The traditional list of 12 kings, with reigns dated to 990–785 BC, is derived from the lost history of Menander of Ephesus as quoted by Josephus in Against Apion I. 116–127. Josephus asserts that Menander had drawn his list from the chronicles of Tyre itself.
Menander-Josephus also contains a list of 9 kings and judges, with reigns dated to 591–532 BC in Against Apion I. 154–160.
|Agenor||c. 1500 BC||Son of Poseidon or of Belus|
|Phoenix||Son of Agenor. He is the alleged eponym of the Phoenicians.|
|Eri-Aku (Herakles)||c. 1400 BC||Eri Aku may be the model for such figures as the Greek Heracles, the Biblical Arioch king of Ellaser, and the Homeric Erichthonius King of Troy and Pontus.|
|Abi-Milku||c. 1350–1335 BC||Mayor/Ruler of Tyre during the period of the Amarna letters correspondence (1350–1335 BC)|
|Aribas||fl. c. 1230|
|Baal-Termeg (or Baalat-Remeg)||fl. c. 1220|
The dates for the reconstruction of Menander's Tyrian king list from Abibaal through Pygmalion are established in three places by three independent sources: a Biblical synchronism (Hiram's assistance to Solomon in building the Temple, from 967 BC onwards), an Assyrian record (tribute of Baal-Eser II/Balazeros II to Shalmaneser III in 841 BC), and a Roman historian (Pompeius Trogus, who placed the founding of Carthage or Dido's flight from her brother Pygmalion in the latter's seventh year of reign, in 825 BC, 72 years before the founding of Rome).
|Abibaal||993–981 BC||His beginning date is conjectural.|
|Hiram I||980–947 BC||Contemporary of David and Solomon|
|920–901 BC||Killed predecessor. First of 4 brothers to reign.|
|879 BC||Last of the 4 brothers|
| Ithobaal I
|878–847 BC||Killed predecessor. Father of Biblical Jezebel.|
|846–841 BC||Paid tribute to Shalmaneser III in 841 BC|
|Mattan I||840–832 BC||Father of Pygmalion and Dido|
|831–785 BC||Dido fled from Pygmalion and founded Carthage during his reign.|
The Neo-Assyrian Empire established its control over the area and ruled through vassals who are named in Assyrian records.
|750–739 BC||Name found only on Iran Stele of Tiglath-Pileser III.|
Gave tribute to Tiglath-Pileser III.
|Hiram II||739–730 BC||Also paid tribute to Tiglath-Pileser III|
|Mattan II||730–729 BC|
|Abd Melqart||694–680 BC|
|Baal I||680–660 BC|
Menander's Tyrian king list also described the period from Ithobaal III through Hiram III. Tyre regained independence with Assyria's demise, although Egypt controlled Tyre during some of the time afterwards. Eventually, Tyre fell under the control of the Neo-Babylonian Empire.
|591–573 BC||This is the king mentioned in Ezekiel 28:2 at the time of the fall of Jerusalem. Carthage became independent of Tyre in 574 BC.|
|Baal II||573–564 BC|
In the 560s the monarchy was overthrown and an oligarchic government established, headed by "judges" or shoftim (cf. Carthage). The monarchy was restored with the ascension of Hiram III to the throne.
|Mattan III and
|Baal-Eser III||556–555 BC|
|Hiram III||551–532 BC|
After Alexander the Great conquered Tyre in 332 BC, the city alternated between Seleucid (Syrian Greek) and Ptolemaic (Egyptian Greek) rule. Phoenicia came under the rule of the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC.
Tyre was conquered by the Rashidun Caliphate in the 7th century. The Crusaders conquered Tyre, which acted as the capital of the Kingdom of Jerusalem until this kingdom's fall in 1291. Tyre then became part of adjoining empires again (Ottoman Empire, Mamelukes), and finally of France and of independent Lebanon in the 20th century.