Lucazi language

Luchazi
Chiluchazi
Native toAngola, Zambia
Native speakers
431,000 (2010-2014)[1]
Official status
Recognised minority
language in
Language codes
ISO 639-3lch – inclusive code
Individual codes:
lch – Luchazi
nba – Nyemba
mfu – Mbwela
Glottologluch1239  Luchazi[2]
nyem1238  Nyemba[3]
mbwe1238  Mbwela[4]
K.13, K.12b, K.17[5]

Luchazi (Lucazi, Chiluchazi) is a Bantu language of Angola and Zambia. Missionary Emil Pearson created Ngangela as a standard language by mixing[6] Mbunda, Luchazi, Luvale and Luimbi languages, to allow a single translation of the Bible for the four communities[7]. Ethnically distinct varieties, many of which are subsumed under the generic term Ngangela, are all "fully intelligible".[8] These are: Luchazi, Nyemba, Mbwela of Angola (Ambuella, Shimbwera, not to be confused with Mbwela of Zambia), Nkangala, Mbunda, Luimbi (Lwimbi), Yauma, Songo, Chimbandi[9][10] and Ngondzela. Therefore, it is highly erroneous to suggest that Ngangela is Luchazi[11].

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

The following table displays all the consonants in Luchazi:[12]

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Labial-
velar
Glottal
Plosive voiceless p t 1 t͡ʃ k
prenasalized ᵐpʰ ᵐb ⁿtʰ ⁿd ᶮd͡ʒ ᵑkʰ ᵑɡ
Affricate t͡s1
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ2 h
voiced β z
Approximant l j w
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ2
^1 May not be actual phonemes.
^2 Occur rarely, may only exist in loanwords.

The position of the speech-organs in producing the consonants is different from the positions taken in producing the similar sounds in European languages. T and D, for example, are lower than in English but higher than in Portuguese. L is flatter-tongued than in either English or Portuguese. Practically all the consonants have similar differences. The language contains many consonantal glides, including the prenasalized plosives and the voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate (the ts sound).[13]

Vowels [14][]

Front Back
Close
Mid ɛː ɔː
Open
Diphthongs eɪ   aɪ   au   ia   ie
io   iu   ua   ue   ui   uo

The close front vowel (i), when occurring before another vowel, becomes a semi-consonant and is written y, unless it is immediately preceded by a consonant, when it remains i. Examples: yange, viange.

The vowels have the so-called Continental or Italian values. They are shorter when unstressed and are prolonged when doubled or when stressed at the end of a word.

Short when unstressed or before two consonants or y or s and in monosyllabic adverbs, as a in tata, paya, asa, hanga. Prolonged when doubled or stressed at the end of a word or syllable. Example: ku laako.

Short when unstressed, as a in hete, seze. Short with the value of e in henga, lenda before two consonants. Exceptions are hembo and membo (due to coalescence of vowels). Many words derived from Portuguese have the short vowel though not followed by two consonants. Examples: pena, papelo, luneta, ngehena, etc. Prolonged when stressed at the end of a word.

Short when unstressed or before two consonants, as e in citi, linga. In monosyllabics it is short, as i in it. Examples: ni, ndi. Prolonged when stressed. Examples: ti, fui.

Short when unstressed, as o in soko, loto. Short, with value of o in onga, yoya, kosa, luozi, ndo, before two consonants or y or s, and sometimes before z and in some monosyllables. The o is long in zoza and ngozi. Sometimes prolonged when stressed at the end of a word. Example: to.

Short, when unstressed or before two consonants or before s, as u in futuka, mbunga, kusa.

Orthography[]

Luchazi is written using the Latin alphabet, with most characters representing the same sound as in English, with some exceptions. c is pronounced like ch in church, n followed by k or g is always nasal like ng in ring, the sound of v is bilabial instead of labiodental.[15]


References[]

  1. ^ "Lucazi". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-08-14.
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Luchazi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Nyemba". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Mbwela". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  5. ^ Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online
  6. ^ "English-Ngangela Dictionary", By Emil Pearson, Seal Beach, California, May 1971, Se terminó la impression de este libro en los talleres de Tipográfica Indigena, Domingo Dier 503, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico el dia 15 de febrero de 1973, FOREWORD p. 7
  7. ^ Robert Papstein, "The Central African Historical Research Project", in Harneit-Sievers, 2002, A Place in the World: New Local Historiographies from Africa and South Asia, p. 178
  8. ^ Nyemba at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  9. ^ Emil Pearson, "People of the Aurora"
  10. ^ Emil Pearson, "Tales of the Aurora"
  11. ^ "English-Ngangela Dictionary", By Emil Pearson, Seal Beach, California, May 1971, Se terminó la impression de este libro en los talleres de Tipográfica Indigena, Domingo Dier 503, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico el dia 15 de febrero de 1973, FOREWORD p. 7
  12. ^ Gerhard Kubik, 2006, Tusona: Luchazi Ideographs : a Graphic Tradition of West-Central Africa, pp. 300, 303
  13. ^ Emil Pearson, Luchazi Grammar, pp. 5, 6, 7
  14. ^ Emil Pearson, Luchazi Grammar, pp. 5, 6, 7
  15. ^ Emil Pearson, "Luchazi Grammar", pp. 5