Ndonga dialect

Native toNamibia and southern Angola
Native speakers
810,000 (2006)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-1ng
ISO 639-2ndo
ISO 639-3ndo

Ndonga, also called Oshindonga, is a Bantu language spoken in Namibia and parts of Angola. It is a standardized dialect of the Ovambo language, and is mutually intelligible with Kwanyama, the other Ovambo dialect with a standard written form. With 810,000 speakers, the language has the largest number of speakers in Namibia.

Martti Rautanen translated the Bible into the Ndonga standard.[4]



Oshindonga uses a five-vowel system:

Front Back
Close i u
Mid e o
Open a


Oshindonga contains the following consonant phonemes:

Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal voiceless ŋ̊
voiced m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive voiceless p t k ʔ
voiced b d g
affricate ts
Fricative voiceless f θ s ʃ x h
voiced v ð z ʒ ɣ
Approximant central w j
lateral l

Prenasalized sounds are listed below:

Oshindonga also contains many other consonant compounds, listed below:


  1. ^ Ndonga at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ndonga". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online
  4. ^ "Namiweb.com". Namibweb.com. Archived from the original on 2013-02-13. Retrieved 2013-03-16.

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