List of missions to the outer planets

Summary of missions to the outer Solar System
System




Spacecraft
Jupiter
Jupiter trojans
Saturn Uranus
Uranus trojans
Neptune
Neptune trojans
Pluto
Haumea
Makemake
Eris
Distant
minor planets
Pioneer 10 1973 flyby
Jupiter and moons
Pioneer 11 1974 flyby
Jupiter and moons
1979 flyby
Saturn and moons
Voyager 1 1979 flyby
Jupiter and moons
1980 flyby
Saturn and moons
Voyager 2 1979 flyby
Jupiter and moons
1981 flyby
Saturn and moons
1986 flyby
Uranus and moons
1989 flyby
Neptune and moons
Galileo 19952003 orbiter
Jupiter and moons
1995, 2003 atmospheric
Jupiter
Ulysses 1992, 2004 gravity assist
Jupiter
Cassini–Huygens 2000 gravity assist
Jupiter and moons
20042017 orbiter
Saturn and moons
2005 lander
Titan
New Horizons 2007 gravity assist
Jupiter and moons
2015 flyby
Pluto and moons
2019 flyby
486958 Arrokoth
Juno 20162021 orbiter
Jupiter
Europa Clipper 2026– Planned orbiter
Jupiter
flyby
Europa
Lucy 2027– Planned flyby
3548 Eurybates
15094 Polymele
11351 Leucus
21900 Orus
617 Patroclus
Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer 2029
Planned orbiter
Jupiter and moons
Planned orbiter
Ganymede
Dragonfly 2034
Planned lander
Titan

A total of nine spacecraft have been launched on missions that involve visits to the outer planets; all nine missions involve encounters with Jupiter, with four spacecraft also visiting Saturn. One spacecraft, Voyager 2, also visited Uranus and Neptune. The nine missions include two; Ulysses and New Horizons, whose primary objectives are not related to the outer planets, but which flew past Jupiter to gain gravity assists en route to a polar orbit around the Sun, and Pluto—at the time of its launch considered an outer planet—respectively. Cassini–Huygens also flew past Jupiter for a gravity assist on its mission to explore Saturn.

Only three of the missions to the outer planets have been orbiters: Galileo orbited Jupiter for eight years, while Cassini orbited Saturn for thirteen years. Juno has been orbiting Jupiter since 2016.

Jupiter[]

Six spacecraft have been launched to explore Jupiter, with spacecraft making gravity-assist flybys.

The New Horizons although eventually targeting planet Pluto, and also using Jupiter for a gravity assist, also had an extensive almost half year observation campaign of Jupiter and its moons.[1]

Timeline
Spacecraft Launch Date Operator Mission Outcome Remarks Carrier rocket
Pioneer 10 3 March 1972[2] NASA
United States
Flyby Successful[3] Closest approach at 02:25 UTC on 4 December 1973[4] Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D[5]
Pioneer 11 6 April 1973[2] NASA
United States
Flyby Successful[6] Closest approach at 05:22 UTC on 3 December 1974, later flew past Saturn[7] Atlas SLV-3D Centaur-D1A[5]
Voyager 2 20 August 1977[2] NASA
United States
Flyby Successful Closest approach at 22:29 on 9 July 1979, later flew past Saturn, Uranus and Neptune[8] Titan IIIE Centaur-D1T[9]
Voyager 1 5 September 1977[2] NASA
United States
Flyby Successful Closest approach at 12:05 UTC on 5 March 1979, later flew past Saturn[10] Titan IIIE Centaur-D1T[9]
Galileo 18 October 1989[2] NASA
United States
Orbiter/Atmospheric Successful[11] Atmospheric probe entered atmosphere at 22:04 UTC on 7 December 1995 and operated for 57 minutes; main spacecraft entered orbit at 00:27 UTC on 8 December.[12] Spacecraft was deorbited on 21 September 2003, impacting Jupiter's atmosphere at 18:57:18 UTC.[13] Space Shuttle Atlantis
STS-34 / IUS[14]
Ulysses 6 October 1990[2] NASA
United States / ESA
Gravity assist N/A Flyby on 8 February 1992 to reach a high-inclination heliocentric orbit.[15] Also made a distant incidental flyby on 4 February 2004[16] Space Shuttle Discovery
STS-41 / IUS[17]
Cassini–Huygens 15 October 1997[2] NASA
United States / ESA
Gravity assist N/A Flyby on 30 December 2000 en route to Saturn[18] Titan IV(401)B Centaur-T[19]
New Horizons 19 January 2006[2] NASA
United States
Gravity assist[20]
Major observation campaign from Jan-June[21]
Successful Flyby on 28 February 2007 (closest approach at 05:43:40[22]) en route to Pluto[23] Atlas V 551[20]
Juno 5 August 2011[2] NASA
United States
Orbiter Operational Entered orbit 4 July 2016[24] Atlas V 551[25]
Missions whose primary objectives were not related to the exploration of Jupiter are indicated in grey

Saturn[]

Four spacecraft have visited Saturn; Pioneer 11, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 made flybys, while Cassini–Huygens entered orbit, and deployed a probe into the atmosphere of Titan.

Timeline
Spacecraft Launch Date Operator Mission Outcome Remarks Carrier rocket
Pioneer 11 6 April 1973[2] NASA
United States
Flyby Successful Closest approach on 1 September 1979 at 16:31 UTC[7] Atlas SLV-3D Centaur-D1A[5]
Voyager 2 20 August 1977[2] NASA
United States
Flyby Successful Closest approach at 01:21 UTC on 26 August 1981, later flew past Uranus and Neptune[8] Titan IIIE Centaur-D1T[9]
Voyager 1 5 September 1977[2] NASA
United States
Flyby Successful Closest approach on 12 November 1980 at 23:45 UTC[10] Titan IIIE Centaur-D1T[9]
Cassini 15 October 1997[2] NASA
United States
Orbiter Successful Entered orbit 1 July 2004; mission concluded on September 15, 2017[26] Titan IV(401)B Centaur-T[19]
Huygens 15 October 1997[2] ESA / ASI
Italy
Titan lander Successful Deployed from Cassini; landed on Titan at 10:13 UTC on 14 January 2005 Titan IV(401)B Centaur-T[19]

Uranus[]

Voyager 2 is the only spacecraft to have visited Uranus, making a single flyby as part of its grand tour of the outer planets.

Timeline
Spacecraft Launch Date Operator Mission Outcome Remarks Carrier rocket
Voyager 2 20 August 1977[2] NASA
United States
Flyby Successful Closest approach at 17:59 UTC on 24 January 1986, later flew past Neptune[8] Titan IIIE Centaur-D1T[9]

Neptune[]

Voyager 2 is also the only spacecraft to have visited Neptune, making a single flyby as part of its grand tour of the outer planets.

Timeline
Spacecraft Launch Date Operator Mission Outcome Remarks Carrier rocket
Voyager 2 20 August 1977[2] NASA
United States
Flyby Successful Closest approach at 03:26 UTC on 25 August 1989[8] Titan IIIE Centaur-D1T[9]


See also[]

References[]

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p McDowell, Jonathan. "Launch Log". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  3. ^ "Solar System Exploration - Pioneer 10". NASA. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  4. ^ "Solar System Exploration - Pioneer 10". NASA. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  5. ^ a b c Krebs, Gunter. "Pioneer 10, 11, H". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  6. ^ "Solar System Exploration - Pioneer 11". NASA. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  7. ^ a b "Solar System Exploration - Pioneer 11". NASA. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  8. ^ a b c d "Solar System Exploration - Voyager 2". NASA. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Krebs, Gunter. "Voyager 1, 2". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  10. ^ a b "Solar System Exploration - Voyager 1". NASA. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  11. ^ "Solar System Exploration - Galileo". NASA. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  12. ^ "Solar System Exploration - Galileo". NASA. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  13. ^ "Solar System Exploration - Galileo - Dates". NASA. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  14. ^ Krebs, Gunter. "Galileo". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  15. ^ "Solar System Exploration - Ulysses". NASA. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  16. ^ "Ulysses - Encounter Trajectory". NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Archived from the original on 16 February 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  17. ^ Krebs, Gunter. "Ulyssees". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  18. ^ "Solar System Exploration - Cassini - Dates". NASA. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  19. ^ a b c Krebs, Gunter. "Cassini". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  20. ^ a b Krebs, Gunter. "New Horizons". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  21. ^ [2]
  22. ^ Muller, Daniel. "New Horizons Full Mission Timeline". Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  23. ^ "New Horizons targets Jupiter kick". BBC News. 19 January 2007. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  24. ^ Amos, Jonathan (4 July 2016). "Juno probe enters into orbit around Jupiter". BBC News. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
  25. ^ Krebs, Gunter. "Juno (New Frontiers 2)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  26. ^ "Solar System Exploration - Cassini". NASA. Retrieved 6 January 2013.