Matilda of Habsburg

Matilda of Habsburg
Matilda of Austria Duchess of Bavaria.jpg
Duchess consort of Bavaria by Anton Boys
Died(1304-12-23)23 December 1304
Munich, Bavaria
SpouseLouis II, Duke of Bavaria
HouseHouse of Habsburg
FatherRudolph I of Germany
MotherGertrude of Hohenberg

Matilda of Habsburg or Melchilde (1253 in Rheinfelden[1] – 23 December 1304 in Munich, Bavaria) was the eldest daughter of Rudolph I of Germany and Gertrude of Hohenburg. She was regent of Bavaria in the minority of her son.


On 24 October 1273, Matilda married Louis II, Duke of Bavaria, in Aachen, she was his third and final wife. There was a large age difference, Louis was twenty three years older than Matilda.

Matilda and Louis had the following children:

  1. Agnes (d. 1345), married to:
    1. 1290 in Donauwörth Landgrave Henry the Younger of Hesse;
    2. 1298/1303 Henry I "Lackland", Margrave of Brandenburg.
  2. Rudolf I (4 October 1274, Basle – 12 August 1319).
  3. Mechthild (1275 – 28 March 1319, Lüneburg), married 1288 to Duke Otto II of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
  4. Louis IV (1 April 1282, Munich – 11 October 1347 in Puch, near Fürstenfeldbruck).

Widowhood and regency[]

On her husband's death in 1294, Matilda acted as regent for her young son Rudolf. A decision was made for Matilda to take part of the duchy and her son to take the other part. Matilda took a large part of Upper Bavaria while her son took the cities such as: Ingolstadt, Neuberg[disambiguation needed], Langenfeld and Rietberg. Within a couple of years her son came of age and ruled the kingdom by himself.

Though Matilda had her younger son, Louis partly educated in Vienna and became co-regent of his brother Rudolf I in Upper Bavaria in 1301 with the support of Matilda and her brother King Albert I, he quarreled with the Habsburgs from 1307 over possessions in Lower Bavaria. A civil war against his brother Rudolf due to new disputes on the partition of their lands was ended in 1313, when peace was made at Munich.

Matilda and Rudolf continued to be at odds and in 1302 Matilda was arrested by Rudolf and brought to Munich, where she signed an agreement promising never to interfere in the government again, but as soon as she was outside the borders of Bavaria, Matilda declared the agreement null and void, and got the support of her brother, Albert, Louis the Bavarian and others.[2]

Matilda's son, Louis, defeated his Habsburg cousin Frederick the Handsome. Originally, he was a friend of Frederick, with whom he had been raised. However, armed conflict arose when the tutelage over the young Dukes of Lower Bavaria (Henry XIV, Otto IV and Henry XV) was entrusted to Frederick. On 9 November 1313, Frederick was beaten by Louis in the Battle of Gamelsdorf and had to renounce the tutelage.[3]

Matilda died on 23 December 1304 at Munich, Bavaria.



  1. ^ Cawley, Charles (13 March 2008), Austria: Mechtild died 1304, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy,[self-published source][better source needed]
  2. ^ "Matilda of Habsburg's entry at Women in power 1250-1300".
  3. ^ Marek, Miroslav. "A listing of descendants of Rudolph I of Germany". Genealogy.EU.[self-published source][better source needed]

External links[]

Preceded by
Anna of Glogau
Duchess of Upper Bavaria
Succeeded by
Mechtild of Nassau