Mongolian calendar

The traditional Mongol calendar (Mongolian: цаглабар, tsaglabar or цаг тооны бичиг, tsag toony bichig) is a lunisolar calendar based on Tegus Buyantu zurkhai[1] system developed in 1747 by monk Ishbaljir (Сүмбэ хамбо Ишбалжир, Sümbe khambo Ishbaljir; 1704–1788). The Mongol year is composed of either 12 or 13 lunar months, each beginning and ending with a new moon. A thirteenth month is added every two or three years, so that an average year is equal to the solar year.

The Mongol traditional new year celebration is Tsagaan Sar which is celebrated at the second new moon following the winter solstice. In 2022, the second new moon was on 1 February in Mongolia. [citation needed]

In modern Mongolia, the Gregorian calendar is used, with the traditional calendar only used for traditional celebrations and events based on the calendar.

The European system of chronology is called Аргын тоолол (Argyn toolol, chronology of method) and the Mongol system of chronology is called Билгийн тоолол (Bilgiin toolol, chronology of wisdom).

Argyn Toolol[]

Months[]

The twelve months of the year are referred to by their number, such as first month, second month, and so on.

English name Mongolian name
Cyrillic Traditional Romanization
January Нэгдүгээр сар ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ Negdügeer sar
February Хоёрдугаар сар ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ Khoyordugaar sar
March Гуравдугаар сар ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ Guravdugaar sar
April Дөрөвдүгээр сар ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ Dörövdügeer sar
May Тавдугаар сар ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ Tavdugaar sar
June Зургадугаар сар ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ Zurgadugaar sar
July Долоодугаар сар ᠳᠣᠯᠣᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ Doloodugaar sar
August Наймдугаар сар ᠨᠠᠢ᠌ᠮᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ Naimdugaar sar
September Есдүгээр сар ᠶᠢᠰᠦᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ Yesdügeer sar
October Аравдугаар сар ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ Aravdugaar sar
November Арван нэгдүгээр сар ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ Arvan negdügeer sar
December Арван хоёрдугаар сар ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ Arvan khoyordugaar sar

Days of the week[]

In colloquial usage, the first 5 days of the week are referred to as first day, second day, etc. Saturday is referred to as Хагас сайн өдөр (Khagas sain ödör, "half-good day"), and Sunday is referred to as Бүтэн сайн өдөр (Büten sain ödör, "full good day"); a result of 5 full working days and Saturday as a half working day during the communist era.

The names of Tibetan origin are used in more formal settings, and almost exclusively in written documents, while the Sanskrit names are practically absent in modern usage.

English name Colloquial Tibetan origin Sanskrit origin
Cyrillic Traditional Romanization Cyrillic Traditional Romanization Cyrillic Traditional Romanization
Monday Нэг дэх өдөр ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠡᠬᠢ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ Neg dekh ödör Даваа гараг ᠳᠠᠸᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭ Davaa garag Сумъяа ᠰᠤᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ Sumyaa
Tuesday Хоёр дахь өдөр ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ Khoyor dakhi ödör Мягмар гараг ᠮᠢᠭᠮᠠᠷ ᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭ Myagmar garag Ангараг ᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭ Angarag
Wednesday Гурав дахь өдөр ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ Gurav dakhi ödör Лхагва гараг ᡀᠠᠭᠪᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭ Lkhagva garag Буд ᠪᠤᠳ᠋ Bud
Thursday Дөрөв дэх өдөр ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠳᠡᠬᠢ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ Döröv dekh ödör Пүрэв гараг ᠫᠦᠷᠪᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭ Pürev garag Бархасбадь ᠪᠠᠷᠬᠠᠰᠪᠠᠳᠢ Barkhasbadi
Friday Тав дахь өдөр ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ Tav dakhi ödör Баасан гараг ᠪᠠᠰᠠᠩ ᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭ Baasan garag Сугар ᠱᠤᠭᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ Sugar
Saturday Хагас сайн өдөр ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ Khagas sain ödör Бямба гараг ᠪᠢᠮᠪᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭ Byamba garag Санчир ᠰᠠᠨᠢᠴᠠᠷ Sanchir
Sunday Бүтэн сайн өдөр ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ Büten sain ödör Ням гараг ᠨᠢᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭ Nyam garag Адъяа ᠠᠳᠢᠶ᠎ Adyaa

See also[]

Footnotes[]

  1. ^ Zurkhai (from the verb zur - draw) is a system of knowledge embracing mathematics, astronomy and astrology