Mastectomy

Mastectomy
Mastectomie 02.jpg
Person following a mastectomy
ICD-9-CM85.4
MeSHD008408
MedlinePlus002919

Mastectomy is the medical term for the surgical removal of one or both breasts, partially or completely. A mastectomy is usually carried out to treat breast cancer.[1] In some cases, people believed to be at high risk of breast cancer have the operation as a preventative measure. Alternatively, some people can choose to have a wide local excision, also known as a lumpectomy, an operation in which a small volume of breast tissue containing the tumor and a surrounding margin of healthy tissue is removed to conserve the breast.

Both mastectomy and lumpectomy are referred to as "local therapies" for breast cancer, targeting the area of the tumor, as opposed to systemic therapies, such as chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, or immunotherapy.

Traditionally, in the case of breast cancer, the whole breast was removed. Currently, the decision to do the mastectomy is based on various factors, including breast size, the number of lesions, biologic aggressiveness of a breast cancer, the availability of adjuvant radiation, and the willingness of the patient to accept higher rates of tumor recurrences after lumpectomy and radiation. Outcome studies comparing mastectomy to lumpectomy with radiation have suggested that routine radical mastectomy surgeries will not always prevent later distant secondary tumors arising from micro-metastases prior to discovery, diagnosis, and operation.[citation needed]

Medical uses[]

Despite the increased ability to offer breast conservation techniques to patients with breast cancer, certain groups may be better served by traditional mastectomy procedures including:

Side effects[]

According to cancer.org, aside from the post-surgical pain and the obvious change in the shape of the breast(s), possible side effects of a mastectomy include wound infection, hematoma (buildup of blood in the wound), and the seroma (buildup of clear fluid in the wound). If the lymph nodes are also removed, additional side effects may occur.[2]

Types[]

Currently, there are several surgical approaches to mastectomy, and the type that a person decides to undergo (or whether she or he will decide instead to have a lumpectomy) depends on factors such as the size, location, and behavior of the tumor (if one is present), whether or not the surgery is prophylactic, and whether the person intends to undergo reconstructive surgery.[3]

Before surgery[]

Before the operation, everyone will meet with the surgeon a few days before the surgery or even the day before, however, a much longer period is very beneficial since it allows the patient for a more objective weighing of the options. Although there is some urgency in timing the surgery, the patient needs some time after the initial shock of hearing the cancer verdict; otherwise, she may later regret her decision. The extent and specific details regarding the mastectomy will be discussed along with the person's medical history.

Of extreme importance will be the woman's decision whether the entire breast is to be removed, or only a part of it - and that is usually much more a personal choice than a medical assessment. The medical viewpoint stresses the statistical fact of much stronger chances for cure and survival when the breast is removed completely, even when the size of the cancer is small. From the personal viewpoint, the perspective of not having the breast is very painful and difficult to accept. At this point the support of the family and of good friends can make the difference between life and death, since it is easier for friends to present the after-the-surgery future in the "matter of fact" way, thus facilitating the reasonable decision. The dilemma of the vital importance will be weighing the aesthetics and pride, against the chances of curing and surviving, which are much better when the breast is removed 100% completely. During these considerations, very painful indeed, one needs to realize that a woman's flat chest without breasts, even without nipples, does not look bad at all, nothing to feel embarrassed of, or to be ashamed by; it looks just neutral - much better than a partly removed, disfigured breast. Since the surgery is unavoidable, for people open to see the problem in this way, the choice becomes easier.[citation needed]

Before the surgery the patient will have time to ask any questions regarding the procedure at this time and after everything is addressed a consent form is signed. Information about not eating or drinking anything beforehand will be gone over as well. The person will also meet with the anesthesiologist or the health professional who is going to be giving the anesthesia the day of the operation.[2][citation needed]

Recent research has indicated that mammograms should not be done with any increased frequency than normal procedure in people undergoing breast surgery, including breast augmentation, mastopexy, and breast reduction.[12]

During surgery[]

The day of the operation the patient will have an IV line started, which will be used to give medicine. Since this is an extensive procedure the patient will be hooked up to an EKG machine and also have a blood pressure cuff to monitor vitals and the heart rhythm throughout the whole surgery. The anesthesia will be given, which will result in the person going to sleep. The timing of the surgery all depends on the extent and what type of mastectomy the patient will be having.[2]

After surgery[]

When the procedure is complete the patient will be taken to a recovery room where they are monitored until they wake up and their vital signs remain stable. It is normal for people that have mastectomies to remain in the hospitals for 1 to 2 nights and they are released to go home if they are doing well. The decision for discharge should be made by the doctor based on the person's overall health at the time. The person is dressed with a bandage over the surgery site that is wrapped around the chest snugly. It is common to have drains coming from the incision site to help remove blood and lymph to initiate the healing process. Patients may have to be taught to empty, care, and measure the fluid from the drains. Measuring the fluids will help identify any problems the doctors need to be aware of. Patients should be taught the effects of the surgery, such as regular activity may be altered. There is a possibility that pain, numbness, or tingling in the chest and arm could continue long after the surgery has been done. It is recommended that patients see their surgeon 7–14 days after the surgery, during this time the doctor will explain the results and talk about further treatment if needed such as radiation and chemotherapy. The doctor might refer the patient to a plastic surgeon if she showed interest in breast reconstruction surgery.[2]

Trends[]

Between 2005 and 2013, the overall rate of mastectomy increased 36 percent, from 66 to 90 per 100,000 adult women. The rate of hospital-based bilateral mastectomies (inpatient and outpatient combined) more than tripled, from 9.1 to 29.7 per 100,000 adult women, whereas the rate of unilateral mastectomies remained relatively stable at around 60 per 100,000 women. From 2005 to 2013, the rate of bilateral outpatient mastectomies increased more than fivefold and the inpatient rate nearly tripled. The rate of unilateral mastectomies nearly doubled in the outpatient setting but decreased 28 percent in the inpatient setting. By 2013, nearly half of all mastectomies were performed outpatient.[13]

Frequency[]

Mastectomy rates vary tremendously worldwide, as was documented by the 2004 'Intergroup Exemestane Study',[14] an analysis of surgical techniques used in an international trial of adjuvant treatment among 4,700 females with early breast cancer in 37 countries. The mastectomy rate was highest in central and eastern Europe at 77%. The USA had the second highest rate of mastectomy with 56%, western and northern Europe averaged 46%, southern Europe 42% and Australia and New Zealand 34%.

History[]

Mastectomy for breast cancer was performed at least as early as 548 AD, when it was proposed by the court physician Aëtius of Amida to Theodora. She declined the surgery, and died a few months later.[15] Al-Zahrawi, a tenth century Arab physician sometimes referred to as the "Father of surgery",[16] described what is thought to be the first attempt at reduction mammaplasty for the management of gynaecomastia.[16]

Female members of the Skoptsy sect in the Russian Empire also practiced mastectomy as a ritual alongside castration for men, in accordance with their belief that sexual desire was evil.[17]

The first picture of the results of breast cancer surgery was on the cover of the New York Times in 1993 by Winstein. This real picture of Matuschka with her scar outraged people.[18]

Society and culture[]

In recent years, designers have catered to the medical market and those affected by the surgical procedure. Many dresses designed with this market in mind have built-in padded cups or have pouches so that inserts of various sizes can be placed in either or both cups of the garment. Some fashion designers even produce mastectomy swimwear with a similar format in mind[19]

The term is from Greek μαστός "breast" and ἐκτομή ektomia "cutting out".

See also[]

References[]

  1. ^ "Mastectomy | Lumpectomy | Breast Cancer | MedlinePlus". Retrieved 2018-11-07.
  2. ^ a b c d "Surgery for Breast Cancer." Surgery for Breast Cancer. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Aug. 2014.
  3. ^ a b c "What Is Mastectomy?". May 16, 2013. Retrieved September 13, 2014.
  4. ^ Lindsey Tanner (September 2, 2014). "Double mastectomy doesn't boost survival for most". AP. Retrieved September 13, 2014.
  5. ^ Lisa A. Newman (2014). "Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy—Is It a Reasonable Option?". JAMA. 312 (9): 895–897. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.11308. PMID 25182096.
  6. ^ Allison W. Kurian with five others (2014). "Use of and Mortality After Bilateral Mastectomy Compared With Other Surgical Treatments for Breast Cancer in California, 1998-2011". JAMA. 312 (9): 902–914. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.10707. PMC 5747359. PMID 25182099.
  7. ^ Gerber B, Krause A, Reimer T, et al. (2003). "Skin-sparing mastectomy with conservation of the nipple-areola complex and autologous reconstruction is an oncologically safe procedure". Ann. Surg. 238 (1): 120–7. doi:10.1097/01.SLA.0000077922.38307.cd. PMC 1422651. PMID 12832974.
  8. ^ Mokbel R, Mokbel K (2006). "Is it safe to preserve the nipple areola complex during skin-sparing mastectomy for breast cancer?". Int J Fertil Female's Med. 51 (5): 230–2. PMID 17269590.
  9. ^ Sacchini V, Pinotti JA, Barros AC, et al. (2006). "Nipple-sparing mastectomy for breast cancer and risk reduction: oncologic or technical problem?". J. Am. Coll. Surg. 203 (5): 704–14. doi:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2006.07.015. PMID 17084333.
  10. ^ Noguchi, M; Sakuma, H; Matsuba, A; Kinoshita, H; Miwa, K; Miyazaki, I (1983). "Radical mastectomy with intrapleural en bloc resection of internal mammary lymph node by sternal splitting". The Japanese Journal of Surgery. 13 (1): 6–15. doi:10.1007/bf02469683. PMID 6887660.
  11. ^ "Preventive Mastectomy for Breast Cancer." WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 04 Aug. 2014.
  12. ^ American Society of Plastic Surgeons (24 April 2014), "Five Things Physicians and Patients Should Question", Choosing Wisely: an initiative of the ABIM Foundation, American Society of Plastic Surgeons, archived from the original on 19 July 2014, retrieved 25 July 2014
  13. ^ Steiner, C.A.; Weiss, A.J.; Barrett, M.L.; Fingar, K.R.; Davis, P.H (2016). "Trends in Bilateral and Unilateral Mastectomies in Hospital Inpatient and Ambulatory Settings, 2005–2013" (PDF). HCUP Statistical Brief #201: 1–14. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
  14. ^ "Federation of European Cancer Societies". Archived from the original on 2007-11-28. Retrieved 2007-12-03.
  15. ^ Olson, James Stuart (2002). Bathsheba's breast: women, cancer & history. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 11. ISBN 0-8018-6936-6.
  16. ^ a b Ahmad, Z. (St Thomas' Hospital) (2007), "Al-Zahrawi – The Father of Surgery", ANZ Journal of Surgery, 77 (Suppl. 1): A83, doi:10.1111/j.1445-2197.2007.04130_8.x
  17. ^ "From Heresy to Harm: Self-Castrators in the Civic Discourse of Late Tsarist Russia" (PDF).
  18. ^ "Beauty Out Of Damage". www.beautyoutofdamage.com. Retrieved 2016-06-09.
  19. ^ "Mastectomy In The Fashion World".

External links[]