Ndonga, also called Oshindonga, is a Bantu language spoken in Namibia and parts of Angola. It is a standardized dialect of the Ovambo language, and is mutually intelligible with Kwanyama, the other Ovambo dialect with a standard written form. With 810,000 speakers, the language has the largest number of speakers in Namibia.
Martti Rautanen translated the Bible into the Ndonga standard.
Oshindonga uses a five-vowel system:
Oshindonga contains the following consonant phonemes:
Prenasalized sounds are listed below:
Oshindonga also contains many other consonant compounds, listed below:
- [tsʼ] (voiceless, ejective, alveolar affricate)
- [psʲ] (voiceless, palatalized, labio-alveolar affricate)
- Fivaz, Derek (2003). A Reference Grammar of Oshindonga (2 ed.). Windhoek: Out of Africa Publishers.