|Modern Standard Arabic|
|العربية الفصحى, عربي فصيح |
al-ʻArabīyat ul-fuṣḥá, ʻArabī faṣīḥ[note 1]
al-ʻArabīyah in written Arabic (Naskh script)
|Pronunciation||/al ʕaraˈbijja lˈfusˤħaː/, see variations[note 2]|
|Region||Primarily in the Arab League, in the Middle East and North Africa; and in the Horn of Africa;|
liturgical language of Islam
(second language only)
Official language in
|Official language of 27 states, the third most after English and French|
Distribution of Modern Standard Arabic as an official language in the Arab World.
The only official language (green); one of the official languages (blue).
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; Arabic: اللغة العربية الفصحى al-lughat ul-ʻArabīyat ul-fuṣḥá 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication. It is considered a pluricentric language.
Most Western scholars distinguish two standard (al-)fuṣḥá (الفصحى) varieties of Arabic: the Classical Arabic (CA) (اللغة العربية التراثية al-lughah al-ʻArabīyah al-turāthīyah) of the Quran and early Islamic (7th to 9th centuries) literature, and Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) (اللغة العربية المعيارية الحديثة al-lughah al-ʻArabīyah al-miʻyārīyah al-ḥadīthah), the standard language in use today. MSA is based on classical Arabic, and differences between the two varieties of the language are directly related to modernizing and simplification, both in speaking and writing styles. Most Arabic speakers consider the two varieties to be two registers of one language, although the two registers can be referred to in Arabic as فصحى العصر fuṣḥá l-ʻaṣr (MSA) and فصحى التراث fuṣḥá t-turāth (CA).
Classical Arabic, also known as Quranic Arabic (although the term is not entirely accurate), is the language used in the Quran as well as in numerous literary texts from Umayyad and Abbasid times (7th to 9th centuries). Many Muslims study Classical Arabic in order to read the Quran in its original language. It is important to note that written Classical Arabic underwent fundamental changes during the early Islamic era, adding dots to distinguish similarly written letters, and adding the Tashkeel (diacritical markings that guide pronunciation) by Abu al-Aswad al-Du'ali, Al-Khalil ibn Ahmad al-Farahidi, and other scholars. It was the lingua franca across the Middle East, North Africa, and the Horn of Africa during ancient times.
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) is the literary standard across the Middle East, North Africa and Horn of Africa, and is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Most printed material by the Arab League—including most books, newspapers, magazines, official documents, and reading primers for small children—is written in MSA. It was developed in the early part of the 19th century. "Colloquial" Arabic refers to the many regional dialects derived from Classical Arabic spoken daily across the region and learned as a first language, and as second language if people speak other languages native to their particular country. They are not normally written, although a certain amount of literature (particularly plays and poetry (including songs)) exists in many of them. Literary Arabic (MSA) is the official language of all Arab League countries and is the only form of Arabic taught in schools at all stages. Additionally, some Christian Arabic speakers recite prayers in it, as it is considered the literary language. Bibles are written in MSA aside from Classical Arabic.[clarification needed] MSA is also used in modernized versions of literary forms of the Qur'an, and some Muslim Arabic speakers recite prayers in it; revised ions of numerous literary texts from Umayyad and Abbasid times are also written in MSA.
The sociolinguistic situation of Arabic in modern times provides a prime example of the linguistic phenomenon of diglossia – the use of two distinct varieties of the same language, usually in different social contexts. This diglossic situation facilitates code-switching in which a speaker switches back and forth between the two dialects of the language, sometimes even within the same sentence. People speak MSA as a third language if they speak other languages native to a country as their first language and colloquial Arabic dialects as their second language. Modern Standard Arabic is also spoken by people of Arab descent outside the Arab world when people of Arab descent speaking different dialects communicate to each other. As there is a prestige or standard dialect of vernacular Arabic, speakers of standard colloquial dialects code-switch between these particular dialects and MSA.
Classical Arabic is considered normative; a few contemporary authors attempt (with varying degrees of success) to follow the syntactic and grammatical norms laid down by classical grammarians (such as Sibawayh) and to use the vocabulary defined in classical dictionaries (such as the Lisan al-Arab ِلِسَان العَرَب).
However, the exigencies of modernity have led to the adoption of numerous terms which would have been mysterious to a classical author, whether taken from other languages (e. g. فيلم film) or coined from existing lexical resources (e. g. هاتف hātif "caller" > "telephone"). Structural influence from foreign languages or from the vernaculars has also affected Modern Standard Arabic: for example, MSA texts sometimes use the format "A, B, C and D" when listing things, whereas Classical Arabic prefers "A and B and C and D", and subject-initial sentences may be more common in MSA than in Classical Arabic. For these reasons, Modern Standard Arabic is generally treated separately in non-Arab sources. Arabic sources generally tend to regard MSA and Classical Arabic as different registers of one and the same language.[weasel words] Speakers of Modern Standard Arabic do not always observe the intricate rules of Classical Arabic grammar. Modern Standard Arabic principally differs from Classical Arabic in three areas: lexicon, stylistics, and certain innovations on the periphery that are not strictly regulated by the classical authorities. On the whole, Modern Standard Arabic is not homogeneous; there are authors who write in a style very close to the classical models and others who try to create new stylistic patterns. Add to this regional differences in vocabulary depending upon the influence of the local Arabic varieties and the influences of foreign languages, such as French in Africa and Lebanon or English in Egypt, Jordan, and other countries. As MSA is a revised and simplified form of Classical Arabic, MSA in terms of lexicon omitted the obsolete words used in Classical Arabic. As diglossia is involved, various Arabic dialects freely borrow words from MSA, this situation is similar to Romance languages, wherein scores of words were borrowed directly from formal Latin (most literate Romance speakers were also literate in Latin); educated speakers of standard colloquial dialects speak in this kind of communication.
Reading out loud in MSA for various reasons is becoming increasingly simpler, using less strict rules compared to CA, notably the inflection is omitted, making it closer to spoken varieties of Arabic. It depends on the speaker's knowledge and attitude to the grammar of Classical Arabic, as well as the region and the intended audience.
Pronunciation of native words, loanwords, foreign names in MSA is loose, names can be pronounced or even spelled differently in different regions and by different speakers. Pronunciation also depends on the person's education, linguistic knowledge and abilities. There may be sounds used, which are missing in the Classical Arabic but may exist in colloquial varieties - consonants - /v/, /p/, /t͡ʃ/ (often realized as [t]+[ʃ]), these consonants may or may not be written with special letters; and vowels - [o], [e] (both short and long), there are no special letters in Arabic to distinguish between [e~i] and [o~u] pairs but the sounds o and e (short and long) exist in the colloquial varieties of Arabic and some foreign words in MSA. The differentiation of pronunciation of informal dialects is the influence from other languages previously spoken and some still presently spoken in the regions, such as Coptic in Egypt, French, Ottoman Turkish, Italian, Spanish, Berber, Punic or Phoenician in North Africa, Himyaritic, Modern South Arabian and Old South Arabian in Yemen and Aramaic in the Levant.
|Nasal||m م||n ن|
|Stop||voiceless||t ت||tˤ ط||k ك||q ق||ʔ ء|
|voiced||b ب||d د||dˤ ض||d͡ʒ* ج|
|Fricative||voiceless||f ف||θ ث||s س||sˤ ص||ʃ ش||x ~ χ خ||ħ ح|
|voiced||ð ذ||z ز||ðˤ ظ||ɣ ~ ʁ غ||ʕ ع||ɦ ه|
|Approximant||l ل||(ɫ)||j ي||w و|
Modern Standard Arabic, like Classical Arabic before it, has three pairs of long and short vowels: /a/, /i/, and /u/:
Across North Africa and West Asia, short /i/ may be realized as [ɪ ~ e ~ ɨ] before or adjacent to emphatic consonants and [q], [r], [ħ], [ʕ] depending on the accent. short /u/ can also have different realizations, i.e. [ʊ ~ o ~ ʉ]. Sometimes with one value for each vowel in both short and long lengths or two different values for each short and long lengths. In Egypt, close vowels have different values; short initial or medial: [e], [o] ← instead of /i, u/. /i~ɪ/ and /u~ʊ/ completely become /e/ and /o/ respectively in some other particular dialects. Allophones of /a/ & /aː/ include [ɑ] & [ɑː] before or adjacent to emphatic consonants and [q], [r]; and [æ] & [æː] elsewhere. Allophones of /iː/ include [ɪː]~[ɨː] before or adjacent to emphatic consonants and [q], [r], [ħ], [ʕ]. Allophones of /uː/ include [ʊː]~[ɤː]~[oː] before or adjacent to emphatic consonants and [q], [r], [ħ], [ʕ]. Unstressed final long /aː, iː, uː/ are most often shortened or reduced: /aː/ → [æ ~ ɑ], /iː/ → /i/, /uː/ → [o~u].
Differences between Modern Standard Arabic and Classical Arabic span the three categories of linguistics, which are syntax, terminology and pronunciation (especially in terms of tashkeel). Differences are also apparent in the use of punctuation and writing styles.
It should be mentioned that Arabic speakers do not find a noteworthy difference between these varieties, and may sometimes refer to both by the same name: Al-arabīyat ul-fuṣḥá, "the most eloquent Arabic language".
MSA tends to use simplified structures and drop more complicated ones commonly used in Classical Arabic. Some examples include reliance on verb sentences instead of noun phrases and semi-sentences, as well as avoiding phrasal adjectives and accommodating feminine forms of ranks and job titles.
Terminology is the main domain where MSA and CA differ substantially. This stems from the need of MSA to adapt with modern-day terminology in the technical, literary, and scientific domains. The vast majority of these terms refer to items or concepts that did not exist in the time of CA. MSA tends to be more accepting to non-Arabic terminology. Despite the efforts of Arabic Language Academies in the second half of the 20th century to Arabize modern terminology using classical Arabization practices, the fast pace of modern development made transliteration the method of choice for Arabizing modern day terminology.
Modern Standard Arabic relies on transliteration to adopt modern day terminology.
MSA differs from CA in the use of sounds not available in the Arabic script and diacritics (Tashkīl). Unlike Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic accepts the use of consonants that are not supported in the Arabic script, such as /p/, and /v/. Modern Standard Arabic normally does not use Tashkīl, but only in disambiguation and not the full word is diacriticized, while CA found in Quran and Hadith scriptures normally prefer indicating full diacritics.
Modern Standard Arabic has adopted several punctuation marks from other languages, and dropped some classical Arabic ones. Modern technology, especially in printing press and the use of the Internet, has contributed largely to this trend
Modern Standard Arabic adopts modern writing forms, such as essays, opinion articles, and technical reports, instead of classical ones. Moreover, some new writing forms are directly imported from foreign languages, such as guides, blog posts, and other forms of writing. Moreover, some classical writing forms disappeared completely, such as Maqam.
MSA is loosely uniform across the Middle East. Regional variations exist due to influence from the spoken vernaculars. TV hosts who read prepared MSA scripts, for example in Al Jazeera, are ordered to give up national or ethnic pronunciations by changing their pronunciation of certain phonemes (e.g. the realization of the Classical jīm ج as [ɡ] by Egyptians), though other traits may show the speaker's region, such as the stress and the exact value of vowels and the pronunciation of other consonants. People who speak MSA also mix vernacular and Classical in pronunciation, words, and grammatical forms. Classical/vernacular mixing in formal writing can also be found (e.g., in some Egyptian newspaper orials); others are written in Modern Standard/vernacular mixing, including entertainment news.
People who are literate in Modern Standard Arabic are primarily found in most countries of the Arab League. It may be assumed that the number of speakers of the language to be the number of literate people in this region, because it is compulsory in schools of most of the Arab League to learn Modern Standard Arabic. People who are literate in the language are usually more so passively, as they mostly use the language in reading and writing, not in speaking. It is also spoken by Muslims in Northern Nigeria by people with Islamic education (especially the Hausa and Fulani people).
The countries with the largest populations that mandate MSA be taught in all schools are, with rounded-up numbers (data from 2008—2014):
|hello/welcome||مرحباً, أهلاً وسهلاً||/marħaban, ʔahlan wa sahlan/||marḥaban, ahlan wa-sahlan|
|peace [be] with you (lit. upon you)||السلام عليكم||/assaˈlaːmu ʕaˈlajkum/||as-salāmu ʻalaykum|
|how are you?||كيف حالك؟||/ˈkajfa ˈħaːluk, -luki/||kayfa ḥāluk, ḥāluki|
|see you||إلى اللقاء||/ʔila l.liqaːʔ/||ilá al-liqāʼ|
|goodbye||مع السلامة||/maʕa s.saˈlaːma/||maʻa as-salāmah|
|please||من فضلك||/min ˈfadˤlik/||min faḍlik|
|How much/How many?||كم؟||/kam/||kam?|
|English||الإنجليزية/الإنكليزية/الإنقليزية||(varies) /alʔing(i)li(ː)ˈzij.ja/||(may vary) al-inglīzīyah|
|What is your name?||ما اسمك؟||/masmuk, -ki/||masmuka / -ki?|
|I don't know||لا أعرف||/laː ˈʔaʕrif/||lā aʻrif|
|Look up Classical Arabic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Look up Modern Standard Arabic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Look up Fus-ha in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|