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|Formation||November 27, 1918|
|Borys Yevhenovych Paton|
The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU; Ukrainian: Національна академія наук України, Natsional’na akademiya nauk Ukrayiny, abbr: NAN Ukraine) is a self-governing state-funded organization in Ukraine that is the main center of development of science and technology by coordinating a system of research institutes in the country. It is the main research oriented organization along with the five other academies in Ukraine specialized in various scientific disciplines. NAS Ukraine consists of numerous departments, sections, research institutes, scientific centers and various other supporting scientific organizations.
The Academy reports on the annual basis to the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. The presidium of the academy is located at the following address vulytsia Volodymyrska, 57, across the street from the Building of Pedagogical Museum where used to preside the Central Council during the independence period of 1917-18.
In 1921–1991 it was a republican branch of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union.
|Names for the Academy|
|Ukrainian Academy of Sciences||1918—1921|
|All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences||1921—1936|
|Academy of Sciences of the UkrSSR||1936—1991|
|Academy of Sciences of Ukraine||1991—1993|
|National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine||since 1994|
Over the course of its history, the NAS Ukraine has had 5 different names. From 1918 to 1921, it was known as the Ukrainian Academy of Science (UAS). From 1921 until 1936, it was known as the All-Ukrainian Academy of Science. From 1936 to 1991, it was known as the Academy of Science of the Ukrainian SSR. From 1991 to 1993, it was known as the Academy of Science of Ukraine. Since 1994, it has been known by its current name, National Academy of Science of Ukraine.
The direct institutional predecessors of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences were the Shevchenko Scientific Society in Lemberg (Lviv) and the Ukrainian Scientific Society in Kiev that due to various circumstances did not developed into national academy.
The initiative to create such an institution came from the Ukrainian Science Society in April 1917, eight months before the beginning of the Soviet-Ukrainian War. However it was finally materialized during the time of the Ukrainian State, when on the proposal of the Minister of Education and Arts Mykola Vasylenko a special commission was formed. Headed by academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences Volodymyr Vernadskyi, the commission has drafted a bill about creation of the Ukrainian Academy of Science in Kiev with its National Library, National Museum, and other scientific institutions. During July 9 - September 17, 1918 the commission based on the proposed by Vernadskyi a model of Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (UAS) as an academy with universal characteristics has developed a bill for the creation of the Academy, a draft of its statute and staff, estimate. Based on them on November 14, 1918 Hetman of Ukraine Pavlo Skoropadsky signed the Law of Ukrainian State about establishing of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in Kiev, and also approved the UAS statute, the UAS staff and its institutions and the order of Ministry of National Education about appointing the first 12 full members (academicians) of the UAS.
According to its original statute, the Academy consisted of three research departments in history and philology (1st department), physics and mathematics (2nd department), as well as social studies (3rd department). Its structural units became permanent commissions and institutes. There were planned 15 institutes, 14 permanent commissions, 6 museums, 2 offices, 2 laboratories, botanical and acclimatization gardens, astronomical observatory, biology station, printing house and national library. All publishing of academy was to be printed in the Ukrainian language. Its statute emphasized the all-Ukrainian nature: the members could be not only citizens of the Ukrainian State, but also the Ukrainian scientists of the West Ukraine (at that time citizens of Austria-Hungary). Foreigners could become academicians as well, but on the resolution of the 2/3 of the active members' composition.
The presidium and its first academicians (three to each department) appointed the government, while the future members were elected by those academicians (active members). The first academicians were appointed historians academician Dmytro Bahaliy and Orest Levytsky, economists Mykhailo Tuhan-Baranovsky and Volodymyr Kosynsky, eastern studies Ahathanhel Krymsky and Mykola Petrov, linguist Stepan Smal-Stotsky, goelogists academician Volodymyr Vernadsky and Pavlo Tutkovsky, biologist Mykola Kashchenko, mechanic Stepan Tymoshenko, law studies Fedir Taranovsky. For the President of the Academy, the Hetman of Ukraine invited Mykhailo Hrushevsky(, who wrote a well known academic book titled: "Bar Starostvo: Historical Notes: XV-XVIII" about the history of Bar, Ukraine.[further explanation needed]) Mykhailo Hrushevsky declined an invitation, but at later date (sometime since 1923) became a major figure in the Ukrainian Academy of Science (UAS) in Kyiv.
Its official operations the academy started at the end of November 1918 with having several sessions of General Assembly and assemblies of its departments. The first General Assembly (Constituent) that took place on November 27, 1918 academician Volodymyr Vernadsky was elected the President of academy, while the permanent secretary became Ahathanhel Krymsky. The same day, at the sessions of the 2nd and the 3rd departments there were elected as chairmen respectively Mykola Kashchenko and Mykhailo Tuhan-Baranovsky, on 8 December 1918 the chairman of the 1st department was elected Dmytro Bahaliy. All appointments were approved by Hetman Skoropadskyi.
The first institutions of the UAS established in December 1918 were such commissions:
Next month there were added:
During its first years the academy operated during the period of political instability and economical ruin (Ukrainian–Soviet War, Russian Civil War, Polish–Soviet War). The leadership of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences sought its recognition by each new power and principally emphasizing on non-political background of the main science center. Despite the financial hardship, famine, arrests, and emigration of some of its members, the UAS has not only survived as an institution, but developed its structure and directions of research, began to prepare for publication its scientific works.
On 3 January 1919 the Direktoria of the Ukrainian People's Republic has adopted legislatively changes to the UAS statute, according to which there were made provisions concerning printing of works in Ukrainian and foreign languages (volume of publications in foreign language should not exceeded the 1/4 amount of the Ukrainian language), all the UAS officials had to freely possess the Ukrainian language, and full members upon their approval would swear in allegiance to the Ukrainian People's Republic. The Supreme power also has left after itself the right to approve the newly elected members at the UAS General Assembly.
Following occupation of Kiev by Bolshevik forces, on 11 February 1919 to the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences was handover as an own property the mansion and former boarding house of countess Levashova on the order of People's Commissar of Education of the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic, Volodymyr Zatonskyi. The next day on 12 February 1919 there took place an extraordinary UAS General Assembly, during which Ahatanhel Krymsky passed on the order of Zatonskyi immediately to start the work. Since the late 1920s, in the Soviet historiography that day was considered as the day of establishing the Academy of Sciences contrary to 14 February 1918 when Hetman Skoropadskyi signed the law on creation of the academy.
After overtaking Kiev on February 11, 1919, Bolsheviks issued a decree about structure and financing of the Academy. In the Soviet times that date was considered the establishment of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. After several change of powers and withdrawal of the Denikin's forces in December 1919 the Bolsheviks permanently established themselves in Kiev. With the second arrival of Bolsheviks Vernadsky resigned. Orest Levytskyor was elected President of the Academy for the next couple of years. In 1921 Levytsky was replaced by a newly elected Mykola Vasylenko, however he was not approved by the authorities and soon was replaced with Levytsky. Vasylenko after that was arrested in 1923 and convicted (later released on amnesty). During that time the Academy moved to the boarding house of the countess Levashova.
On June 14, 1921, the Council of People's Commissars of Ukrainian SSR adopted a decree "Resolution on the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences", according to which the Academy was recognized as the highest scientific state institution and subordinated to the Narkom of Education. The Academy was renamed from UAS to VUAN (Ukrainian: ВУАН) as the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences underlining its meaning for the Ukrainian territories under Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia and declaring its intentions to unite within one organization the scientific intelligentsiya of all Ukrainian lands. The relationship between the members of VUAN and the Soviet authorities soured, while the relationships with the Ukrainian scientists abroad had completely diminished. After the historian Orest Levytsky the President of the Academy became the botanist Volodymyr Ipolytyovych Lypsky. Between 1919-1930 to the Academy were elected 103 academicians. In 1924-5, the Academy held its first election for foreign members. However, none of the candidates were approved by the Narkom of Education.
In 1929, two of its members (Serhiy Yefremov and Mykhailo Slabchenko) and 24 corresponding agents (such as Osip Hermaize, Hryhoriy Holoskevych, Andriy Nikovsky, and others) were arrested in accusation to belonging to the non-existing (as later it was established) Union for the Freedom of Ukraine. None of the arrested have ever been released.
Like many other academies, it has a two-tier membership: academicians, and corresponding members. There is also an additional membership category for foreign members. It operates many research institutions, primarily in the fundamental sciences but also in the humanities. The Academy has "state-agency" status, but is self-governing in decisions relating to its own activities. The NASU is responsible for over 90% of all discoveries made in Ukraine, including the transmutation of lithium into helium, the production of heavy water, and the development of a 3-D radar that operates in the decimeter range.
Through its history, various new departments have been founded by prominent scientists. The following list gives some of the scientist who founded new departments.
The NASU has had only eight (8) different presidents:
|Presidents of the Academy|
|Volodymyr Ivanovych Vernadsky||1918 — 1919|
|Orest Ivanovych Levytsky||1919 — 1922|
|Mykola Prokopovych Vasylenko[a]||1921 — 1922|
|Volodymyr Ippolitovych Lipsky||1922 — 1928|
|Danylo Kyrylovych Zabolotny||1928 — 1929|
|Oleksandr Oleksandrovych Bohomolets||1930 — 1946|
|Oleksandr Volodymyrovych Palladin||1946 — 1962|
|Borys Yevhenovych Paton||1962 — present|
On 2006, the NASU has a presidium, 3 sections and 14 departments within them, 6 regional science centers in various regions of the country, 173 research institutions across the nation, with 43,613 employees including 16,813 researchers; among them, 2,493 with degree of Doktor Nauk (Doctor of Sciences) and 7,996 with degree of Kandidat Nauk (Candidate of Sciences, Ph.D.). Currently, the sections and departments are:
The administrative body of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine that is located in Kiev. The presidium governs the work of the Academy in period between sessions of general assemblies of the Academy.
Members of the presidium include the president, four vice-presidents, chief secretary and secretary of departments, heads of regional science centers as well as some other distinguished academicians. The presidium meets in the former building of Countess Levashova that the Academy owns since its establishment in 1918.
The presidium also directs operations of the Academy's publishing institutions as well as some selected science and other institutions among which are own exposition center, Grand Conference Hall, etc.
Regional science centers (SCs) are:
The most of institutions of the Academy (212) are placed in the city of Kiev, following by Kharkiv (39) and Lviv (27). The Academy is represented at least by one institution in most of the oblasts in Ukraine, except Volyn, Rivne, Ternopil, Khmelnytsky, Vinnytsia, and Kirovohrad.
There are 2 national libraries affiliated with the NASU:
The department of General Biology includes a number of parks and nature reserves.
The NASU has two publishing houses:
The NASU has made major contributions to most of the major fields of science.
Today, the General Meetings of the NASU consist of 512 academicians and corresponding members along with 130 foreign members.
The Bogolyubov Prize is an award offered by the Academy for scientists with outstanding contribution to theoretical physics and applied mathematics. The award is issued in the memory of theoretical physicist and mathematician Nikolay Bogolyubov.
The Academy has awarded its Vernadsky Gold Medal annually since 2004 to the most distinguished academicians.