My Lai Massacre

Mỹ Lai Massacre
Thảm sát Mỹ Lai
My Lai massacre.jpg
Photo taken by United States Army photographer Ronald L. Haeberle on the 16th of March 1968 in the aftermath of the Mỹ Lai massacre showing mostly women and children dead on a road
My Lai Massacre is located in Vietnam
My Lai Massacre
My Lai Massacre (Vietnam)
LocationSơn Mỹ (village), Sơn Tịnh District, South Vietnam
Coordinates15°10′42″N 108°52′10″E / 15.17833°N 108.86944°E / 15.17833; 108.86944Coordinates: 15°10′42″N 108°52′10″E / 15.17833°N 108.86944°E / 15.17833; 108.86944
Date16 March 1968
TargetMy Lai 4 and My Khe 4 hamlets
Attack type
Deaths347 according to the United States Army (not including My Khe killings), others estimate more than 400 killed and injuries are unknown, Vietnamese government lists 504 killed in total from both My Lai and My Khe
PerpetratorsCharlie Company, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment of the 11th Infantry Brigade in the Americal Division

The Mỹ Lai Massacre (/ˌmˈl/; Vietnamese: Thảm sát Mỹ Lai [tʰâːm ʂǎːt mǐˀ lāːj] (About this soundlisten)) was the Vietnam War mass murder of unarmed South Vietnamese civilians by U.S. troops in Sơn Tịnh District, South Vietnam, on 16 March 1968. Between 347 and 504 unarmed people were massacred by the U.S. Army soldiers from Company C, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment, 11th Brigade, 23rd (Americal) Infantry Division. Victims included men, women, children, and infants. Some of the women were gang-raped and their bodies mutilated.[1][2] Twenty-six soldiers were charged with criminal offenses, but only Lieutenant William Calley Jr., a platoon leader in C Company, was convicted. Found guilty of killing 22 villagers, he was originally given a life sentence, but served only three and a half years under house arrest.

The massacre, which was later called "the most shocking episode of the Vietnam War",[3] took place in two hamlets of Sơn Mỹ village in Quảng Ngãi Province.[4] These hamlets were marked on the U.S. Army topographic maps as Mỹ Lai and Mỹ Khê.[5]

The U.S. Army slang name for the hamlets and sub-hamlets in that area was Pinkville,[6] and the carnage was initially referred to as the Pinkville Massacre.[7][8] Later, when the U.S. Army started its investigation, the media changed it to the Massacre at Songmy.[9] Currently, the event is referred to as the My Lai Massacre in the United States and called the Sơn Mỹ Massacre in Vietnam.[10]

The incident prompted global outrage when it became public knowledge in November 1969. The massacre increased to some extent[11] domestic opposition to the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War when the scope of killing and cover-up attempts were exposed. Initially, three U.S. servicemen who had tried to halt the massacre and rescue the hiding civilians were shunned, and even denounced as traitors by several U.S. Congressmen, including Mendel Rivers, Chairman of the House Armed Services Committee. Only after thirty years were they recognized and decorated, one posthumously, by the U.S. Army for shielding non-combatants from harm in a war zone.[12] Along with the No Gun Ri massacre in South Korea eighteen years earlier, Mỹ Lai was one of the largest single massacres of civilians by U.S. forces in the 20th century.[13]


Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment, 11th Brigade, 23rd Infantry Division, arrived in South Vietnam in December 1967. Though their first three months in Vietnam passed without any direct contact with North Vietnamese-backed forces, by mid-March the company had suffered 28 casualties involving mines or booby-traps.[14] Two days before the My Lai massacre the company lost a popular sergeant to a land mine.[15]

During the Tet Offensive in January 1968, attacks were carried out in Quảng Ngãi by the 48th Local Force Battalion of the National Liberation Front (NLF), commonly referred to by the U.S. Army as the Viet Cong. U.S. military intelligence assumed that the 48th NLF Battalion, having retreated and dispersed, was taking refuge in the village of Sơn Mỹ, in Quảng Ngãi Province. A number of specific hamlets within that village—designated Mỹ Lai (1) through My Lai (6) — were suspected of harboring the 48th.[16]

South Vietnamese women and children in Mỹ Lai before being killed in the massacre, 16 March 1968.[17] According to court testimony, they were killed seconds after the photo was taken.[18] The woman on the right is adjusting her blouse buttons following a sexual assault that happened before the massacre.[19]

In February and March 1968, the U.S. Military Assistance Command, Vietnam was aggressively trying to regain the strategic initiative in South Vietnam after the Tet Offensive, and the search-and-destroy operation against the 48th NLF Battalion thought to be located in Sơn Mỹ became a small part of America's grand strategy. Task Force Barker (TF Barker), a battalion-sized ad hoc unit of 11th Brigade, was to be employed for the job. It was formed in January 1968, composed of three rifle companies of the 11th Brigade, including Charlie Company from the 20th Infantry, led by Lieutenant Colonel (LTC) Frank A. Barker. Sơn Mỹ village was included in the area of operations of TF Barker. The area of operations (AO) was codenamed Muscatine AO,[20] after Muscatine County, Iowa, the home county of the 23rd Division's commander, Major General Samuel W. Koster.

In February 1968, TF Barker had already tried to secure Sơn Mỹ, with limited success.[21] After that, the village area began to be called Pinkville by TF Barker troops.[22]

On 16–18 March, TF Barker planned to engage and destroy the remnants of the 48th NLF Battalion, allegedly hiding in the Sơn Mỹ village area. Before engagement, Colonel (COL) Oran K. Henderson, the 11th Brigade commander, urged his officers to "go in there aggressively, close with the enemy and wipe them out for good".[23] In turn, LTC Barker reportedly ordered the 1st Battalion commanders to burn the houses, kill the livestock, destroy food supplies, and destroy the wells.[24]

On the eve of the attack, at the Charlie Company briefing, Captain (CPT) Ernest Medina told his men that nearly all the civilian residents of the hamlets in Sơn Mỹ village would have left for the market by 07:00, and that any who remained would be NLF or NLF sympathizers.[25] He was asked whether the order included the killing of women and children. Those present later gave differing accounts of Medina's response. Some, including platoon leaders, testified that the orders, as they understood them, were to kill all guerrilla and North Vietnamese combatants and "suspects" (including women and children, as well as all animals), to burn the village, and pollute the wells.[26] He was quoted as saying, "They're all VC, now go and get them", and was heard to reply to the question "Who is my enemy?", by saying, "Anybody that was running from us, hiding from us, or appeared to be the enemy. If a man was running, shoot him, sometimes even if a woman with a rifle was running, shoot her."[27]:310

At Calley's trial, one defense witness testified that he remembered Medina instructing to destroy everything in the village that was "walking, crawling or growing".[28]

Charlie Company was to enter the village of Sơn Mỹ spearheaded by 1st Platoon, engage the enemy, and flush it out. The other two companies from TF Barker were ordered to secure the area and provide support if needed. The area was designated a free fire zone, where American forces were allowed to deploy artillery and air strikes in populated areas.[29]


On the morning of 16 March at 7:30 a.m., around 100 soldiers from Charlie Company led by CPT Ernest Medina, following a short artillery and helicopter gunship barrage, landed in helicopters at Sơn Mỹ, a patchwork of settlements, rice paddies, irrigation ditches, dikes, and dirt roads, connecting an assortment of hamlets and sub-hamlets. The largest among them were the hamlets Mỹ Lai, Cổ Lũy, Mỹ Khê, and Tu Cung.[30]:1–2

Although the GIs were not fired upon after landing, they still suspected there were Vietcong guerrillas hiding underground or in the huts. Confirming their suspicions, the gunships engaged several armed enemy in a vicinity of Mỹ Lai; later, one weapon was retrieved from the site.[31]

An unidentified man and child that were killed on a road

According to the operational plan, 1st Platoon led by Second Lieutenant (2LT) William Calley and 2nd Platoon led by 2LT Stephen Brooks entered the hamlet of Tu Cung in line formation at 08:00, while the 3rd Platoon commanded by 2LT Jeffrey U. Lacross[32][33] and Captain Medina's command post remained outside. On approach, both platoons fired at people they saw in the rice fields and in the brush.[34]

The villagers, who were getting ready for a market day, at first did not panic or run away, and they were herded into the hamlet's commons. Harry Stanley, a machine gunner from Charlie Company, said during the U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Division inquiry that the killings started without warning. He first observed a member of 1st Platoon strike a Vietnamese man with a bayonet. Then, the same trooper pushed another villager into a well and threw a grenade in the well. Next, he saw fifteen or twenty people, mainly women and children, kneeling around a temple with burning incense. They were praying and crying. They were all killed by shots in the head.[35]

Most of the killings occurred in the southern part of Tu Cung, a sub-hamlet of Xom Lang, which was a home to 700 residents.[36] Xom Lang was erroneously marked on the U.S. military operational maps of Quảng Ngãi Province as Mỹ Lai.

A large group of approximately 70–80 villagers was rounded up by 1st Platoon in Xom Lang and led to an irrigation ditch east of the settlement. All detainees were pushed into the ditch and then killed after repeated orders issued by Lieutenant Calley, who was also shooting. PFC Paul Meadlo testified that he expended several M16 magazines. He recollected that women were allegedly saying "No VC" and were trying to shield their children.[35] He remembered that he was shooting into women with babies in their hands since he was convinced at that time that they were all booby-trapped with grenades and were poised to attack.[37] On another occasion during the security sweep of My Lai, Meadlo again fired into civilians side-by-side with Lieutenant Calley.[38]

PFC Dennis Konti, a witness for the prosecution,[39] told of one especially gruesome episode during the shooting, "A lot of women had thrown themselves on top of the children to protect them, and the children were alive at first. Then, the children who were old enough to walk got up and Calley began to shoot the children".[40] Other 1st Platoon members testified that many of the deaths of individual Vietnamese men, women and children occurred inside Mỹ Lai during the security sweep. Livestock was shot as well.[41]

When PFC Michael Bernhardt entered the subhamlet of Xom Lang, the massacre was underway:

I walked up and saw these guys doing strange things ... Setting fire to the hootches and huts and waiting for people to come out and then shooting them ... going into the hootches and shooting them up ... gathering people in groups and shooting them ... As I walked in you could see piles of people all through the village ... all over. They were gathered up into large groups. I saw them shoot an M79 [grenade launcher] into a group of people who were still alive. But it was mostly done with a machine gun. They were shooting women and children just like anybody else. We met no resistance and I only saw three captured weapons. We had no casualties. It was just like any other Vietnamese village – old papa-sans, women and kids. As a matter of fact, I don't remember seeing one military-age male in the entire place, dead or alive.[42]

One group of 20–50 villagers was herded south of Xom Lang and killed on a dirt road. According to Ronald Haeberle's eyewitness account of the massacre, in one instance,

There were some South Vietnamese people, maybe fifteen of them, women and children included, walking on a dirt road maybe 100 yards [90 m] away. All of a sudden the GIs just opened up with M16s. Beside the M16 fire, they were shooting at the people with M79 grenade launchers ... I couldn't believe what I was seeing.[43]

Lieutenant Calley testified that he heard the shooting and arrived on the scene. He observed his men firing into a ditch with Vietnamese people inside and he then started shooting, with an M16, from a distance of five feet. Then, a helicopter landed on the other side of the ditch and a pilot asked Calley if he could provide any medical assistance to the wounded civilians in Mỹ Lai; Calley admitted replying that a hand grenade was the only available means that he had for their evacuation. After that, around 11:00, Captain Medina radioed to cease fire and the 1st Platoon took a lunch break.[44]

Members of 2nd platoon killed at least 60–70 Vietnamese, as they swept through the northern half of Mỹ Lai and through Binh Tay, a small sub-hamlet about 400 metres (1,300 ft) north of Mỹ Lai.[5] The platoon suffered one dead and seven wounded by mines and booby traps. After the initial sweeps by 1st and 2nd platoons, 3rd Platoon was dispatched to deal with any "remaining resistance". 3rd platoon, which stayed in reserve, also reportedly rounded up and killed a group of seven to twelve women and children.[5]

Since Charlie Company had not met any enemy opposition at Mỹ Lai and did not request back-up, Bravo Company, 4th Battalion, 3rd Infantry Regiment of TF Barker was transported by air between 08:15 and 08:30 3 km (2 mi) away. It attacked the subhamlet My Hoi of the hamlet known as Cổ Lũy, which was mapped by the Army as Mỹ Khê. During this operation, between 60 and 155 people, including women and children, were killed.[45]

Over the next day, both companies were involved in additional burning and destruction of dwellings, as well as mistreatment of Vietnamese detainees. While some soldiers of Charlie Company did not participate in the crimes, they neither openly protested nor complained later to their superiors.[46]

William Thomas Allison, a professor of Military History at Georgia Southern University, wrote, "By midmorning, members of Charlie Company had killed hundreds of civilians and raped or assaulted countless women and young girls. They encountered no enemy fire and found no weapons in My Lai itself".[47]

Helicopter crew intervention[]

Hugh Thompson, Jr. played a major role in ending the Mỹ Lai Massacre and later testified against the war criminals responsible.

Warrant Officer (WO1) Hugh Thompson, Jr., a helicopter pilot from Company B (Aero-Scouts), 123rd Aviation Battalion, Americal Division, saw dead and wounded civilians as he was flying over the village of Sơn Mỹ, providing close-air support for ground forces.[48] The crew made several attempts to radio for help for the wounded. They landed their helicopter by a ditch, which they noted was full of bodies and in which there was movement.[48] Thompson asked a sergeant he encountered there (David Mitchell of the 1st Platoon) if he could help get the people out of the ditch, and the sergeant replied that he would "help them out of their misery". Thompson, shocked and confused, then spoke with Calley, who claimed to be "just following orders". As the helicopter took off, Thompson saw Mitchell firing into the ditch.[48]

Thompson and his crew witnessed an unarmed woman being kicked and shot at point-blank range by Captain Medina, who later claimed that he thought she had a hand grenade.[49] Thompson then saw a group of civilians (again consisting of children, women, and old men) at a bunker being approached by ground personnel. Thompson landed and told his crew that if the soldiers shot at the Vietnamese while he was trying to get them out of the bunker that they were to open fire on these soldiers.[48]

Thompson later testified that he spoke with a lieutenant (identified as Stephen Brooks of 2nd Platoon) and told him there were women and children in the bunker, and asked if the lieutenant would help get them out. According to Thompson, "he [the lieutenant] said the only way to get them out was with a hand grenade". Thompson testified that he then told Brooks to "just hold your men right where they are, and I'll get the kids out." He found 12–16 people in the bunker, coaxed them out and led them to the helicopter, standing with them while they were flown out in two groups.[48]

Returning to Mỹ Lai, Thompson and other air crew members noticed several large groups of bodies.[50] Spotting some survivors in the ditch, Thompson landed again. A crew member, Glenn Andreotta entered the ditch and returned with a bloodied but apparently unharmed four-year old girl, who was flown to safety.[48] Thompson then reported what he had seen to his company commander, Major (MAJ) Frederic W. Watke, using terms such as "murder" and "needless and unnecessary killings." Thompson's statements were confirmed by other helicopter pilots and air crew members.[51]

For the actions at My Lai, Thompson was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC) and his crew members Glenn Andreotta and Lawrence Colburn were awarded Bronze Star medals. Glenn Andreotta was awarded his medal posthumously, as he was killed in Vietnam on 8 April 1968.[52][53] As the DFC citation included a fabricated account of rescuing a young girl from My Lai from "intense crossfire",[54] Thompson threw his medal away.[55][56] He later received a Purple Heart for other services in Vietnam.[57]

In March 1998, the helicopter crew's medals were replaced by the Soldier's Medal, the highest the U.S. Army can award for bravery not involving direct conflict with the enemy. The medal citations state they were "for heroism above and beyond the call of duty while saving the lives of at least 10 Vietnamese civilians during the unlawful massacre of non-combatants by American forces at My Lai".[58]

Thompson initially refused the medal when the U.S. Army wanted to award it quietly. He demanded it be done publicly and that his crew also be honored in the same way.[59][60] The veterans also contacted the survivors of Mỹ Lai.[61]


Dead bodies outside a burning dwelling

After returning to base at about 11:00, Thompson reported the massacre to his superiors.[62]:176–179 His allegations of civilian killings quickly reached LTC Barker, the operation's overall commander. Barker radioed his executive officer to find out from Captain Medina what was happening on the ground. Medina then gave the cease-fire order to Charlie Company to "cut [the killing] out – knock it off".[63]

Since Thompson made an official report of the civilian killings, he was interviewed by Colonel Oran Henderson, the commander of the 11th Infantry Brigade (the parent organization of the 20th Infantry).[64] Concerned, senior American officers canceled similar planned operations by Task Force Barker against other villages (My Lai 5, My Lai 1, etc.) in Quảng Ngãi Province.[65]

Despite Thompson's revealing information, Colonel Henderson issued a Letter of Commendation to Captain Medina on 27 March 1968. The following day (28 March) the commander of Task Force Barker submitted a combat action report for the 16 March operation in which he stated that the operation in Mỹ Lai was a success with 128 Viet Cong partisans killed. The Americal Division commander, Major General S. W. Koster, sent a congratulatory message to Charlie Company.

General William C. Westmoreland, the head of Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV), also congratulated Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry for "outstanding action", saying that they had "dealt [the] enemy [a] heavy blow".[66]:196 Later, he changed his stance, writing in his memoir that it was "the conscious massacre of defenseless babies, children, mothers, and old men in a kind of diabolical slow-motion nightmare that went on for the better part of a day, with a cold-blooded break for lunch".[67]

Owing to the chaotic circumstances of the war and the U.S. Army's decision not to undertake a definitive body count of noncombatants in Vietnam, the number of civilians killed at Mỹ Lai cannot be stated with certainty. Estimates vary from source to source, with 347 and 504 being the most commonly cited figures. The memorial at the site of the massacre lists 504 names, with ages ranging from one to 82. A later investigation by the U.S. Army arrived at a lower figure of 347 deaths,[68] the official U.S. estimate. The official estimate by the local government remains 504.[69]

Reporting, cover-up and investigation[]

Initial reports claimed "128 Viet Cong and 22 civilians" had been killed in the village during a "fierce fire fight". General Westmoreland, the MACV commander, congratulated the unit on the "outstanding job". As relayed at the time by Stars and Stripes magazine, "U.S. infantrymen had killed 128 Communists in a bloody day-long battle."[70]

On 16 March 1968, in the official press briefing known as the "Five O'Clock Follies", a mimeographed release included this passage: "In an action today, Americal Division forces killed 128 enemy near Quang Ngai City. Helicopter gunships and artillery missions supported the ground elements throughout the day."[71]

Initial investigations of the Mỹ Lai operation were undertaken by the 11th Light Infantry Brigade's commanding officer, Colonel Henderson, under orders from the Americal Division's executive officer, Brigadier General George H. Young. Henderson interviewed several soldiers involved in the incident, then issued a written report in late-April claiming that some 20 civilians were inadvertently killed during the operation. The Army at this time was still describing the event as a military victory that had resulted in the deaths of 128 enemy combatants.[72]

Six months later, Tom Glen, a 21-year-old soldier of the 11th Light Infantry Brigade, wrote a letter to General Creighton Abrams, the new MACV commander.[73] He described an ongoing and routine brutality against Vietnamese civilians on the part of American forces in Vietnam that he personally witnessed and then concluded,

It would indeed be terrible to find it necessary to believe that an American soldier that harbors such racial intolerance and disregard for justice and human feeling is a prototype of all American national character; yet the frequency of such soldiers lends credulity to such beliefs. ... What has been outlined here I have seen not only in my own unit, but also in others we have worked with, and I fear it is universal. If this is indeed the case, it is a problem which cannot be overlooked, but can through a more firm implementation of the codes of MACV (Military Assistance Command Vietnam) and the Geneva Conventions, perhaps be eradicated.[74]

Colin Powell, then a 31-year-old Army major serving as an assistant chief of staff of operations for the Americal Division, was charged with investigating the letter, which did not specifically refer to Mỹ Lai, as Glen had limited knowledge of the events there. In his report, Powell wrote, "In direct refutation of this portrayal is the fact that relations between Americal Division soldiers and the Vietnamese people are excellent." Powell's handling of the assignment was later characterized by some observers as "whitewashing" the atrocities of Mỹ Lai.[74]

In May 2004, Powell, then United States Secretary of State, told CNN's Larry King, "I mean, I was in a unit that was responsible for Mỹ Lai. I got there after My Lai happened. So, in war, these sorts of horrible things happen every now and again, but they are still to be deplored."[75]

In 1966, the Bình Hòa massacre purportedly at the hands of South Korean troops occurred in Quảng Ngãi Province; in February 1968, in neighboring Quảng Nam Province, during a similar Muscatine counterinsurgency search-and-destroy operation, the Phong Nhị and Phong Nhất massacre and the purported Hà My massacre were committed by South Korean Marines. Seven months prior to the massacre at Mỹ Lai, on Robert McNamara's orders, the Inspector General of the U.S. Defense Department investigated press coverage of alleged atrocities committed in South Vietnam. In August 1967, the 200-page report "Alleged Atrocities by U.S. Military Forces in South Vietnam" was completed.[76] It concluded that many American troops did not fully understand the Geneva Conventions. No further action was taken.[citation needed]

Independently of Glen, Specialist 5 Ronald L. Ridenhour, a former door gunner from the Aviation Section, Headquarters Company, 11th Infantry Brigade, sent a letter in March 1969 to thirty members of Congress imploring them to investigate the circumstances surrounding the "Pinkville" incident.[77][78] He and his pilot, Warrant Officer Gilbert Honda, flew over Mỹ Lai several days after the operation and observed a scene of complete destruction. At one point, they hovered over a dead Vietnamese woman with a patch of the 11th Brigade on her body.[79]

Ridenhour had learned about the events at Mỹ Lai secondhand from talking to members of Charlie Company over a period of months beginning in April 1968. He became convinced that something "rather dark and bloody did indeed occur" at Mỹ Lai, and was so disturbed by the tales he heard that within three months of being discharged from the Army he penned his concerns to Congress.[77] He included the name of Michael Bernhardt, an eyewitness who agreed to testify, in the letter.[80]

Most recipients of Ridenhour's letter ignored it, with the exception of Congressman Mo Udall[81] and Senators Barry Goldwater and Edward Brooke.[82] Udall urged the House Armed Services Committee to call on Pentagon officials to conduct an investigation.[78]

Independent investigative journalist Seymour Hersh, after extensive interviews with Calley, broke the Mỹ Lai story on 12 November 1969, on the Associated Press wire service;[83] on 20 November, Time, Life and Newsweek all covered the story, and CBS televised an interview with Paul Meadlo, a soldier in Calley's unit during the massacre. The Plain Dealer (Cleveland, Ohio) published explicit photographs of dead villagers killed at Mỹ Lai.[84]

As members of Congress called for an inquiry and news correspondents abroad expressed their horror at the massacre, the General Counsel of the Army Robert Jordan was tasked with speaking to the press. He refused to confirm allegations against Calley. Noting the significance of the fact that the statement was given at all, Bill Downs of ABC News said it amounted to the first public expression of concern by a "high defense official" that American troops "might have committed genocide."[85]

In November 1969, Lieutenant General William R. Peers was appointed by the Secretary of the Army and the Army Chief of Staff to conduct a thorough review of the My Lai incident, 16–19 March 1968, and its investigation by the Army. Peers's final report,[5] presented to higher-ups on March 17, 1970, was highly critical of top officers at brigade and divisional levels for participating in the cover-up, and the Charlie Company officers for their actions at Mỹ Lai.[86]

According to Peers's findings:

[The 1st Battalion] members had killed at least 175–200 Vietnamese men, women, and children. The evidence indicates that only 3 or 4 were confirmed as Viet Cong although there were undoubtedly several unarmed VC (men, women, and children) among them and many more active supporters and sympathizers. One man from the company was reported as wounded from the accidental discharge of his weapon. ... a tragedy of major proportions had occurred at Son My.[5]

Critics of the Peers Report pointed out that it sought to place the real blame on four officers who were already dead, foremost among them the commander of Task Force Barker, LTC Frank Barker, who was killed in a mid-air collision on 13 June 1968.[87] Also, the Peers Report avoided drawing any conclusions or recommendations regarding the further examination of the treatment of civilians in a war zone. In 1968, an American journalist, Jonathan Schell, wrote that in the Vietnamese province of Quang Ngai, where the Mỹ Lai massacre occurred, up to 70% of all villages were destroyed by the air strikes and artillery bombardments, including the use of napalm; 40% percent of the population were refugees, and the overall civilian casualties were close to 50,000 a year.[88] Regarding the massacre at Mỹ Lai, he stated, "There can be no doubt that such an atrocity was possible only because a number of other methods of killing civilians and destroying their villages had come to be the rule, and not the exception, in our conduct of the war".[89]

In May 1970, a sergeant who participated in Operation Speedy Express wrote a confidential letter to then Army Chief of Staff Westmoreland describing civilian killings he said were on the scale of the massacre occurring as "a My Lai each month for over a year" during 1968–69. Two other letters to this effect from enlisted soldiers to military leaders in 1971, all signed "Concerned Sergeant", were uncovered within declassified National Archive documents. The letters describe common occurrences of civilian killings during population pacification operations. Army policy also stressed very high body counts and this resulted in dead civilians being marked down as combatants. Alluding to indiscriminate killings described as unavoidable, the commander of the 9th Division, then Major General Julian Ewell, in September 1969, submitted a confidential report to Westmoreland and other generals describing the countryside in some areas of Vietnam as resembling the battlefields of Verdun.[90][91]

In July 1969, the Office of Provost Marshal General of the Army began to examine the evidence collected by the General Peers inquiry regarding possible criminal charges. Eventually, Calley was charged with several counts of premated murder in September 1969, and 25 other officers and enlisted men were later charged with related crimes.[citation needed]

Courts martial[]

On 17 November 1970, a court-martial in the United States charged 14 officers, including Major General Samuel Koster, the Americal Division's commanding officer, with suppressing information related to the incident. Most of the charges were later dropped. Brigade commander Colonel Henderson was the only high ranking commanding officer who stood trial on charges relating to the cover-up of the Mỹ Lai massacre; he was acquitted on 17 December 1971.[92]

During the four-month-long trial, Lieutenant Calley consistently claimed that he was following orders from his commanding officer, Captain Medina. Despite that, he was convicted and sentenced to life in prison on 29 March 1971, after being found guilty of premated murder of not fewer than twenty people. Two days later, President Richard Nixon made the controversial decision to have Calley released from armed custody at Fort Benning, Georgia, and put under house arrest pending appeal of his sentence. Calley's conviction was upheld by the Army Court of Military Review in 1973 and by the U.S. Court of Military Appeals in 1974.[93]

In August 1971, Calley's sentence was reduced by the Convening Authority from life to twenty years. Calley would eventually serve three and one-half years under house arrest at Fort Benning including three months in a disciplinary barracks in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. In September 1974, he was paroled by the Secretary of the Army, Howard Callaway.[93][94]

In a separate trial, Captain Medina denied giving the orders that led to the massacre, and was acquitted of all charges, effectively negating the prosecution's theory of "command responsibility", now referred to as the "Medina standard". Several months after his acquittal, however, Medina admitted he had suppressed evidence and had lied to Colonel Henderson about the number of civilian deaths.[95]

Captain Kotouc, an intelligence officer from 11th Brigade, was also court-martialed and found not guilty. Major General Koster was demoted to brigadier general and lost his position as the Superintendent of West Point. His deputy, Brigadier General Young, received a letter of censure. Both were stripped of Distinguished Service Medals which had been awarded for service in Vietnam.[96]

Of the 26 men initially charged, Lieutenant Calley was the only one convicted.[97] Some[who?] have argued that the outcome of the Mỹ Lai courts-martial failed to uphold the laws of war established in the Nuremberg and Tokyo War Crimes Tribunals.[98] Telford Taylor, a senior American prosecutor at Nuremberg, wrote that legal principles established at the war crimes trials could have been used to prosecute senior American military commanders for failing to prevent atrocities such as the one at My Lai.[99]

Howard Callaway, Secretary of the Army, was quoted in The New York Times in 1976 as stating that Calley's sentence was reduced because Calley honestly believed that what he did was a part of his orders—a rationale that contradicts the standards set at Nuremberg and Tokyo, where following orders was not a defense for committing war crimes.[98] On the whole, aside from the Mỹ Lai courts-martial, there were thirty-six military trials held by the U.S. Army from January 1965 to August 1973 for crimes against civilians in Vietnam.[66]:196

Some authors[100] have argued that the light punishments of the low-level personnel present at Mỹ Lai and unwillingness to hold higher officials responsible was part of a pattern in which the body-count strategy and the so-called "Mere Gook Rule" encouraged U.S. soldiers to err on the side of killing too many South Vietnamese civilians. This in turn, Nick Turse argues, made lesser known massacres like Mỹ Lai and a pattern of war crimes common in Vietnam.[100]


In early 1972, the camp at Mỹ Lai (2) where the survivors of the Mỹ Lai massacre had been relocated, was largely destroyed by Army of the Republic of Vietnam artillery and aerial bombardment, and remaining eyewitnesses were dispersed. The destruction was officially attributed to "Viet Cong terrorists". The truth was revealed by Quaker service workers in the area through testimony in May 1972 by Martin Teitel at hearings before the Congressional Subcommittee to Investigate Problems Connected with Refugees and Escapees in South Vietnam. In June 1972, Teitel's account was published in The New York Times.[101]

Many American soldiers who had been in Mỹ Lai during the massacre accepted personal responsibility for the loss of civilian lives. Some of them expressed regrets without acknowledging any personal guilt, as, for example, Ernest Medina, who said, "I have regrets for it, but I have no guilt over it because I didn't cause it. That's not what the military, particularly the United States Army, is trained for."[102]

Lawrence La Croix, a squad leader in Charlie Company in Mỹ Lai, stated in 2010: "A lot of people talk about Mỹ Lai, and they say, 'Well, you know, yeah, but you can't follow an illegal order.' Trust me. There is no such thing. Not in the military. If I go into a combat situation and I tell them, 'No, I'm not going. I'm not going to do that. I'm not going to follow that order', well, they'd put me up against the wall and shoot me."[103]

On 16 March 1998, a gathering of local people and former American and Vietnamese soldiers stood together at the place of the Mỹ Lai massacre in Vietnam to commemorate its 30th anniversary. American veterans Hugh Thompson and Lawrence Colburn, who were shielding civilians during the massacre, addressed the crowd. Among the listeners was Phan Thi Nhanh, a 14-year-old girl at the time of the massacre. She was saved by Thompson and vividly remembered that tragic day, "We don't say we forget. We just try not to think about the past, but in our hearts we keep a place to think about that".[104] Colburn challenged Lieutenant Calley, " face the women we faced today who asked the questions they asked, and look at the tears in their eyes and tell them why it happened".[104] No American diplomats nor any other officials attended the meeting.

More than a thousand people turned out on 16 March 2008, forty years after the massacre. The Sơn Mỹ Memorial drew survivors and families of victims and some returning U.S. veterans. One survivor (an 8-year girl at the time), said, "Everyone in my family was killed in the Mỹ Lai massacre — my mother, my father, my brother and three sisters. They threw me into a ditch full of dead bodies. I was covered with blood and brains."[105] The U.S. was unofficially represented by a volunteer group from Wisconsin called Madison Quakers, who in 10 years built three schools in Mỹ Lai and planted a peace garden.[105]

On 19 August 2009, Calley made his first public apology for the massacre in a speech to the Kiwanis club of Greater Columbus, Georgia:[106][107]

There is not a day that goes by that I do not feel remorse for what happened that day in Mỹ Lai", he told members of the club. "I feel remorse for the Vietnamese who were killed, for their families, for the American soldiers involved and their families. I am very sorry....If you are asking why I did not stand up to them when I was given the orders, I will have to say that I was a 2nd lieutenant getting orders from my commander and I followed them—foolishly, I guess.[108][109]

Trần Văn Đức, who was seven years old at the time of Mỹ Lai massacre and now resides in Remscheid, Germany, called the apology "terse". He wrote a public letter to Calley describing the plight of his and many other families to remind him that time did not ease the pain, and that grief and sorrow over lost lives will forever stay in Mỹ Lai.[110]



Altogether, 14 officers directly and indirectly involved with the operation, including two generals, were investigated in connection with the Mỹ Lai massacre, except for LTC Frank A. Barker, CPT Earl Michaels, and 2LT Stephen Brooks, who all died before the beginning of the investigation.[111][118][119]

1st Platoon, Charlie Company 1st Battalion 20th Infantry[]

Before being shipped to South Vietnam, all of Charlie Company's soldiers went through an advanced infantry training and basic unit training at Pohakuloa Training Area in Hawaii.[132][133] At Schofield Barracks they were taught how to treat POWs and how to distinguish Vietcong guerrillas from civilians by a Judge Advocate.[134]

Other soldiers[]

Rescue helicopter crew[]

Media coverage[]

News press[]

A photographer and a reporter from the 11th Brigade Information Office were attached to the Task Force Barker and landed with Charlie Company in Sơn Mỹ on 16 March 1968. However, the Americal News Sheet published 17 March 1968, as well as the Trident, 11th Infantry Brigade newsletter from 22 March 1968, did not mention the death of noncombatants in Mỹ Lai. The Stars and Stripes published a laudatory piece, "U.S. troops Surrounds Red, Kill 128" on March 18.[143]

On 12 April 1968, the Trident wrote that, "The most punishing operations undertaken by the brigade in Operation Muscatine's area involved three separate raids into the village and vicinity of My Lai, which cost the VC 276 killed".[144] On 4 April 1968, the information office of the 11th Brigade issued a press-release, Recent Operations in Pinkville, without any information about mass casualties among civilians.[145] Subsequent criminal investigation uncovered that, "Both individuals failed to report what they had seen, the reporter wrote a false and misleading account of the operation, and the photographer withheld and suppressed from proper authorities the photographic evidence of atrocities he had obtained."[146]

Vietnam was an atrocity from the get-go... There were hundreds of My Lais. You got your card punched by the numbers of bodies you counted.

David H. Hackworth[147]

The first mentions of the Mỹ Lai massacre appeared in the American media after Fort Benning's vague press release concerning the charges pressed against Lieutenant Calley, which was distributed on September 5, 1969.[148]

Consequently, NBC aired on 10 September 1969 a segment in the Huntley-Brinkley Report which mentioned the murder of a number of civilians in South Vietnam. Following that, emboldened Ronald Ridenhour decided to disobey the Army's order to withhold the information from the media. He approached reporter Ben Cole of the Phoenix Republic, who chose not to handle the scoop. Charles Black from the Columbus Enquirer uncovered the story on his own but also decided to put it on hold. Two major national news press outlets — The New York Times and The Washington Post, received some tips with partial information but did not act on them.[149]

External image
Front page of The Plain Dealer scoop on Mỹ Lai Massacre, 20 November 1969

A phone call on 22 October 1969, answered by freelance investigative journalist, Seymour Hersh, and his subsequent independent inquiry, broke the wall of silence that was surrounding the Mỹ Lai massacre. Hersh initially tried to sell the story to Life and Look magazines; both turned it down. Hersh then went to the small Washington-based Dispatch News Service, which sent it to fifty major American newspapers; thirty of them accepted it for publication.[150] New York Times reporter Henry Kamm investigated further and found several Mỹ Lai massacre survivors in South Vietnam. He estimated the number of killed civilians as 567.[151]

Next, Ben Cole published an article about Ronald Ridenhour, a helicopter gunner and an Army whistleblower, who was among the first who started to uncover the truth about the Mỹ Lai massacre. Joseph Eszterhas of The Plain Dealer, a friend of Ron Haeberle, knew about the photo evidence of the massacre and published the grisly images of the dead bodies of old men, women, and children on 20 November 1969.[42] Time Magazine's article on 28 November 1969 and in Life magazine on 5 December 1969,[152] finally brought Mỹ Lai to the fore of the public debate about Vietnam War.[153]

Richard L. Strout, the Christian Science Monitor political commentator, emphasized that, "American press self-censorship thwarted Mr. Ridenhour's disclosures for a year." "No one wanted to go into it", his agent said of telegrams sent to Life, Look, and Newsweek magazines outlining allegations.[154]

Afterwards, interviews and stories connected to the Mỹ Lai massacre started to appear regularly in the American and international press.[155][156]

On television, film and video[]

In theater[]

The Lieutenant is a 1975 Broadway rock opera that concerns the Mỹ Lai massacre and resulting courts martial. It was nominated for four Tony Awards including Best Musical and Best Book of a Musical.[citation needed]


The Mỹ Lai massacre, like many other events in Vietnam, was captured on camera by U.S. Army personnel. The most published and graphic images were taken by Ronald Haeberle, a U.S. Army Public Information Detachment photographer who accompanied the men of Charlie Company that day.[167]

In 2009, Haeberle admitted that he destroyed a number of photographs he took during the massacre. Unlike the photographs of the dead bodies, the destroyed photographs depicted Americans in the actual process of murdering Vietnamese civilians.[168][169]

The epithet "baby killers" was often used by anti-war activists to describe American soldiers, largely as a result of the Mỹ Lai Massacre.[170] The Mỹ Lai massacre and the Haeberle photographs both further solidified the stereotype of drug-addled soldiers who killed babies. According to M. Paul Holsinger, the And babies poster, which used a Haeberle photo, was "easily the most successful poster to vent the outrage that so many felt about the human cost of the conflict in Southeast Asia. Copies are still frequently seen in retrospectives dealing with the popular culture of the Vietnam War era or in collections of art from the period."[171]

Another soldier, John Henry Smail of the 3rd Platoon, took at least 16 color photographs depicting U.S. Army personnel, helicopters, and aerial views of Mỹ Lai.[172][173] These, along with Haeberle's photographs, were included in the "Report of the Department of the Army review of the Preliminary Investigations into the My Lai Incident".[174] Former First Lieutenant (1LT) Roger L. Alaux Jr., a forward artillery observer, who was assigned to Charlie Company during the combat assault on Ly Mai 4,[175] also took some photographs from a helicopter that day, including aerial views of Mỹ Lai, and of the Charlie Company's landing zone.[citation needed]


Mỹ Lai massacre memorial site, in Quảng Ngãi, Vietnam

Mỹ Lai holds a special place in American and Vietnamese collective memory.[176][177]

A 2.4-hectare (5.9-acre) Sơn Mỹ Memorial dedicated to victims of the Sơn Mỹ (My Lai) massacre was created in the village of Tịnh Khê, Sơn Tịnh District, Quảng Ngãi Province of Vietnam. The graves with headstones, signs on the places of killing and a museum are all located on memorial site. The War Remnants Museum in Ho Chi Minh City has an exhibition on Mỹ Lai.[citation needed]

Some American veterans chose to go on pilgrimage to the site of the massacre to heal and reconcile.[178]

On the 30th anniversary of the massacre, 16 March 1998, a groundbreaking ceremony for the Mỹ Lai Peace Park was held 2 km (1 mi) away from the site of the massacre. Veterans, including Hugh Thompson Jr. and Lawrence Colburn from the helicopter rescue crew, attended the ceremony. Mike Boehm,[179] a veteran who was instrumental in the peace park effort, said, "We cannot forget the past, but we cannot live with anger and hatred either. With this park of peace, we have created a green, rolling, living monument to peace."[104]

On 16 March 2001, the Mỹ Lai Peace Park was dedicated, a joint venture of the Quảng Ngãi Province Women's Union, the Madison Quakers' charitable organization, and the Vietnamese government.[180]

See also[]


  1. ^ Brownmiller, Susan (1975). Against Our Will: Men, Women and Rape. Simon & Schuster. pp. 103–05. ISBN 978-0-671-22062-4.
  2. ^ Murder in the name of war: My Lai, BBC News, 20 July 1998.
  3. ^ Greiner, Bernd. War Without Fronts: The USA in Vietnam, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 2009.
  4. ^ Department of the Army. Report of the Department of the Army Review of the Preliminary Investigations into the My Lai Incident, Volumes I-III (1970).
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Summary of Peers Report.
  6. ^ My Lai - Letters Archived 20 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine., due to the reddish-pink color used on military maps to denote a more heavily populated area. 11th Light Infantry Brigade Veterans Association website.
  7. ^ Frontline (PBS): Remember My Lai Originally Broadcast 23 May 1989.
  8. ^ "The My Lai Massacre: Seymour Hersh's Complete and Unabridged Reporting for the St. Louis Post Dispatch, November 1969 /Candide's Notebooks". Retrieved 18 June 2011.
  9. ^ Ex-G.I. Says He Saw Calley Kill a Vietnamese Civilian. The New York Times, 27 November 1969.
  10. ^ "Commemorating victims of Son My massacre" VOV News, March 13, 2012.
  11. ^ Corley, Christopher L. Effects on Public Opinion Support During War or Conflict. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, 2007, pg. 39.
  12. ^ "Moral Courage In Combat: The My Lai Story" (lecture by Hugh Thompson), Center for the Study of Professional Military Ethics, United States Naval Academy, 2003.
  13. ^ Rozman, Gilbert (2010). U.S. Leadership, History, and Bilateral Relations in Northeast Asia. Cambridge University Press. p. 56.
  14. ^ Jones, Howard (2017). My Lai: Vietnam, 1968, and the Descent into Darkness. New York: Oxford University Press. Kindle location 684. ISBN 978-0-195-39360-6.
  15. ^ Cookman, Claude (June 2007). An American Atrocity: The My Lai Massacre Concretized in a Victim's Face. Oxford University Press.
  16. ^ MAJ Tony Raimondo, JA. The Mỹ Lai Massacre: A Case Study. Human Rights Program, School of the Americas, Fort Benning, Georgia.
  17. ^ Report of the Department of Army review of the preliminary investigations into the Mỹ Lai incident. Volume III, Exhibits, Book 6—Photographs, 14 March 1970, Library of Congress, Military Legal Resources
  18. ^ "My Lai", Original broadcast PBS American Experience, 9 pm, 26 April 2010 Time Index 00:35' into the first hour (no commercials)
  19. ^ "Report of the Department of the Army Review of the Preliminary Investigations into the My Lai Incident"
  20. ^ History of the 20th Infantry: 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry 11th Light Infantry Brigade Veterans Association website
  21. ^ United States v. First Lieutenant William L. Calley, Jr. 46 Court of Military Review, 1131 (1973).
  22. ^ "The 'Pinkville' Incident". Lapham's Quarterly, 14 September 2013.
  23. ^ Mỹ Lai: A Question of Orders, Time, 25 January 1971.
  24. ^ Summary Report: The Son My Village Incident
    Significantly, he gave no instructions about segregating and safeguarding non-combatants. My Lai: An American Tragedy by William George Eckhardt Archived 2007-11-07 at the Wayback Machine.
  25. ^ Peers Report: The Omissions and Commissions Of CPT Ernest L. Medina,; accessed 24 February 2018.
  26. ^ Smith, Karen D., American soldiers testify in Mỹ Lai court martial, Amarillo Globe-News, 6 December 2000.
  27. ^ Walzer, Michael. Just and Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations. Preview through Google Books. New York: Basic Books, 1977.
  28. ^ Calley's Trial Puts Emphasis on CO. Bangor Daily News, 21 December 1970.
  29. ^ "Charlie Company and the Massacre | American Experience | PBS". Retrieved 2018-09-25.
  30. ^ Oliver, Kendrick. The My Lai Massacre in American History and Memory. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2006.
  31. ^ Company C: Actions on 16 and 17 March 1968, The Peers Report.
  32. ^ Robert Lester, The Peers Inquiry of the Massacre at My Lai. A Guide to the Microfilm Edition of Vietnam War Research Collections.
  33. ^ 20th Infantry Regiment: C Company Roster - 1968, research and compilation by Daniel Malin.
  34. ^ My Lai: A Half Told Story, Sunday Times Magazine (London), 23 April 1989, pp. 24-35.
  35. ^ a b c Hersh, Seymour. My Lai: Soldiers' Bullets Silenced Pleas, Prayers of Victims, The Milwaukee Journal, May 27, 1970.
  36. ^ "The Villagers of My Lai",; accessed 23 February 2018.
  37. ^ Bigart, Homer. "Mỹ Lai G.I. Feared Babies Held Grenades", The New York Times, 13 January 1971.
  38. ^ Meadlo Testifies He Shot Women and Their Babies. Herald-Journal, 13 January 1971.
  39. ^ "Dennis Conti, Witness for the Prosecution",; accessed 23 February 2018.
  40. ^ "...They were killing everything in the village", The Palm Beach Post, 29 May 1970.
  41. ^ Summary of Peers report,; accessed 23 February 2018.
  42. ^ a b Hersh, Seymour M. Eyewitness accounts of the My Lai massacre; story by Seymour Hersh, The Plain Dealer, 20 November 1969.
  43. ^ Women, children died in village. The Sydney Morning Herald, 21 November 1969.
  44. ^ Defense Rests in Calley Trial: Capt. Medina Called Fine, Strict Officer. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 25 February 1971.
  45. ^ Hersh, Seymour M. "My Lai, And Its Omens", The New York Times, 16 March 1998.
  46. ^ a b Eckhardt, William George. My Lai: An American Tragedy Archived 7 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. An evaluative essay of the chief prosecutor in the Mỹ Lai cases William G. Eckhardt, Teaching Professor of Law at UMKC School of Law, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 2002.
  47. ^ Allison, William Thomas. My Lai: An American Atrocity in the Vietnam War. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012.
  48. ^ a b c d e f Angers, Trent. The Forgotten Hero of My Lai: The Hugh Thompson Story, Revised Edition. Lafayette, Louisiana: Acadian House, pp. 59-80, 86.
  49. ^ "Hugh Thompson". The Times. London, UK. 11 January 2006. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  50. ^ Bock, Paula. The Choices Made: Lessons from My Lai on Drawing the Line Archived 8 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. The Seattle Time, 10 March 2002.
  51. ^ The Heroes of My Lai: Hugh Thompson's Story Thompson's own account during the conference on Mỹ Lai at Tulane University in New Orleans, Louisiana, in December 1994.
  52. ^ Glenn Urban Andreotta profile Archived 17 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Names on the Wall, The Vietnam Veterans Memorial.
  53. ^ Robert Fowler (4 August 2010). "Glenn Urban Andreotta". Find A Grave. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  54. ^ Bilton, M. & Sim, K. (1992). Four hours of My Lai: The Hugh Thompson Story. LA Acadian House. pp. 204–05. ISBN 978-0-925417-33-6.
  55. ^ Rhoda Koenig (1992). "Books: Enemies of the People". New York Magazine. Vol. 25 no. 11. New York Media, LLC. p. 86. ISSN 0028-7369. Retrieved April 19, 2011.
  56. ^ Adam Jones (2010). Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction. Taylor & Francis. p. 408. ISBN 978-0-415-48618-7.
  57. ^ Johnson, Claudia D., & Vernon Elso Johnson (2003). Understanding the Odyssey: a student casebook to issues, sources, and historic documents. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 206. ISBN 978-0-313-30881-9.
  58. ^ "Heroes of My Lai honored", BBC News, 7 March 1998.
  59. ^ John Zutz (1998). "My Lai". The Veteran. Vietnam Veterans Against the War. 28 (1). Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  60. ^ "Hugh Thompson: Helicopter pilot who intervened to save lives during the U.S. Army massacre of Vietnamese civilians at My Lai". The Times. 11 January 2006. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  61. ^ "Moral Courage In Combat: The Mỹ Lai Story" (PDF). USNA Lecture. 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 March 2012.
  62. ^ Bilton, Michael & Kevin Sim. Four Hours in My Lai. New York: Viking, 1992.
  63. ^ Medina said to have "encouraged" murder, The Calgary Herald, 17 August 1971.
  64. ^ The Omissions and Commissions of Colonel Oran K. Henderson Archived 24 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine.; An extract from the official U.S. Army Peers Report into My Lai Massacre. University of Missouri-Kansas City Law school website.
  65. ^ Angers (1999), pp. 219–20.
  66. ^ a b Bourke, Joanna. An Intimate History of Killing: Face-to-Face Killing in Twentieth-Century Warfare, New York, NY: Basic Books, 1999.
  67. ^ Westmoreland, William C. A Soldier Reports. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1976, pg. 378.
  68. ^ "Mỹ Lai Massacre". JRANK Free Legal Encyclopedia. Retrieved 23 February 2018.
  69. ^ "My Lai Massacre". HISTORY. Retrieved 2018-09-26.
  70. ^ "Clemency is last hope for a more normal life", Stars and Stripes, 12 May 2009; retrieved 21 July 2012.
  71. ^ "The Press: Farewell to the Follies" (subscriber-only access), Time, 12 February 1973.
  72. ^ "The Massacre at My Lai". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2018-09-19.
  73. ^ Kurlansky, Mark. 1968: The Year That Rocked the World. New York: Ballantine, 2004, pg. 106.
  74. ^ a b Robert Parry and Norman Solomon"Behind Colin Powell's Legend – My Lai", Consortium for Independent Journalism, 22 July 1996.
  75. ^ "Interview on CNN's Larry King Live with Secretary Colin L. Powell". 4 May 2004. Archived from the original on 9 March 2006. Retrieved 16 March 2006.
  76. ^ Hersh, Seymour M. "My Lai, And Its Omens", The New York Times, 16 March 1998.
  77. ^ a b c "Text of Ron Ridenhour's 1969 letter". 29 March 1969. Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  78. ^ a b "The Heroes of My Lai". December 1994. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  79. ^ "The Men Talked of the Killing", The Palm Beach Post, 1 June 1970.
  80. ^ The Heroes of My Lai: Ron Ridenhour's Story Ridenhour's own account during the conference on Mỹ Lai at Tulane University in New Orleans, Louisiana, in December 1994.
  81. ^ "Mo Udall, The Education of a Congressman". Retrieved 18 June 2011.
  82. ^ Brooke, Edward William (2007). Bridging the Divide: My Life. Rutgers University Press. p. 166. ISBN 0-8135-3905-6.
  83. ^ "The Press: Miscue on the Massacre". 5 December 1969. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
  84. ^ "Plain Dealer exclusive in 1969: My Lai massacre photos by Ronald Haeberle". The Plain Dealer. 21 September 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2018.
  85. ^ Oliver, Kendrick (2006). The My Lai Massacre in American History and Memory. Manchester: Manchester University Press. p. 48. ISBN 0719068916.
  86. ^ Linder, Douglas (1999). "Biography of General William R. Peers". Archived from the original on 27 April 1999. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
  87. ^ a b "Ltc Frank Akeley Barker". 26 November 1967. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
  88. ^ Schell, Jonathan. The Military Half: An Account of Destruction in Quang Ngai and Quang Tin. New York: Knopf, 1968.
  89. ^ The New Yorker, Volume 45, Issues 41-45, 1969, p. 27.
  90. ^ Turse, Nick (2008). "A My Lai a Month". The Nation.
  91. ^ Nelson, Deborah (3 November 2008). The War Behind Me: Vietnam Veterans Confront the Truth about U.S. War Crimes. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-00527-6.
  92. ^ Linder, Douglas (1999). "Biographies of Key Figures in the My Lai Courts-Martial: Oran Henderson". UMKC School of Law. Archived from the original on 6 November 2010. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
  93. ^ a b McCarty, Mary. 45 years later, impact from My Lai case is still felt, Dayton Daily News, 16 March 2013.
  94. ^ Neier, Aryeh. War Crimes: Brutality, Genocide, Terror, and the Struggle for Justice, New York: Times Books, 1998.
  95. ^ Linder, Douglas (1999). "An Introduction to the My Lai Courts-Martial". Archived from the original on 24 December 2010. Retrieved 2011-06-18.
  96. ^ Hersh, Seymour M. Cover-Up: The Army's Secret Investigation of the Massacre at My Lai 4. New York: Random House, 1972.
  97. ^ Cosgrove, Ben. "American Atrocity: Remembering My Lai". Time. Retrieved 2018-03-30.
  98. ^ a b Marshall, Burke; Goldstein, Joseph (2 April 1976). "Learning From My Lai: A Proposal on War Crimes". The New York Times. p. 26.
  99. ^ Taylor, Telford. Nuremberg and Vietnam: An American Tragedy, Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1970, pg. 139. Cited in Oliver, Kendrick. The My Lai Massacre in American History and Memory. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2006, pg. 112.
  100. ^ a b Turse, Nick (15 January 2013). Kill Anything That Moves: The Real American War in Vietnam. Macmillan. ISBN 9780805086911.
  101. ^ Teitel, Martin (6 June 1972). "Again, the Suffering of Mylai". New York Times. p. 45. Retrieved 19 March 2008.
  102. ^ Esper, George.'It's Something You've Got to Live With': My Lai Memories Haunt Soldiers, Los Angeles Times, 13 March 1988.
  103. ^ Complete Program Transcript, My Lai -- WGBH American Experience,; accessed 23 February 2018.
  104. ^ a b c "'Blood and fire' of My Lai remembered 30 years later",, 16 March 1998.
  105. ^ a b My Lai Survivors Gather to Pray for Victims, Peace 40 Years After Massacre Associated Press, 16 March 2008.
  106. ^ Siegel, R. "My Lai Officer Apologizes for Massacre": All Things Considered,, 21 August 2009.
  107. ^ Calley Apologizes for 1968 My Lai Massacre. A video report by Democracy Now!; accessed 23 February 2018.
  108. ^ "Ex-Vietnam lieutenant apologizes for massacre". The Seattle Times. 21 August 2009. Archived from the original on 26 August 2009.
  109. ^ "Calley expresses remorse for role in My Lai massacre in Vietnam". Los Angeles Times. 22 August 2009. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  110. ^ King, Tim. "Mỹ Lai Survivor Disappointed in Calley's 'Terse Apology' for War Atrocities",, 22 November 2010.
  111. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Peers, William R., Joseph Goldstein, Burke Marshall, and Jack Schwartz. The My Lai Massacre and Its Cover-Up: Beyond the Reach of Law?: The Peers Commission Report. New York: Free Press, 1976.
  112. ^ Calley admits slayings on Capt. Medina's order, Rome News-Tribune, 23 February 1971.
  113. ^ General Heard My Lai Radio Conversations: Pentagon Says Americal Commander Was in Copter During Alleged Massacre. Los Angeles Times, 19 December 1969.
  114. ^ Calley jury to call own witnesses, The Milwaukee Journal, 6 March 1971.
  115. ^ Greider, William. Kill Order Refuted at Court-Martial, The Victoria Advocate, 10 March 1971.
  116. ^ "Peers Report: Captain Ernest Medina". Archived from the original on 8 May 1999. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
  117. ^ Henderson Witness Admits False Statement about My Lai. Daytona Beach Morning Journal, 17 September 1971.
  118. ^ Hersh, Seymour M. Cover-Up: the Army's Secret Investigation of the Massacre at My Lai 4. New York: Random House, 1972.
  119. ^ Peers, William R. The My Lai Inquiry. New York: Norton, 1979.
  120. ^ Lelyveld, Joseph. A soldier who refused to fire at Songmy, The New York Times, 14 December 1969.
  121. ^ The My Lai Massacre in American History and Memory. Manchester University Press. 2006. ISBN 9780719068911. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
  122. ^ "The Ethical Humanist Award: New York Society for Ethical Culture". Retrieved 18 June 2011.
  123. ^ Timeline: Charlie Company and the Massacre at My Lai, American Experience,
  124. ^ Lawrence C. La Croix. Reflection on My Lai,. Los Angeles Time, 25 March 1993.
  125. ^ "In Cally testimony: Soldier refused 'order'", Ellensburg Daily Record, 7 December 1970.
  126. ^ James Robert Bergthold Sr (1947 - 2014)
  127. ^ Digital History Archived 7 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine., an online textbook maintained by the University of Utah.
  128. ^ "Armed Forces: The My Lai Trials Begin". Time. 2 November 1970. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  129. ^ War Hero Relives Day He Refused To Murder, Orlando Sentinel, 19 November 1989.
  130. ^ Allison, William Thomas. My Lai: An American Atrocity in the Vietnam War, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012.
  131. ^ "Remember My Lai". WGBH Educational Foundation, 23 May 1989; retrieved 28 June 2009.
  132. ^ "History of the 1st Battalion 20th Infantry", A History Of The Unit From Its Formation At Schofield Barracks, Hawaii Through Its Deactivation After Service In The Republic Of Viet Nam. Research And Compilation By Cpt. Chuck Seketa.
  133. ^ Website with history of the Charlie Company,; accessed 23 February 2018.
  134. ^ Timeline: Charlie Company and the Massacre at My Lai,; accessed 23 February 2018.
  135. ^ "1st Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment, HHQ Company Roster - 1968". Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  136. ^ "Four Hours in Mỹ Lai: A Case Study". Archived from the original on 3 August 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
  137. ^ Charlie Company Roster, 1968, Research and compilation Of "C Company" Rosters provided by Daniel Malin.
  138. ^ Bigart, Homer. Calley Trial Off for the Holidays: Defense Presses View That Medina Was to Blame, The New York Times, 18 December 1970.
  139. ^ Yarborough, Trin. Surviving Twice: Amerasian Children of the Vietnam War. Washington, D.C.: Potomac Books, 2005; ISBN 1-57488-864-1
  140. ^ Pilot Testifies Senior Officers Knew Something Amiss On Day Of Massacre. Lewiston Morning Tribune, 14 January 1971.
  141. ^ Reed, Roy. "Veteran Says He Slew Ten in Vietnam Village", The New York Times, 27 November 1969.
  142. ^ Dahlia Wren, "My Lai: No Accident, Says Soldier Who Was There", Orlando Sentinel, 30 July 1989.
  143. ^ U.S. troops Surrounds Red, Kill 128. Pacific Star and Stripes (Three Star ion), 18 March 1969.
  144. ^ "Muscatine bats 1000", Trident, 11th Infantry Brigade, Volume 1, Number 10, 12 April 1968.
  145. ^ Roberts, Jay A. Recent Operations in Pinkville. Press-Release № 112-68-75, Information office, 11th Infantry Brigade, 4 April 1968.
  146. ^ Summary of Peers's Report,; accessed 23 February 2018.
  147. ^ JOHN KIFNER, Report on Brutal Vietnam Campaign Stirs Memories, New York Times, 28 December 2003.
  148. ^ Belknap, Michael R. The Vietnam War on Trial. The My Lai Massacre and the Court-Martial of Lieutenant Calley. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2002.
  149. ^ Toppe, Jana. Catering to the silent majority: The Mỹ Lai massacre as a media challenge. Free University of Berlin, 10 October 2011.
  150. ^ Hersh, Seymour M. Mỹ Lai 4: A Report on the Massacre and its Aftermath. New York: Random House, 1970.
  151. ^ Kamm, Henry. "Vietnamese Say G.I.'s Slew 567 in Town", The New York Times, 17 November 1969.
  152. ^ "The massacre at Mỹ Lai", Life, Vol. 67, № 23, 5 December 1969.
  153. ^ "Nation: The My Lai Massacre". Time. 28 November 1969. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007.
  154. ^ Christian Science Monitor, 24 November 1969.
  155. ^ Oliver, Kendrick. The My Lai Massacre in American History and Memory. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2006.
  156. ^ Allison, William Thomas. My Lai: An American Atrocity in the Vietnam War. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012.
  157. ^ Interviews with My Lai Veterans (1971),; accessed 23 February 2018.
  158. ^ Judgment: The Court Martial of Lieutenant William Calley (1975)
  159. ^ Remember My Lai
  160. ^ My Lai Revisited,; accessed 23 February 2018.
  161. ^ "The My Lai Tapes, 1968 Myth or Reality". BBC Radio 4. 15 March 2008. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
  162. ^ "The My Lai Tapes (audio file in English)". Retrieved 18 June 2011.
  163. ^ "The My Lai Tapes (audio file and transcript in Vietnamese)". Retrieved 18 June 2011.
  164. ^ "My Lai". American Experience. Boston. 26 April 2010. PBS. WGBH.
  165. ^ My Lai Four ©2009 on YouTube
  166. ^ Cigognini, Carla, "My Lai Four – Foto, trailer e locandina del film di Paolo Bertola",, 9 December 2010.
  167. ^ Frascina, Francis, Art, Politics, and Dissent: Aspects of the Art Left in Sixties America, pp. 175-86.
  168. ^ "Photographic Evidence of the Massacre at My Lai". Retrieved 23 February 2018.
  169. ^ "My Lai photographer Ron Haeberle admits he destroyed pictures of soldiers in the act of killing". Cleveland Plain Dealer Extra. Retrieved 23 February 2018.
  170. ^ MacPherson, Myra (20 April 2009). Long time passing: Vietnam and the haunted generation. p. 497. ISBN 0253002761. ...veterans were stamped "baby killers" largely as a result of the My Lai Massacre...
  171. ^ Holsinger, M. Paul. (Ed.) "And Babies" in War and American Popular Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999, pg. 363.
  172. ^ Bilton, Michael, and Kevin Sim. Four Hours in My Lai: A War Crime and Its Aftermath. London: Viking, 1992.
  173. ^ "LHCMA Catalogue: Papers of Four Hours in My Lai television documentary archive, 1964–1992". King's College, London. Retrieved 2011-06-18.
  174. ^ Peers, William R. Report of the Department of the Army Review of the Preliminary Investigations into the My Lai Incident. Vol. 1. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1974.
  175. ^ Psychiatrist backs Hutto defense. The News-Dispatch, 12 January 1971.
  176. ^ Oliver, Kendrick. The My Lai Massacre in American History and Memory, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2006.
  177. ^ Kwon, Heonik. After the Massacre Commemoration and Consolation in Ha My and My Lai, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006.
  178. ^ Becker, Carol. Pilgrimage to My Lai: Social Memory and the Making of Art, Art Journal, Vol. 62, No. 4, Winter, 2003.
  179. ^ Westfall, Marilyn. "The Humanitarian Impulse: Not 'God's Work' for this Veteran" Archived 29 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine. The Humanist: A Magazine of Critical Inquiry and Social Concern, March/April 2009.
  180. ^ Our Projects: Mỹ Lai Peace Park,; accessed 23 February 2018.

Further reading[]

External links[]