Gyanendra announced that he would also reinstate the House of Representatives, which satisfied the SPA, who formed the reinstated House of Representatives.:339 However, the Maoist rebels vowed to continue the agitation, and on 2 June, in Kathmandu, the Maoists held the largest pro-democracy demonstration, which was attended by over 200,000 people.:339–340 On 9 August, the government and the Maoist rebels agreed to accept the United Nations to monitor the peace process and to manage the arms of both sides.:340 On 21 November, the government, the SPA, and the Maoist rebels signed the Comprehensive Peace Accord, which formally ended the Civil War.:340
The Civil War forced young workers to seek work abroad, predominantly in the Persian Gulf and Southeast Asia. The regular flow of remittances from these labourers has allowed Nepal to avoid serious economic crisis or bankruptcy. The economy of Nepal is heavily dependent on the infusion of foreign income from these foreign workers (similar to the Lebanese economy during its civil war). As a result of the Civil War, Nepal's tourism industry, which is its greatest source of foreign currency, suffered considerably. According to the travel company iExplore, Nepal went from being the 10th most popular destination among adventure travellers to the 27th most popular.
According to INSEC, 1,665 out of the 15,026 deaths that occurred during the Civil War (approximately 11 percent) were female victims, with government forces being responsible for approximately 85 percent of the killings of females.
Three Maoist rebels wait on top of a hill in the Rolpa district for orders to relocate
The Nepalese Army (NA) took final control over the People's Liberation Army (PLA), the armed wing of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre), on 10 April 2012. Prime Minister (PM) Baburam Bhattarai, who also heads the Army Integration Special Committee (AISC), told the committee on 10 April 2012, that the NA was going to move into all 15 PLA cantonments, take full control, and seize more than 3,000 weapons locked in containers lying there. He added that the process would be completed by the evening of 12 April. However, following reports of clashes in the cantonments, the PM met the NA chief, Chhattra Man Singh Gurung, in the evening of 10 April, and directed him to implement the decisions of the AISC. NA troops took charge of the cantonments and the weapons' containers the same day. This vitiated the environment in the cantonments. Consequently, the process was halted on 10 April at the request of the Maoist leadership. It was, however, restarted on 13 April, and, as of 19 April 2012, when it was finally concluded, there were 3,129 former PLA combatants left for integration into the NA. A total of 6,576 combatants chose the Voluntary Retirement Scheme (VRS), that promises cheques in the range of NPR 500,000 to NPR 800,000, depending on their ranks.
In the first phase (18 November - 1 December 2011) of regrouping, 9,705 former combatants had chosen integration into the NA. In a landmark achievement, the AISC had initiated the process of integration following a 1 November 2011, seven-point deal signed by three major political parties – UCPN-M, Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist) (CPN-UML) and Nepali Congress (NC) – and the umbrella formation of several Madheshi groups, the United Democratic Madhesi Front (UDMF). The deal provided three options to former PLA combatants – integration, voluntary retirement and rehabilitation. 9,705 combatants opted for integration, 7,286 chose voluntary discharge, and six combatants registered their names for rehabilitation packages. The United Nations Mission in Nepal (UNMIN) had registered 19,602 combatants in the second verification conducted on 26 May 2007.
On 14 April 2012, AISC decision laid down that the ranks of the integrated combatants would be determined according to the NA's, and not the PLA's, standards. A Selection Committee would be headed by the Chairman of Nepal's Public Service Commission (PSC) or by a member appointed by him, and a General Directorate would be created under the NA, headed by a Lieutenant General, to absorb the integrated combatants. The combatants will have to undergo between three and nine months of training, depending on their ranks. The Directorate would only be deployed for disaster relief, industrial security, development, and forest and environment conservation. On 17 April, the NA stated that it could not start the recruitment process of former Maoist combatants until the structure—leadership and size—of the General Directorate had been finalised at the political level. On 19 April 2012, the three major political parties agreed to merge two separate proposed commissions on Truth and Reconciliation, and on Disappearances, into one.
Kavre District: A moneylender's house is raided at night, properties and cash reportedly worth 1.3 million rupees seized, and loan documents worth several million rupees reportedly destroyed. 7 members of the moneylender's family are killed, all shot to death.
Rolpa, Rukum & Sindhuli Districts: One police outpost raided in each district. The outpost at Holeri, Rolpa –has its stores seized, including a substantial amount of high explosives. Athbiskot-Rari, Rukum is also raided. The Sindhuligarhi post in Sindhuli is reportedly raided without. 17 Police personnel are killed in total, and only one Maoist guerilla is killed in retaliation.
January 2001: The government creates the Armed Police Force, a Paramilitary force to fight the insurgents.
1 June 2001: King Birendra and most of the royal family are killed in the Nepali royal massacre. Crown Prince Dipendra was accused of the massacre by the Incident Inquiry Committee consisting of Supreme Court Chief Justice Keshav Prasad Upadhaya, and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Taranath Ranabhat. Dipendra, supposedly comatose after a suicide attempt or assassination attempt by palace guards, is crowned king, according to tradition. He supposedly died on 4 June 2001 although his body seemed to have started to decompose in four days and flies were seen orbiting around his corpse, Gyanendra is crowned King.
3 August 2001: The first round of peace talks begin.
23 November 2001: Peace talks collapse when the Maoists withdraw and launch a ferocious attack Police and Army posts in 42 districts, in which 186 Army and Police personnel and 21 Maoists are killed.
May 2002: Large battles fought between Army and Maoist forces at Lisne Lekh along boundary between Pyuthan and Rolpa districts, and in Gam village, Rolpa.
11 May 2002: A photograph is discovered by Nepal government soldiers in western Nepal. The photograph depicts Nepal's Maoist rebel leaders Baburam Bhattarai, Hisila Yami, Ram Bahadur Thapa (alias Badal), and Pushpa Kamal Dahal (alias Prachanda).
22 May 2002: King Gyanendra, acting on the advice of Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba, dissolves Parliament and orders new elections. The reason given for the dissolution is opposition to the state of emergency.
11 July 2002: Information leaks out that the Belgian weapon manufacturer FN Herstal is allowed to deliver 5,500 M249 SAW light machine guns to the Nepali monarchy, a decision made by all coalition parties. Minister of External Affairs Louis Michel speaks of "a country in a pluralistic democracy."
4 October 2002: King Gyanendra deposes Prime Minister Deuba and the entire Council of Ministers, assumes executive power, and cancels the elections for the dissolved House of Representatives, which had been scheduled for 11 November 2002.
January 2003: The United States hold exercises with the Nepali army. Maoist insurgents kill the Inspector General of Armed Police, Krishna Mohan Shrestha, his wife and his bodyguard, Head Constable Subhash Bahadur Gurung of the Armed Police Force Nepal, while on their morning walk, as they used to do on Sunday mornings, intending to represent general safety to fellow citizens. The Inspector General and his wife, who was a teacher at an international school in the capital, were both unarmed. They were riddled with bullets from Type 56 Rifles and G3 rifles used by the Maoists.
29 January 2003: A second ceasefire is established and peace talks begin.
13 May 2003: Code of conduct jointly declared by the government and the CPN-M for the mutually agreed period of cease-fire
17 August 2003: Nepali Military and Police forces kill 39 Maoist rebels in the Ramechhap District of central Nepal during an offensive launched jointly by the Army, Police, and Air Force of Nepal. 7 Soldiers of the Nepali Army and 5 Constables of the Armed Police are also killed in the operation.
24 August 2003: The Maoists set an ultimatum, threatening to withdraw from the cease-fire if the government does not agree within 48 hours to include the question of the Maoists participating in the Constituent Assembly.
Strike: The Maoist call for a three-day strike to denounce the Army's attacks on their cadres
The Maoists unilaterally withdraw from the 29 January cease-fire. Prachanda's statement revives the rebels' demand for an end to monarchic rule in favor of a "people's republic", stating, "Since the old regime has put an end to the forward-looking solution to all existing problems through the ceasefire and peace talks, we herein declare that the rationale behind ceasefire...and peace process has ended."
28 August 2003: Maoist hitmen shoot two colonels of the Royal Nepal Army in their homes in Kathmandu, killing one and injuring the other.
29 August 2003: Maoist insurgents unsuccessfully attempt to assassinate a Devendra Raj Kandel, a Nepalese minister.
31 August 2003: Maoist insurgents ambush a Nepalese police outpost in Rupandehi, killing 4 policemen.
2 September 2003: Maoist insurgents ambush a Nepalese police outpost in Siraha, killing 2 policemen and injuring four others.
27 September 2003: "Fifteen people including 8 Rebels and 4 Policemen were killed on Saturday and suspected Maoists bombed five government utilities despite the guerrillas' plans for a nine-day truce from 2 October 2003, officials said. Eight Maoists were killed in a gun battle with security forces at Chhita Pokhara in the Khotang District, 340 kilometres east of Kathmandu, a police officer said. 4 Policemen were also killed. Elsewhere in eastern Nepal, the Maoists killed two Policemen, Constable Purna Prasad Sharma and Head Constable Radha Krishna Gurung, and a woman selling beetle nuts, Kali Tamang, in the Jaljale-Gaighat area, an official said. 'A group of seven Maoists descended from a public bus when police were checking the passengers and suddenly opened fire from an automatic pistol, killing the three and wounding two others,' said Sitaram Prasad Pokharel, the chief administrator for the region. In Janakpur, an industrial hub on the Indian border 260 kilometres south-east of Kathmandu, the Maoists under the direct command of Prachanda carried out five early morning bombings that disrupted telephone service and power, police said. No one was killed directly by the blasts but an elderly man died of a heart attack after hearing the explosions, Police Deputy Superintendent Bharat Chhetri said. He said the sites that were bombed included the offices of the roads department and the Nepal Electricity Authority and a telecommunications tower. Police personnel and Maoists traded fire for nearly 40 minutes after the blasts but the rebels escaped and 37 people were injured, Mr Khadka said."
13 October 2003: At least 42 Police Recruits and 9 Maoists are killed when an estimated 3,000 Maoists attempt to storm a Police Training Center in Bhaluwang. "'The rebels had snapped telephone cables, set up roadblocks by felling trees or blowing up highway bridges to prevent reinforcements from coming,' a witness, Krishna Adhikary, told Reuters."
27 October 2003: " Colonel Adrian Griffith and six Nepali nationals were freed last week 42 hours after being taken captive in Baglung, 300 km (190 mi) west of Kathmandu, while on a drive to recruit young Gurkha soldiers to serve in the British army." Party chief Prachanda said, "We are sorry for the incident that took place against the policy of the party."
11 November 2003: The government Defence Ministry accuses the Maoists of abducting twenty-nine 9th- and 10th-grade students from Riva Secondary School in Mugu District, western Nepal during the previous week.
15 November 2003: Four police officers, including Kamalapati Pant (Nepal Police Force), were shot dead from behind on a tea shop by two armed Maoist rebel who approached in Motorcycle & fled away immediately, in Nepalgunj.
19 November 2003: According to a Nepal army official, four people were caught at the Chinese Khasa border point, 114 kilometers northeast of Kathmandu, smuggling weapons from Tibet into Nepal. The official named Hirala Lal Shrestha and Gyaljen Sherpa and said they were taken for interrogation in the Tibetan town of Xigatse.
10 February 2004: Two central committee members of the CPN-M, Matrika Yadav and Suresh Paswan, are reported to have been handed over by India to Nepal. They were reportedly arrested in Lucknow after Nepal provided information.
13 February 2004: Ganesh Chilwal leads an anti-Maoist protest on this day, the eighth anniversary of the commencement of the revolution.
15 February 2004: Ganesh Chilwal is shot dead in his Kathmandu office by two suspected Maoists.
15 February 2004: Fighting erupts at a Maoist jungle base in Kalikot District, 360 km west of Kathmandu. The base is said to hold 5000 Maoist troops. On 17 February 2004, a security official says that a private helicopter flying troops to Kalikot was hit by Maoist fire but that it returned safely to Kathmandu. On 18 February 2004, 65 Maoists are reported to have been killed, though this conflicts with other reported death tolls of 35 and 48.
15 February and 16 2004: Nepalese state radio reports that 13 Maoist rebels were killed in seven separate small clashes with security forces across the country.
18 February 2004: Lawmaker Khem Narayan Faujdar, a member of the parliament dissolved by King Gyanendra in 2002, is shot dead by two suspected Maoists riding a motorcycle in the Nawalparasi District, 200 km southwest of the capital, according to the police.
2 April 2004: The largest rallies since 1990 begin in Kathmandu. They are variously labelled "pro-democracy" and "anti-monarchy."
3 April 2004: More than 12 trucks are burnt while waiting at a western Nepal border post to pick up petrol from India. India condemns the attacks and vows to fight terrorism.
4 April 2004: "Some 150 demonstrators were struck during a police baton charge" during demonstrations in Kathmandu
4 April 2004: "Hundreds of Maoist rebels" attack a Police outpost in Yadukuwa, Jadukhola. 13 policemen are killed, 7 wounded, and 35 are listed as missing. 8–9 Maoists are also killed. "Witnesses said more than 500 rebels attacked the Police post and began firing Assault Rifles and RPG-7 rockets. at around 9 pm (1515 GMT) on Sunday night. The fighting lasted two to three hours." Other reports state 400 rebels.
4 April 2004: In the west of the country three Indian traders are shot and injured and have their vehicles burned.
5 April 2004: A three-day national strike begins, called by CPN(M) and opposed by an "alliance of five political parties" who are protesting in Kathmandu against the monarchy and say the strike will hamper the movement of demonstrators in Kathmandu. Prachanda said, "The time has come to win a united struggle against the feudal forces as the king is trying to take the nation back to the 18th century."
5 April 2004: In the morning, 3 soldiers are killed and 7 injured by a CPN(M) landmine activated by their vehicle at Dhalkhola, 50 km east of Kathmandu.
5 April 2004: At least 140 people are injured in clashes in Kathmandu as "about 50,000" demonstrators confront the police. Demonstrators try to break through a police barricade close to the royal palace. The police respond with tear gas and protesters are reportedly injured by police batons. Rocks and bricks are thrown by both sides. Demonstrations also occur in Lalitpur and Bhaktapur. Meanwhile, king Gyanendra has reportedly been away touring villages in western Nepal.
5 April 2004: The Indian government announces that it will no longer provide police escorts to Indian officials shopping in Nepal, as a means to discourage such trips. Fears are based on the CPN(M) targeting Indians. "We are worried about possible reprisals here if the Maoists continue to target Indians inside Nepal," said a senior police official.
16 August 2004: The Soaltee Hotel, a popular luxury hotel in Kathmandu, is bombed, after refusing a demand from the Maoists that the hotel close.
18 August 2004: A bomb explodes in a marketplace in southern Nepal. The blast kills a 12-year-old boy and wounds six others, including three policemen. In addition, Maoist rebels, demanding the release of captured guerrillas, stop all road traffic near Kathmandu by threatening to attack vehicles. Some Nepal businesses are shut down because of threats.
13 September 2004: U.S. Peace Corps suspends operations and non-essential U.S. Embassy personnel are evacuated from Nepal.
9 November 2004: 36 people were injured when suspected Maoist rebels exploded a powerful bomb at an under-construction government office complex, the Karmachari Sanchaya Kosh Office Complex in the heart of Nepalese capital Kathmandu Tuesday.
11 November 2004: Maoists kill NID Deputy Superintendent of Police Hemraj Regmi in front of his office residence in Butwal municipality-6 in Rupandehi district.
15 December 2004: Twenty government security personnel are killed in the western district of Arghakhanchi when the Maoists mount a surprise attack.
In the Offensive: DSP Hem Raj Regmi was shot dead by Maoists, 11 November 2004
16 December 2004: Sixteen Maoist rebels are killed in clashes with Nepali security forces in the western district of Dailekh.
23 December 2004: Maoist forces launch blockade of Kathmandu.
26 December 2004: Over 15,000 hold peace rally in Kathmandu.
2 January 2005: Nepali media reports two children being killed in Dailekh District by a Maoist bomb.
4 January 2005: Three government security personnel and between two and twenty-four Maoist rebels reported killed in fighting.
8 January 2005: Maoists detain and later release 300 passengers from six buses that defy their blockade of Kathmandu.
10 January 2005: Prime Minister Deuba said he would increase defense spending to fight the Maoists unless they come forward for talks with the government.
11 January 2005: Protests and blockades over the government fuel price increases of between 10% and 25%.
15 January 2005: Maoists allegedly detain 14 Indian Gurkhas from Chuha village in Kailali.
29 January 2005: Government leader in the Lamjung district had been abducted and murdered with a gunshot to the head.
1 February 2005: King Gyanendra dissolves the Deuba government and bans all news reports. The army begins arresting senior political leaders, journalists, trade unionists, human rights activists and civil society leaders. All telephone and internet connections are cut.
9 August 2005: Maoist rebels kill 40 security men in midwestern Nepal.
3 September 2005: The Maoists declare a three-month unilateral ceasefire to woo opposition political parties.
19 November 2005: After negotiations, the Maoist rebels agree to work with opposition politicians in a common front against the rule of King Gyanendra of Nepal.
2006 democracy movement
2 January 2006: Rebels decide not to extend a four-month ceasefire saying that the government had broken the ceasefire with numerous attacks on Maoist villages.
14 January 2006: Maoists launch coordinated attacks of five military and paramilitary targets in the Kathmandu Valley. The first demonstration of their ability to organize violence within the Valley, prompting curfews at night for the next several days.
14 March 2006: Nepali rebels extend road blockade; nationwide strike called for 3 April 2006.
5 April 2006: General strike begins with Maoist forces promising to refrain from violence.
6 April 7, 2006: Protesters clash with police, hundreds arrested, dozens injured.
8 April 2006: A curfew is imposed in Kathmandu from 10 pm to 9 am The king orders protesters violating the curfew to be "shot on sight."
9 April 2006: General strike scheduled to end. Government extends curfew, BBC reports. Three dead in two days of unrest, as thousands of demonstrators defy curfews.
26 April 2006: they started to unblock streets and roads, but they had some conditions
3 May 2006: Nepal's new cabinet declares a ceasefire. This was not taken very seriously. The cabinet also announces that the Maoist rebels will no longer be considered a terrorist group. Rebels are also encouraged to open peace talks.
21 November 2006: Peace talks end with the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Accord between Prime Minister Koirala and Maoist leader Prachanda. The deal allows the Maoists to take part in government, and places their weapons under UN monitoring.
Maoists affirm that they control the 80% of the countryside territories, and that they have people infiltrated also in the urban areas.
In July 2007, the Ministry of Peace and Reconstruction proposed legislation that would establish a Truth and Reconciliation Commission in Nepal. The parliament is setting up a Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate wartime killings, torture and forced disappearances and is debating proposals to grant an amnesty for abuses by government and rebel forces.
The revolution resulted in political, social and cultural change in Nepal popularly termed Krambhanga (Nepali: क्रमभङ्ग) which meant Breach of Continuity.
^Mahendra Lawoti and Anup K. Pahadi, ors (2010). The Maoist Insurgency in Nepal: Revolution in the twenty-first century. Routledge. ISBN978-0-415-77717-9.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
^ abcdefghijklmnopqMahendra Lawoti and Anup K. Pahari, ors (2010). The Maoist Insurgency in Nepal: Revolution in the twenty-first century. Routledge. ISBN978-0-415-77717-9.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
^Manesh Sreshtha and Bishnu Adhikari (2005). Internal Displacement in South Asia: The Relevance of the UN's Guiding Principles. Sage. ISBN0-7619-3313-1.
^This investigation was caused due to the increasing Maoist insurgencies within the Northern Kathmandu area, which has been plaguing the area of late. It is well known that the rebels have an inclination for targeting white, Westerners who they see as the "cause of the food and poverty crisis" within the state.Nepal urged to drop plan for war crimes amnestyArchived 1 August 2012 at the Wayback MachineNY Daily News