Italian inventions and discoveries are objects, processes or techniques invented, innovated or discovered, partially or entirely, by Italians. Italian means by definition a native or inhabitant of Italy or a person of Italian descent.
Arduino, an open source computer hardware and software company, project, and user community that designs and manufactures single-board microcontrollers and microcontroller kits for building digital devices and interactive objects that can sense and control objects in the physical world. It is now becoming an essential component for building AI Robots. It was created in 2003.
Codex: is the precursor of modern books, having defined the reference format of virtually all the books of Western civilization. Invented during Roman times, its adoption was later spread by Christianity.
Confetti: initially meaning a type of sweet, then used for analogy to indicate little chalk balls used in Italy during carnival festivities. Mangilli di Crescenzago (Milan) is cred as an early inventor of paper confetti.
Connecting rod, a device invented by Roman engineers to transform circular motion into linear motion.
Dentures: the first dentures were developed by the Etruscans in 700 BC
Di Pietro air engine: a pneumatic engine built by Angelo Di Pietro, which require very low pressure to start rotation. This engine produces almost no vibration, internal wear or friction and is potentially useful for a wide range of environment-friendly applications. In 2004, it has 100% more efficiency than any other air engine to that date. It also represents the first air engine that could be applied in transportation.
Double-entry bookkeeping system (for accounting), developed in the mercantile city-states of medieval Italy and first documented by Lucas de Burgo in Venice. Perfected by Amatino Mannucci in the 14th century. The actual invention could have been Roman or Asiatic. Anyway, the system reached a huge diffusion as a consequence of Italian use and theorisation, with Summa de Arithmetica containing the rules of double-entry, the first example of calculating a neperian logarithm as well as early examples of probability calculus.
Electroplating, a manufacturing technique invented by Luigi Valentino Brugnatelli in 1805. He pioneered galvanoplastic experiments, introducing the technique of electroplating. His acquaintance with A. Volta played an important role in his scientific career. He hypothesized that in the chemical pile there was also a transport of atoms, obtaining experimental evidence of this. He discovered the properties of coal cathodes as electrical conductors and succeeded in covering them with a metallic layer. He sensed the possible applications in the industrial field, sharing this procedure with a Pavese goldsmith, who used it.
Encyclopedia: from the Greek enkýklios paidèia, meaning a set of doctrines constituting a complete education. The comprehensive works of Aristotle can be considered encyclopedic (covering politics, rhetoric, ethic, aesthetic, psychology, biology, math). The first Latin encyclopedia was written by Cato the Elder in an attempt to mitigate the influence of Greek culture. He wrote for his son an "encyclopedia" of what he believed to be the necessary subjects for the Roman citizen: agriculture, rhetoric, medicine, law and warfare. Marcus T. Varro wrote a second, more complete and systematic encyclopedia, covering nine disciplines: grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, musical theory, medicine, and architecture. Plinius the Elder wrote Historia naturalis, the first encyclopedia to survive as a complete work. Marziano F. Capella wrote an allegoric encyclopedia in prose and verses, De nuptiis Mercurii et Philologiae. These encyclopedias, along with the works of Cassiodorus and Boethius, paved the way for the medieval seven liberal arts.
Epidemiology(innovated): Roman scholar Marcus Varro mentioned microorganisms as a possible causal agent of diseases. Girolamo Fracastoro, in the mid 16th century, was the first one to scientifically state the real nature of germs, infection, and contagious ways of disease transmission. He attributed the causes of diseases to very small living particles, invisible to the eye. They were considered vulnerable to fire, capable of self multiplying as well as spreading by air.
first prototype invented by Angelo Moriondo in 1884 in Turin.
(piston driven model) invented by Achille Gaggia in 1945.
Estimo: discipline, part of economic science, which establishes the logical and methodological principles allowing a reasoned, objective and generally valid formulation of the esteem of the monetary value of economic goods. The first estimative surveys of a normative character took shape with the Italian Catasti a Valore (translated, land-value registers), called Estimi a Apprezzi. Florentine estimate method was already codified in the thirteenth century. From the sixteenth century the land, merchant and then civil esteems of the capital began to spread in Italy. The first modern treaty on Estimo was Trattato della stima dei Beni Stabili by Cosimo Trinci, who introduced the concept of ascending and descending influences on the capitalization rate according to the different land's characteristics. Also see Roman Cadastre.
Eyeglasses: originating from Italy, the eyeglasses were perhaps the invention of an unidentified Venetian glassmaker of the 13th century. The research of Roger Bacon on magnifying glasses probably aided their future development.
Forlanini helicopter, first engine-powered helicopter. A steam powered helicopter which first flew in 1877, designed by Enrico Forlanini in Milan. This has represented the first heavier-than-air aircraft lifting from the ground with autonomous means. Italian engineering will further develop the helicopter: on 7 April 1925 Corradino d'Ascanio patented the helicopter with two coaxial propellers. Other patents and inventions related to the aeronautical world followed.
Microscope: Sometimes cred as the first compound microscope, Galileo Galilei found after 1610 that he could close focus his telescope, maybe even turning it around backwards, to view near by small objects. This method was combersom since he had to extend his 2 foot long telescope out to 6 feet to view objects that close. After seeing a purpose built compound microscope by Drebbel exhibited in Rome in 1624, Galileo built his own improved version.Giovanni Faber coined the name microscope for the compound microscope Galileo submitted to the Accademia dei Lincei in 1625 (Galileo had called it the "occhiolino" or "little eye").
Galleon(origins): historical evidence suggests that this iconic type of ship was pioneered by the early 16th century Venetians and later spread to Iberian Peninsula, where it became widely adopted and further developed.
Gelato: the Renaissance alchemist Cosimo Ruggieri created the first gelato flavor at the Medici's court, in Florence: the 'fior di latte'. The architect Bernardo Buontalenti invented the 'egg cream' gelato. In 1903 Italo Marchioni patended a machine for producing the gelato cone.
(Modern) giro system: a payment transfer from one bank account to another bank account initiated by the payer, not the payee. The first occurrences of book money can be traced back in Northern Italy and, in particular, in Venice.
Intel 8080, the first high-performance 8-bit microprocessor in the market, using the faster n-channel SGT. The 8080 was conceived and designed by Faggin, and designed by Masatoshi Shima under Faggin's supervision.
Jacuzzi Spa, founded in 1915 by seven Italian brothers from Northern Italy and led by Giocondo and Candido Jacuzzi. Its first product was a portable hydrotherapy unit that sat in the bath.
Jeans, type of trousers originated from the city of Genoa, Italy (hence probably the name) and possibly Nîmes, France. Modern Jeans have been invented by Jacob Davis and Levi Strauss in 1873.
Launeddas (or Sardinian triple clarinet), typical Sardinian woodwind instrument composed by three pipes.
Lazaret (quarantine station), the first was founded by the Republic of Venice in 1403, on a small island in the Venetian lagoon.
Light bulb(partially innovated):Alessandro Cruto built the first light bulb having a carbon filament treated with ethylene. The filament, under high pressure and temperature, acquires a positive resistance coefficient (when temperature increases, resistance increases as well). Cruto's bulb was officially lit 5 months after Edison bulb (on 4 March 1880). Cruto's filament improved the durability of the bulb from Edison's 40 hours to 500 hours of lighting.
Moon Boot, created in 1970 by Italian company Tecnica.
(Petroleum internal-combustion) motorcycle: in 1884 Enrico Bernardi built the first vehicle in the world powered by a petrol engine, a tricycle called Motrice Pia; Karl Friedrich Benz developed a similar metallic motor tricycle in the following year (1885). A motorcycle is a two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle. Firsts known petroleum motorcycles are the Daimler Reitwagen with 2 wheels plus 2 outriggers (1885), and the Butler Petrol Cycle with 3 wheels plus 2 castors (1887). In 1893 Bernardi mounted a petrol engine on a propulsion wheel for an ordinary bicycle, thus, according to what Enrico Fermi wrote for the Treccani Encyclopedia, creating the first motorcycle. Bernardi is to be considered one of the pioneers of the automobile too. He partnered with the Miari e Giusti to produce three- and four-wheeled automobiles powered by the gasoline engine he had invented and patented in 1882. The Bernardi mod 3,5 HP (1896) features many of his innovations, such as geometrically correct steering, cylinder with detachable head, overhead valves and a centrifugal inlet valve regulator. The quality of the vehicles was demonstrated by travelling for 60000 Km without engine failure.
Moving Picture Experts Group Standard. MPEG Standard has been a collective and international effort in which the Italian engineer Leonardo Chiariglione played a major role: the Movie Picture Experts Group was founded by L. Chiariglione and the Japanese Hiroshi Yasuda.
Nuclear reactor, the first working fission nuclear reactor was constructed by a team lead by Enrico Fermi, who is regarded as the 'father of nuclear age'. Nuclear fission, converting part of the mass in energy, is far more efficient than other, fossil energy sources.
Pantelegraph, a device for telegraphic transmission of writing and drawing invented by Giovanni Caselli. Commercial service started in 1865. It was the first functional Fax Machine to enter commercial service
Pasta's industrial production: pasta and related techniques were present since ancient times both in China and Italy. In 1740 the Venetian Paolo Adami opened the first pasta factory. Buitoni mechanical pasta factory, founded in 1827, is the oldest in the world. The French machine Marseillais Purifier speeded up the separation of semolina flour from the bran. In Italy various artificial exsiccation techniques were developed.
Radio: developed, successfully tested in 1895 by Guglielmo Marconi and produced on industrial scale as a long-distance communication medium. Marconi partially relied on similar technologies developed by the Serbian inventor Nikola Tesla. Both inventors have always had an independent interest in wireless technology and patents issued and reversed suited the economical needs of the time.
RFID (Radio Frequency Identification): the first RFID system was patented in America by the Italian-American Mario Cardullo. The system itself derives from the IFF transponder, which had been introduced by Great Britain during WWII. This RFID technology was used for the telepass, a smart card allowing the driver to pass through a motorway's toll station without halting the vehicle, as well as other contactless mobile payments.
San Marco 1, a satellite of historical relevance: Italy was the third country, after the Soviet Union and the United States, to successfully launch a satellite, in 1964.
School(partially innovated): at the height of the Roman Republic (and later during the Empire) parents were expected to have their children alphabetized and educated (albeit with partial gender discrimination on the specific subjects), especially in order to enter a political career. Formal schools were established and arranged in progressive and meritocratic tiers. In the words of Quintilian, a teacher in the 1st century AD: "Some boys are lazy, unless forced to work; others do not like being controlled; some will respond to fear but others are paralyzed by it. Give me a boy who is encouraged by praise, delighted by success and ready to weep over failure." The rigorous educational method and curriculum used in Rome was copied in its provinces, providing a basis for education systems throughout later Western civilization.
(Modern) electromagnetic seismograph: in 1855 Luigi Palmieri realizes a seismograph consisting of U-shaped tubes oriented on the different cardinal directions, filling them with mercury. When an earthquake shakes the ground, the motion of the mercury produces an electrical contact that stops a clock and at the same time starts a recording drum registering the motion of a float on the surface of mercury. Results are: time of occurrence, relative intensity and duration. In 1875 Filippo Cecchi introduces the first pendulum seismograph in which the relative motion of the pendulums (with respect to ground motions) is recorded as a function of time.
Roman Senate: a deliberative assembly of the Romans, lasting from the 8th century BC to at least the 7th century AD. The term senate comes from the Latin senatus or "Assembly of Elders". Previous councils of elders are known in Greece and in the Greek cities of Hellenistic and Roman ages; there was also a similar organism in Carthage. Rome established the senate as one of the fundamental institutions of the state and, for a long time, the main responsible for both domestic and foreign policy. Until the 15th century, the magistracy of the (roman) senator appointed by the Pope, along with magistrates of popular nomination (i.e. tribunes, reformers, conservatories), retained real authority, lasting with a symbolic role until the 19th century.
Shopping Center: the earliest example of public shopping mall was the Trajan's Market in Ancient Rome built around 100-110 AD by Apollodorus of Damascus.
Stiletto, a type of narrow dagger appearing in Italy during the Middle Ages.
Stock Exchange(origins): the underlying principles of stock exchange were introduced by Italian merchants in Bruges (Belgium); an early example of stock exchange dates back to around 1309 in an inn called "Huis ter Beurze". The inn belonged to the Ter Bourse family, merchants of possible (if not likely) Venetian origin (della Borsa), who conducted transactions at the inn. The term 'beurs' derives from the name of this inn, spreading to other European countries and evolving into 'bourse', 'borsa', 'bolsa', 'börse', etc. In England the term ‘bourse’ was used between 1550 and 1775, eventually giving way to the term ‘royal exchange'.
Telephone (originally named telettrofono). The Italian Antonio Meucci patented what became later known as the telephone. Official recognition arrived only after 113 years from his death. Alexander Graham Bell patented the telephone after Meucci's patent had expired due to his poor economical condition and inability to renew the aforementioned patent.
Prepaid telephone card: the Italian phone company SIP (later becoming Telecom Italia) inaugurated the earliest pre-paid electronic phone cards in 1976, as a response to shortages of coin and theft of tokens and coins from public telephones. The invention of the phone card itself (soon after spread in Europe) dates 1975, introduced by the Italian SIDA and was initially used at a SIP public telephone center in Rome.Tim introduced the first prepaid sims in 1996.
Television(partially innovated): the Italian-American Augusto Bissiri was an early pioneer of the transmission of pictures, and is cred as an inventor of the television. His first short-distance transmission occurred in 1906, while his first intercontinental one dates 1917. In 1922 a system composed by disks,cathode-ray tube and screen is filed for patent; other improvements followed. Among other inventions, he developed a railway safety system and the Lettera Disco (lit. letter-disk), a voice recording device. In 1927 Philo Farnsworth performed the first transmission of a fully electronic image. Later, a legal battle broke out between him and V. Zworykin.
Touchpad(co-invented):Federico Faggin has been co-founder and CEO of Synaptics. He co-invented many patents assigned to Synaptics, which produced and commercialized the first touch-pad and the earliest touchscreens. In an interview, Faggin stated that Apple had been the first company to be truly interested on Synaptics' touchscreens, asking for the exclusive on the technology. The offer was declined; nonetheless the later success of iPhones and iPads opened a huge market for Synaptics.
Trimprob: used for the electromagnetic detection of cancerous tissue, was developed in 1992 by Italian engineer Clarbruno Vedruccio.
Typewriter - in 1575 the venetian printer and bookseller Francesco Rampazetto created the first prototype of a machine that could impress letters on a piece of paper by means of "tactile writing". In 1714 the English engineer Henry Mill patented a typewriter without fabricating it. Early versions of the typewriter are reported in Austria in 1779 and Italy just after 1800 by Pellegrino Turri and Pietro Conti di Cilavegna. In 1855 Novara lawyer Giuseppe Ravizza built and patented the Cembalo scrivano or macchina da scrivere a tasti (lit. "key based typing machine"), modeling its keyboard design on the keys of pianoforte. The Cembalo Scrivano is recognized as the most advanced typing machine until the invention of Remington. Cembalo scrivano was also capable of printing upper and lower cases that didn't exist yet in the first Remington typewriter machine.
Unibody of Lancia Lambda, a car designed by Vincenzo Lancia and presented between 1921-'22. The vehicle introduced the fusion between chassis and bodywork, halving the weight compared to similar displacement cars and providing much higher resistance to impact in respect to traditional structures. Other new features included independent front suspension, allowing better safety, and a V-shaped overhead four cylinder engine.
University: the term comes from the Latin "universus", meaning "the whole / the universe", indicating a community of masters and scholars focused on higher learning concerning all - both secular and religious - human knowledge known to that date, namely Jurisprudence, Medicine, Philosophy and Theology. European academics attending the universities were expected to have already mastered the seven liberal arts, spanning from grammar to music and astronomy. The University of Bologna (founded around 1088 AD) is, by these standards, the first university of the world and, as its motto goes, 'Nourishing Mother of the Studies'. Many other universities started flourishing in Italy from the 13th century onward. Previous higher educational institutions existed during the Islamic Golden Age (the first one being the University of Karueein in 859 AD), focusing mainly on Islam (religion and laws) and only later obtaining the status of Universities. European universities themselves have, in part, religious origins, rooted in medieval Christianmonastic schools and other institutions teaching theology. Finally, academies developed well before the Roman empire, with the most famous being depicted almost two millenniums later by Raphael: the school of Athens. Medieval universities are distinguished from the academies of the classical age by the particular legal recognition (i.e degree) they granted to those who completed the studies.
Vault(partially innovated): the firsts vaults were either built underground or required continuous walls of great thickness to resist their thrust. Romans perfected the statics of the intersecting barrel vault, overcoming these limitations and pioneering the use of vaults over halls of great dimensions.
Vega (rocket): Italy had the lead in this program (65%), which produced an extremely fast vector to bring light payloads into orbit. First Launch was in 2012.
Venetian Carnival: carnival is an annual festival held in different places around the world, with an early example dating back in Venice to at least 1268. The most peculiar feature of Venice's celebration has laid in the extensive use of masks. The rite of Carneval has obscure origins, possibly Roman.
Vespa: in 1946 the Italian vehicle manufacturer Piaggio patented a "motorcycle of a rational complexity of organs and elements combined with a frame with mudguards and a casing covering the whole mechanical part". This design became one of the most popular scooters worldwide and is still in production. The Vespa had an ined load-bearing bodywork.
Vibram - Vitale Bramani is cred with inventing the first rubber lug soles for shoes in 1937.
Violin, four stringed, the name of the inventor is unknown, but the instrument appeared in renaissance Italy.
Viola(partially innovated): slightly larger than violin, is characterized by lower and deeper sound. Known fabrication started in northern Italy between 1530 and 1550. It is speculated that the 'Viola da gamba' was invented in Valencia, Spain, to be later introduced in Italy during Renaissance: a valencian painting representing a viola dates back to 1475. However, the viola is the oldest arched instrument, dating back, in different forms, to at least the 9th century. Ascribing the true origin of this instrument to specific geographical locations leads to questionable results.
Watermark: this medieval innovation was first introduced in Fabriano, Italy, in 1282.
Welfare: the earliest form of welfare was the lex frumentaria instituted by the tribune Gaius Gracchus dating back to 122 B.C., a law that ordered Rome's government to supply its citizens with allotments of cheaply priced grain.
Antibiotics:Vincenzo Tiberio is considered by notable sources to be discoverer of antibiotics. By 1895 the Italian physician had already observed, scientifically reproduced and written a research on the antibiotic effect of "cellular products, soluble in water" extracted from Penicillium glaucum, Mucor mucedo and Aspergillus flavescens and sterilized in the experimentation (both in vitro and in vivo). It can't be ruled out the possibility of his findings to have been taken as a starting point for later European researches.
Blood circulation: since Galen times it was believed that the internal human body circulation was separated in two different circuits: veins system, carrying food to the body, and arteries system, responsible for the flowing pneuma or "circulating air" in the body that was necessary to vital functions. Although many beliefs of Galen have been disproved by many Italian anatomists during Renaissance, the first who guessed blood did not mix in the heart and, instead, formed a single circulating system passing through the lungs, was the Spanish physician Miguel Serveto. However, his works were largely unknown for a long time as he was burned at the stake with his books for heresy by order of the city's governing council of Geneva, and it was an Italian anatomy professor, Realdo Colombo, who validated the intuitions of Servetus, proving that cardiac septum is impermeable to blood. He also spoke correctly about the existence of pulmonary circulation. Girolamo Fabrizi d’Acquapendente (1537-1619) was the first to study the valves of the veins, but it was Andrea Cesalpino the one who described the circulation of blood in the body. Cesalpino showed that the heart, not the liver, is the engine that physically pumps the blood into the vessels: starting from the arteries to capillaries, blood reaches the whole body, then it returns through the veins up to the heart. He used for the first time the term blood circulation and he demonstrated that in veins and arteries flows only blood, not pneuma, and that the passage of blood from arteries to veins through capillaries is due to difference of pressure. It remains famous his experiment of ligature of veins then resumed by William Harvey in order to prove the blood flow course in veins. Finally, Marcello Malpighi gave with his microscope observational proof of the exchange of blood from arteries to veins in capillaries.
DDrna: a class of small non-coding RNAs (abbreviated DDRNAs) unveiled in a study by Fabrizio d'Adda di Fagagna, which play an important role in the activation of DDR, and in turn, as previously discovered by F. Fagagna, in the proliferation's inhibition typical of cellular aging.
Gastric digestion(scientific proof):Edward Stevens for the first time performed an in vitro digestion. Spallanzani interpreted the process of digestion not simply as a mechanical process, but as one of actual solution, chemically mediated by the acid gastric juice of the stomach.
Fallopian tube: Gabriele Falloppio studied the reproductive organs in both sexes, and described the tube, which leads from the ovary to the uterus and now bears his name. He was the first to describe a condom (in his writings, a linen sheath wrapped around the penis), and he advocated the use of such sheaths to prevent syphilis.
Germ theory of disease (as a scientific theory): physician Girolamo Fracastoro, scholar and poet, in 1546 was the first proposing that epidemic diseases are caused by transferable tiny particles or "spores" that could transmit infection by direct or indirect contact or even without contact over long distances. In his idea the "spores" of diseases may refer to either chemicals or living entities. He appears to have first used the Latin word fomes, meaning tinder, in the sense of infectious agent. He was the one to christen the syphilis disease with this name, from the name of a young boy Syphilius in Greek mythology, who was punished with an horrible disease for he had offended Apollo. Fracastoro also gave the first scientific description of typhus. The lunar crater Fracastorius is named after him.
Insulin, artificial synthesis (contribution in discovery): the Italian Roberto Crea was part of a team of ten Genentech scientists publishing in 1979 a research that described the solution for synthetic insulin, obtained through genes (coding the protein insulin A and B) that were inserted in Escherichia coli bacteria. This technique made possible the mass production of insulin without relying on extraction from animals sources.
Liposuction, medical procedure invented by Dr Giorgio Fischer in 1974.
MS4A4A, discovered by an Italian research, this molecule plays a central role in the dialogue between Natural Killer and macrophage cells, controlling the tumoral metastatic diffusion.
NGF or nerve growth factor, a protein involved primarily in the growth, as well as the maintenance, proliferation, and survival of nerve cells, whose absence leads to various diseases. Co-discovered in the early 1950s by Rita Levi-Montalcini in collaboration with Stanley Cohen. Today, NGF and its relatives are collectively designated as neurotrophins and are extensively studied for their role in mediating multiple biological phenomena.
Oncovirus, type of virus capable of causing cancers. The experiments led by Italian-American Renato Dulbecco and his group demonstrated that the genes of the reverse transcribing viruses infecting the cells, are inoculated into their chromosomes, with a behavior that alternates phases of inactivity and activity, linked to the formation of tumors. Nobel price was awarded to Renato Dulbecco, David Baltimore and Howard Temin. In 1986 R. Dulbecco proposed the Human Genome Project to the international community, with the subsequent project initiation by the Italian CNR (National Research Council).
Ricordi Chamber: doctor Camillo Ricordi -director of Diabetes Research Center (DRI), and Cell Transplant Center of University of Miami- became one of highest authorities in the cure of diabetes disease; he developed the first device able to isolate large quantities of insulin-producing cells from the human pancreas and to have successfully conducted the first series of pancreatic isletstransplants capable of treating diabetes. His procedures have been used worldwide.
Robotic Hand Prosthesis (permanent implant on humans): the first prototype of an artificial, poly-articulated and sensitive hand was made in Italy, with a real-time decoding of the electrical signals sent from the brain to the muscles.
SARS virus, an infectious disease discovered by Carlo Urbani; having being infected, he didn't live long enough to see how effective his early detection and intervention was in buying time and saving lives.
(Spinal) biomechanics:Giovanni A. Borelli is often considered father of biomechanics, having calculated the forces necessary in the human body for reaching the equilibrium in the joints, long before the publishing of the Newtonian Laws. Borelli first understood that it is the motion to be magnified by the locomotor system's levers rather than force and consequently motion-producing muscles have to explicate greater force compared to the motion-resisting entities. It's worth mentioning B. ideated what is probably the first rebreather.
Stem cells as vectors for Gene Therapy: in 1992 doctor Claudio Bordignon, working at the Vita-Salute San Raffaele University in Milan, performed the first procedure of gene therapy using hematopoietic stem cells as vectors delivering genes intended to correct herary diseases. He is known for having validated many successful gene therapy protocols targeting genetic and acquired disorders, such as leukaemias.
Striated muscles, first differentiated from smooth muscles by Giorgio Baglivi in his monograph De fibra motrice. An exponent of iatrophysics, he isolated muscle fibers and studied them using a compound microscope, outlining the fundamental role played by the fiber as a structure. He also concluded that the heart muscle had spontaneous contraction, independent from other innervations. His depiction of pulmonary edema is cred as its first proper clinical description. In addition, he proposed the introduction of specialized medical degrees.
Strimvelis: the first ex-vivo stem cell gene therapy to treat patients with a very rare disease called ADA-SCID. The treatment was developed at San Raffaele Telethon Institute for Gene Therapy (SR-Tiget), in Milan. Strimvelis has been approved in Europe for the treatment of human patients.
Rappuoli (innovated)vaccines, covering more than 150 patent families that have been registered since the mid-1990s by Rino Rappuoli, radically changing the vaccine production procedures used to immunize millions of people.
Reverse vaccinology, a new method for making vaccines using the pathogen's sequenced genome, pioneered by R. Rappuoli and the J. Craig Venter Institute. Rappuoli has continued researching for even more advanced techniques.
Recombinant pertussis vaccine (1992), with genetic ing and inactivation of the toxic gene in the chromosome of Pertussis bacterium, so that a non-toxic molecule is produced instead. The immune response was reported to improve compared to previous conventional technologies.
Trotula: Trota De Ruggiero (or Trocta) was a medical practitioner, probably a regular physician and university Professor who lived in the early 12th century in Salerno, near Naples. It seems she was daughter of one of the private Professors of the Schola Medica Salernitana, following her father's steps as a physician and teacher of medicine, and whose progeny continued this tradition as well. It is uncertain whether she was the first woman of the Medieval age to become a graduated physician in the Western World, but it is well known from various sources that at least 24 women practiced surgery in Neapolitan Area during Middle Ages. Trota left a collection of writings about the cure of women illnesses in a codex named after her, Trotula. It consists of three manuscripts, of which only the book called De curis mulierum (lit. "On Treatments for Women") is attributed to her, while the other two are works of different authors. The fact she wrote such an organic collection of remedies and cures is one of the evidences suggesting she was a regular graduate and not a simple practitioner. The Schola Medica Salernitana is considered "the oldest medical school of modern civilization" and "forerunner of modern University Medical Schools".
Colony, from the Latin "colonia", indicating a Roman outpost established to secure conquered territory (sometimes situated near previous settlements) and built for retired Roman legionaries. Colonies have been part of a Roman policy "whose wisdom only the future could fully reveal"-(Cedric A. Yeo,The Classical World). Eventually the term denoted the highest status of a Roman city. Many colonies survived the fall of Rome, with some becoming seminal European cities (e.g London, Paris, Barcelona, Frankfurt). The map of Roman infrastructures manifests a remarkable pattern similarity with European road density today: ancient cities and roads might have set the template for the next two thousand years of economic development.
Cosmology of Giordano Bruno: he expanded the relatively new Copernican theory proposing for the first time the idea that the stars were distant suns (as bodies emitting energy) surrounded by their own planets (as bodies receiving and reflecting energy) orbiting around. According to Steven Soter "[this] is arguably the greatest idea in the history of astronomy". Giordano raised the possibility that these planets might foster life of their own, a philosophical position known as cosmic pluralism; he also claimed the universe is infinite and could have no "center". Barely suffering any form of religious authority, he was excommunicated by three different Christian cults: Catholics, Lutherans and Calvinists. In his positions Bruno identified God as a God-Nature, as a reality that in itself subsists immanent in the guise of the Infinite, since infinity is the fundamental characteristic of the divine. For this reason and other beliefs considered heretic by the Catholic Church, such as negating Holy Trinity, he was dragged into court in Venice by local Inquisition, where he skillfully tried to defend himself stating that philosophers in their course of thoughts, according to "the natural light of intellect", can come to conflicting conclusions with the matters of faith, without having to be considered heretics. Roman Inquisition asked for his extradition to Rome, that was exceptionally granted by the Venetian Senate, and in Rome Bruno decided to not defend himself anymore and instead openly declare his beliefs. Found guilty of heresy, he was burned at the stake.
Fermi paradox: arising from the high probability of existence of extraterrestrial civilizations and yet absence of alien contacts (given the great number of stars and planets of our galaxy and billions of years of time for hypothetical civilizations to develop space travel). Herbert York wrote in 1984 that Fermi "followed up with a series of calculations on the probability of earthlike planets, the probability of life given an earth, the probability of humans given life, the likely rise and duration of high technology, and so on. He concluded on the basis of such calculations that we ought to have been visited long ago and many times over".
Futurism: an artistic and social movement born in Italy in the early 20th century, that glorified modernity, emphasized speed, technology, youth, impetuosity, and iconic objects of modernity and speed such as internal combustion engines, the car and the airplane as a form of art, an ideal of beauty and trendy absolute ambition for manly boldness. Filippo Tommaso Marinetti was the most prominent figure of the movement.
Latin alphabet, derived from the Greek alphabet; became the foundation of many languages worldwide, e.g. Neo-Latin languages. Currently more than 4.9 billion people rely on this alphabet.
Machiavellianism: term denoting the political philosophy of Machiavelli, especially regarding his most famous work, Il Principe, or The Prince. The book advocated realpolitik and a consequentialist approach to political action, recommending rulers to be ready to act in deceitful ways, such as resorting to fraud, treachery and elimination of political opponents, and to use fear as a means of controlling subjects, in order to retain a ruler's power and security in the state.
Renaissance humanism: a cultural movement of rebirth in the study of classical antiquity, originating in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe (around 1300-1500). Humanists perceived themselves as a different kind of men opposed to those who lived in medieval age and who had another vision of the world, science and literature, rougher and incomplete if compared to the humanistic rediscovery of ancient classics, new perception of nature of things, and a new way of conceiving arts and beauty.
Adoption, as legal process of parenting another person and permanently transferring all rights and responsibilities, along with filiation and full rights for the adopted of inheriting family name and family legacies. Institution of adoption was widely used by Roman Emperors to grant themselves an heir of male gender.
Municipium, a social contract between municipes, the "duty holders," or citizens of the town: the munera were a communal obligation of the municipes in exchange for privileges and protections of citizenship. The continuation in the Middle Ages of municipal institutes of Roman derivation constituted, together with the feudal fragmentation and the mechanisms of association of bourgeois origin, one of the determining factors for the formation of the communes. They developed as autonomous and recognized forms of city government, of an economic nature and, particularly in Italy, political.
Proprietas: in ancient Roman legal system, indicates the sum of powers, rights and privileges, of a person on a thing. The seminal distinction between laws of property and obligation has characterized all Western Civilization. Historically, Democritus justified private property because it was efficient. Aristotle added the argument of human nature. Etruscans and Romans perceived private property as the bond of the family with the ancestors and gods.
(as a philosophy): a school of thought that employed a critical method of analysis and tried to reconcile the Christian faith with a system of rational thought (mainly derived from Greek philosophy), integrating classical philosophy as anticipating Christian theology. The intent of the scholastics was to develop a harmonious knowledge, integrating the Christian revelation with the philosophical systems of the Greek-Hellenistic world, as they were convinced of their compatibility, and toseek in the knowledge of the classics (mainly from great thinkers such as Socrates, Plato, Aristotle and Plotinus) a route able to raise the acceptance of Catholic dogmas. Scholasticism started developing from the works of the Roman Boethius at the very onset of the Middle Ages.
(as a method of organizing studies): an organization of higher education present in ancient schools and universities. Clergymen and secular literates usually started their cursus studiorum in capitular schools enclosed by abbeys and monasteries, learning the arts of Trivium (grammar, logic and rhetoric) and then proceeding in the arts of Quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy). King Lothair I of Italy, nephew of emperor Charlemagne, created a system of high schools in strategic cities of his reign (Pavia, Ivrea, Turin, Cremona, Florence, Fermo, Verona, Vicenza, Forlì) in order to train skilled officials and bureaucrats. Italian merchant cities enhanced the schooling system by creating, around 1100, the "Scuole d'Abaco" (abacus learning schools) as professional institutes intended for the preparation of accountants, clerks, and any sort of trading specialists.
Theory of the two Suns: a political theory developed by Dante Alighieri, expecially in the De Monarchia, advocating the autonomy of the temporal power of the Holy Roman Emperor from the spiritual power of the Pope. Dante has been defined by William Franke "pioneer and prophet of Christian Secularism".
Scientific method (consisting of observation through quantification, hypothesis and testings of models): was theorized by Galileo Galilei, recognized as 'the father of modern science, physics and astronomy'. Galilei wanted to reach whatever conclusions a scrupulous and methodical analysis of evidence suggests rather than seeking exclusively the aspects of reality confirming and conforming to a specific orthodoxy. Galileo’s method and discoveries represented the focal point for the European scientific revolution in the 17th century. He invalidated a belief system that parted the ancient world from modernity. Galileo revolutionized the goal of science: to research the mathematical properties of substances, such as 'location, motion, shape, size, opacity, mutability, generation and dissolution', instead of their intrinsic essence.
Galilean relativity (the laws of physics are the same in every inertial frame): this seminal principle, defined by Galileo, was perfected and expanded during the following centuries. For example, Einstein's theory of special relativity states that the laws of physics are the same in any inertial frame, and, in particular, any measurement of the speed of light in any inertial frame will always be constant (around 300000 Km/s).
Law of inertia: a body having constant (k=0 v k>0) velocity, will retain its vector unless a force (f>0) acts upon it. Defined by Galileo for horizontal motion.
Logarithmic spiral: was conceived and graphically rectified by Torricelli, up to its center, to which the curve tends after infinite revolutions. Torricelli substituted the "potential infinite and infinitesimal" of the Greeks with the "actual infinite and infinitesimal".
Winds (in scientific terms): explained by Torricelli as an atmospheric phenomenon consisting of movements of air masses "produced by differences of air temperature, and hence density, between two regions of the earth". He wrote "we live submerged at the bottom of an ocean of air".
Metallurgy(innovated): Pirotechnia by Vannoccio Biringuccio (1540) represents the first book (and the first printed) totally dedicated to metallurgy, elements and techniques. V. Biringuccio is regarded as "the first true foundryman and the father of the foundry industry". Prior to his publication, foundry techniques were kept as a secret and generally handed down orally: Pirotechnia is the starting point for a true technological literature, interested in experimental fact and method, of which Biringuccio is considered an important exponent (also see Bernardino Telesio and Francis Bacon).
Milky Way (in scientific terms): Galileo observed, described and theorized our galaxy as a collection of a tremendous amount of stars.
CKM Matrix: a unitary matrix containing information about the strength of the flavour-changing weak interaction. The first version of the matrix was developed in 1963 by Nicola Cabibbo -renowned physicist and later president of the Pontifical Academy of Science- and was subsequently completed by the Japanese Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa.Nobel Price was awarded to the latter two omitting the former. Cabibbo's work helped in understanding the violation of an almost exact symmetry of charge and parity between particles and the corresponding antiparticles, called Cp violation. It is hypothesized matter and anti-matter to be present in equal quantities at the beginning of the universe. The violation could help explain why matter is now far more abundant than antimatter.
Methane, the simplest hydrocarbon, isolated and studied for its inflammable properties by Alessandro Volta. He also demonstrated interests in the ignition of other inflammable gases through electric sparks, designing a rudimentary electric pistol.
W and Z bosons (collaboration in discovery): discovered by Cern's UA1 and UA2. In 1976 Carlo Rubbia, Peter McIntyre and David Cline suggested the creation of the CERN's proton-antiproton collider. C. Rubbia led a team of physicists in the UA1 Collaboration, managing the construction of the central detector, which allowed to obtain experimental evidence of the bosons in 1982-'83; in November 1982 the first W candidate was found; the discovery was reported during a workshop in Rome the following year (12-14 January) and then internationally.Simon van der Meer contribution has been vital for stocking large quantities of anti-protons. Both S. Meer and C. Rubbia have been awarded with the Nobel price.
Italian fencing style: towards the end of '500, the Italian style, putting an emphasis on skills and speed instead of force, spread across Europe, with fencing being instituted as an art. Italians used a lighter weapon, the rapier, finely balanced and fabulous for attack, together with a style of fencing that was, at the same time, simple, controlled and agile. Italians discovered that using the point of the sword was more effective than relying on its edge. The early English fencing style was substituted by the continental one.
Beretta: founded around 1526 by Bartolomeo Beretta, the Fabbrica d’Armi Pietro Beretta is the world's oldest manufacturing company and can be considered the oldest industry; during the Venetian-Turkish war (1570–73) Beretta produced 300 weapons per-day. According to Marco Morin and Robert Held, well-known experts in military history, in the 16th century the Brescian valley became "an envied supplier of weapons on a global scale, which for the unsurpassed quality and strength of its products and above all of its gun barrels beat the great metallurgical centers of the time like Suhl, Augsburg and Nuremberg, in Germany": weapons were purchased by different Italian States, France and England. In 1975, Beretta introduced the 9mm Model 92, which met worldwide diffusion as the self loading pistol most adopted by armies and law enforcement.
Double entry tables for ballistic calculus: during WWI, Mauro Picone applied mathematics to improve artillery precision in mountain warfare, solving the differential calculus needed to adeguate the trajectory (and angle of impact) of the projectiles, not just in terms of (horizontal) distance from the target, but, unlike the previous tables, according to different height too.
Firing tables for aircraft (airplanes, airships and balloons): aeronautical shooting tables were defined following the work of Vito Volterra. He is also behind the subsequent use of helium instead of hydrogen in airships, researching how to mount guns on them, and being the first to fire a gun from an airship.
Alpini: modern special forces intended for mountain warfare, created in 1872. The first 15 Alpini companies were officially established by Kingdom of Italy on 15 October. The Italian example was soon followed by other countries having mountainous areas and thus France formed the Chasseurs des Alpes, in Germany the Alpenkorps were born, in Austro-Hungarian Empire the Landwehr and the Tyrolean hunters (Kaiserjäger); similar troops appeared in Czechoslovakia, Poland, Switzerland and Spain. During WWI the Alps have been the major theater of mountain warfare (also called Alpine warfare).
Guidonian solmization, assigning each note of the diatonic scale to a Solfège (or sol-fa) syllable. This represents a practical method for teaching sight-singing (singing music from written notation). Guido di Arezzo chose the syllables from the first syllable in each line of the Latin hymn Ut queant laxis (Hymn to John the Baptist): ut (or do), re, mi, fa, sol, la, si (subsequent convention).
Bel canto, a style that reigned supreme in Italian theaters, concert halls, and churches throughout the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
Cantata, (from Italian cantare, sing), originally designating a musical composition meant to be sung as opposed to be instrumentally performed (viz., sonata); now vaguely used for compositions featuring both voices and instruments. The early "cantata" have been written by Italians, and this word was used for the first time by the Italian composer Alessandro Grandi; there had been precursors (such as strophic arias, and late madrigals of Claudio Monteverdi).
Libretto, grouping opera text; the earliest operas had their words printed in small books (lit. libretto) for commemoration (see also melodramma).
Oratorio, large musical composition for orchestra, choir and soloists, usually narrative and sacred in nature; the first surviving being Rappresentazione di anima et di corpo (lit. The Representation of Soul and Body) by Emilio del Cavaliere, characterized by dramatic action and ballet. Later, Giacomo Carissimi's o. verged towards a more sober expression, adopting Old Testament text written in Latin.
Symphony(origins): symphonies are written, usually orchestral, instrumental compositions. Their starting point can be located in Lombardy around 1730; in specific, they are to be found in Alessandro Scarlatti's opera overtures, showing a fast-slow-fast structure (Allegro-Adagio-Allegro) that later spread throughout Europe. A second type of symphony, bipartite slow-fast, emerged from the compositions of Italian-French Giovanni Battista Lulli. However, the etymology of the word is συμφωνία ("agreement or concord of sound"), and the concept existed at least since the mid-16th century. Early orchestral compositions have been written by Giovanni Gabrieli, with the vivid Italian style being prosecuted by his pupil Heinrich Schütz.Giovanni Battista Sammartini transformed the opera overtures in concerts of their own (e.g Memet, 1732).Joseph Haydn inserted a fourth movement (in the form of "Minuet dance") in the structure of A. Scarlatti.
Bocce, a boules-type game dating back to Roman times and later developed in Italy;bocce volo as a variant. The game was spread across Europe by the Romans and is closely related to the later British bowls and French boules.
Calcio Fiorentino or historic football. The Vocabolario della Crusca (first ed in 1612) noted: "Calcio [lit. soccer, football, kick] is also the name of an ancient and proper game of the city of Florence, like an orderly battle, with a ball, resembling the spheromachy, passed from Greeks to Latins and from Latins to us". The noble Piero de 'Medici summoned the most skilled players to his court, thus representing the first patronage applied to football. In the Great Britain of the 19th century, soccer evolved into modern regulation.
Gran Fondo: in road cycling, type of long-distance ride dating back to the first Gran Fondo from Milan to Turin in 1894, and roughly translates into English as "Big Ride". Italian Gran Fondos are officially defined and certified by the Italian Cycling Federation as a bicycle event at least 120 kilometres (75 mi) long, and are individually chip-timed (start to finish) races with prizes for the fastest riders in each category.
Italian Circuit Tournament, a system of matching adopted at first in Italian football tournament cups, is a particular formula of competitions with more than two participants, which involves not only the holding of direct matches between all the participant teams in all possible combinations, but also a second series of matches or second round. The first direct match is played at the home stadium of one of the two teams, and the second direct match is performed at the stadium of the other team, in order to minimize the advantage for the home team to play on well known grounds, with incitement of local supporters. A competition of this type can also be called an Italian tournament, opposed to American or knockout tournaments common in Tennis and other sports. The formula, common especially in team sports, refers to the concept of a double round-robin tournament.
Palio: initially used to indicate speed competitions, usually with horses, it later embraced many other peculiarities, evolving into a group of typical manifestations dating back to various Italian medieval cities.
The following is an extract of the most noteworthy geographical discoveries, partially or totally Italian:
^"ingegneria nell'Enciclopedia Treccani". www.treccani.it (in Italian). Retrieved 28 November 2019. Translation from source (not lit.) The oldest Italian document in which the term 'engineer' appears [dates back] [...] in Genoa, 19 April 1195 [...] The first printed engineering book is Italian [...]. [Comparable with] the French Jacques Besson and the Germans Georg Agricola and Zeising, are Agostino Ramelli, Bonaiuto Lorini, Fausto Veranzio, Mariano Zonca, Famiano Strada, Giovanni Branca. The Italian engineer is often called abroad as a consultant ...
^ abWilson, Robert L. (10 November 2015). The World of Beretta: An International Legend. Simon and Schuster. ISBN978-1-5107-0930-0. Introductory summary Fabbrica d'Armi Pietro Beretta, S.p.A., the oldest industrial firm and the oldest gunmaker in the world. From source Italy’s importance in the history of art, government, politics, warfare, and sport is recognized worldwide. [...] the advancement of technology [is] no less significant. No area of the world [played] a greater role in the evolution of firearms than the ancient Italian valley region known as Val Trompia
^ ab"Cei-Rigotti". Forgotten Weapons. 24 October 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2019. Amerigo Cei-Rigotti was a major in the Italian Bersaglieri (light infantry) in 1900, when his innovative self-loading rifle design was first introduced. Unlike many or the very early semiauto rifle designs, the Cei-Rigotti is a light, handy, and pretty compact rifle.
^"Olivetti Programma 101 Electronic Calculator". The Old Calculator Web Museum. Though considered by many to be the first monolithic desktop stored-program programmable electronic calculator, this distinction is questionable. It appears that the Mathatronics Mathatron calculator preceeded the Programma 101 to market.
^, Olivetti Programma 101 "Perottina", 18 December 2013.
^Reti, Ladislao; Di Giorgio Martini, Francesco (Summer 1963). "Francesco di Giorgio (Armani) Martini's Treatise on Engineering and Its Plagiarists". Technology and Culture. 4 (3): 287–298 (290). doi:10.2307/3100858. JSTOR3100858.
^Roberts, Colin H; Skeat, TC (1983). The Birth of the Codex. London: British Academy. pp. 15–22. ISBN0-19-726061-6.
^ abZaffino, Valentina. "Giordano Bruno and the Proportional Eight Spike Compass". proportional compasses have, on their hands, various proportional scales [...] There are three kinds: with crossed hands, similar to the reduction compass such as the Commandino or Bürgi one; with eight spikes, such as the Mordente one; with flat hands, such as Galileo’s compass.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
^The inventions that changed the world, Reader's Digest (1982) [Portuguese ion of 1983]
^Zwierzchowski, Jaroslaw (2017). "Design type air engine Di Pietro". EPJWC. 143: 02149. Bibcode:2017EPJWC.14302149Z. doi:10.1051/epjconf/201714302149. The article presents a pneumatic engine constructed by Angelo Di Pietro. [...] . A directional valve is a key element of the control system. The valve functions as a camshaft distributing air to particular engine chambers. The construction designed by Angelo Di Pietro is modern and innovative. A pneumatic engine requires low pressure to start rotary movement. [...] According to his assumptions, this engine has 94.5% efficiency, and constant high torque. Additionally, this engine does not generate vibrations and has a very low friction, allowing the engine to operate at a low supply pressure of only 1 PSI (approx. 0.07 bar)
^Staff, GE Reports (14 September 2013). "Pumping up the silent engine". GE Reports. Retrieved 20 December 2019. An invention that would have earned a nod from Da Vinci himself, Angelo’s engine [...] virtually eliminates vibration, internal wear and friction.
^Hanlon, Mike (15 September 2004). "Significant new rotary engine design runs on compressed air". New Atlas. Retrieved 20 December 2019. There is no other motor as efficient as the Di Pietro Rotary Air Engine. It is 100% more efficient than any other air powered engine built to date and its high torque makes it the first air engine suitable for mobile applications.
^Ronchi, Vasco (1970). "Amici, Giovan Battista". Dictionary of Scientific Biography. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN0-684-10114-9.
^Larry E. Ashley, Pierce Piano Atlas, 12th ion, Larry E. Ashley Publisher, Albuquerque, NM U.S.A., 2008, p.58.
^Rubino, Lorenzo (1 June 2015). "Geotermico a Zero Emissioni: Invenzione tutta Italiana" [Zero-emission geothermal: All-Italian invention]. Close-up Building Engineering (in Italian). Retrieved 20 December 2019. Translation In 1827, in Larderello, a group of engineers and scientists exploited the steam contained in a geyser for industrial purposes (boric acid extraction)
^Alternating currents of electricity: their generation, measurement, distribution, and application by Gisbert Kapp, William Stanley, Jr.. Johnston, 1893. Page 140. [cf., This direction has been first indicated by Professor Galileo Ferraris, of Turin, some six years ago. Quite independent of Ferraris, the same discovery was also made by Nikola Tesla, of New York; and since the practical importance of the discovery has been recognized, quite a host of original discoverers have come forward, each claiming to be the first.]
^Larned, J. N., & Reiley, A. C. (1901). History for ready reference: From the best historians, biographers, and specialists; their own words in a complete system of history. Springfield, Mass: The C.A. Nichols Co.. Page 440. [cf., At about the same time , Galileo Ferraris, in Italy, and Nikola Tesla, in the United States, brought out motors operating by systems of alternating currents displaced from one another in phase by definite amounts and producing what is known as the rotating magnetic field.]
^The Electrical engineer. (1888). London: Biggs & Co. Pg., 239. [cf., "[...] new application of the alternating current in the production of rotary motion was made known almost simultaneously by two experimenters, Nikola Tesla and Galileo Ferraris, and the subject has attracted general attention from the fact that no commutator or connection of any kind with the armature was required."]
^Galileo Ferraris, "Electromagnetic rotation with an alternating current," Electrican, Vol 36 . pg 360-75.
^Bastioli, Catia (3 January 1998). "Properties and applications of Mater-Bi starch-based materials". Polymer Degradation and Stability. Biodegradable Polymers and Macromolecules. 59 (1): 263–272. doi:10.1016/S0141-3910(97)00156-0. ISSN0141-3910.
^"Lock | waterway". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 12 January 2020. The mitred canal gate, [...] may have been invented by Leonardo da Vinci for the San Marco Lock in Milan...
^Fermi, Enrico (1930). "Enrico Bernardi in Enciclopedia Treccani". treccani.it. nel 1893 montò il motore a benzina [...] su una ruota di propulsione per una bicicletta ordinaria, realizzando così la prima motocicletta. Translatation in 1893 he mounted the petrol engine [...] on a propulsion wheel for an ordinary bicycle, thus realizing the first motorcycle.
^"Breve storia del cambio della bici". Bikeitalia.it (in Italian). Retrieved 19 December 2019. 'Translation The real revolution comes with the Campagnolo Gran Sport gearbox, which became a milestone in technical evolution. [...] Also for the first time the front derailleur appeared
^"Bellini-Tosi MF/DF". www.airwaysmuseum.com. Retrieved 22 December 2019. in 1906 [...] Dr Ettore Bellini and Captain Tosi, produced a direction-finding system which [...] in principle remained in use for over 70 years.
^ ab"radiogoniometro nell'Enciclopedia Treccani". www.treccani.it (in Italian). Retrieved 22 December 2019. Translation [Radiogoniometer] is the oldest and one of the most important instruments for radio-assisted navigation. [...]. Conceived by A. Artom (1901), also known by the name of r. Bellini-Tosi (1908).
^Bellini, E.; Tosi, A. (1 December 1907). "A Directive System of Wireless Telegraphy". Proceedings of the Physical Society of London. 21 (1): 305–328. Bibcode:1907PPSL...21..305B. doi:10.1088/1478-7814/21/1/321. In order to be able to transmit and receive to or from any direction whatsoever, without having to turn the aerial, or having recourse to a large number of aerials in fixed positions, the aerials were built up of two equal closed oscillatory circuits, vertically placed and mutually perpendicular. This aerial system is connected up to special instruments for transmission and reception which the authors have called ‘‘Radiogoniometers.” [...]. On this [original] method, by merely rotating a small coil of wire on the table, a fixed aerial directive system of any size was made to do what could otherwise only be done by turning the whole system of aerial wires in azimuth. The essence of the system was the piece of apparatus styled the radiogoniometer, which, by causing appropriate component radiation from two fixed wire triangles set at right angles, brought about a resultant radiation in any direction desired [...] so that if it can be used, as stated by the Authors, accurately to about one degree of arc, the radiogoniometer is the practical equivalent of 360 bent antennae.
^"Pago MA CON LA SIM - Il Sole 24 ORE". st.ilsole24ore.com. Retrieved 16 December 2019. Translation Mario Cardullo, Author of the first patent related to RFID (1973), which is the base of contact-less mobile payments
^Borgstrom, S.; Lucia, M. De; Nave, R. (25 November 1999). "Luigi Palmieri: first scientific bases for geophysical surveillance in Mt. Vesuvius area". Annals of Geophysics. 42 (3). doi:10.4401/ag-3741. ISSN2037-416X.
^"tim-inventa-la-carta-sim-prepagata". www.italiaoggi.it. By complying with the type already used in fixed telephony, Tim will in fact launch a product capable of eliminating the constraints of fixed costs. This will be possible thanks to ´Ready to go ', the first prepaid sim card.
^Mameli, Andrea (2007). "E Philo inventò la TV". LINGUAGGIO MACCHINA. Translation On 7 August 1922 a patent is registered in Los Angeles and signed Augusto Bissiri. The idea is to improve the Nipkow disk by obtaining a series of lines of light then converted into light signals and recreated in an electromechanical vision system.
^Bissiri, Augusto (1929). "US patent 01713213, May 14, 1929". [previous solutions required a] variable illumination and visibility of the screen on which the picture is reproduced. In accordance with my invention, these difficulties are largely avoided or altogether obviated by the provision of a continuously illuminated screen which is arranged to have its contour and shading varied in accordance with the shading of the picture.
^"Invenzioni". Augusto Bissiri (in Italian). 30 July 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
^Caretti, Luigi (1936). "Subacquee, armi". www.treccani.it. Translation The history of the torpedo is associated with that of its inventors, the Italian G. B. Luppis, [...] and the engineer R. Whitehead.
^"Olivetti ET 101, 1978 - Museo Tecnologicamente". www.museotecnologicamente.it. Retrieved 11 December 2019. Translation The ET 101 was the first electronic typewriter in the world, a record to share with the QYX, of the Exxon Corporation, which never entered production
^Ombelet, W.; Van Robays, J. (2015). "Artificial insemination history: hurdles and milestones". Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn. 7 (2): 137–143. ISSN2032-0418. PMC4498171. PMID26175891. More than 100 years later, in 1784, the first artificial insemination in a dog was reported by the scientist Lazzaro Spallanzani (Italian physiologist, 1729-1799). This insemination resulted in the birth of three puppy’s 62 days later (Belonoschkin, 1956; Zorgniotti, 1975). It is believed that Spallanzani was the first to report the effects of cooling on human sperm when he noted, in 1776, that sperm cooled by snow became motionless.
^"A novel direct role of non coding RNA in DNA damage response activation". cordis.europa.eu. We have recently identified a completely hitherto undiscovered level of control of DDR activation [...]. We have discovered that short RNA species are detectable at DNA damage sites and are necessary for DDR activation at DNA lesions. [IFOM Fondazione Istituto Firc Di Oncologia Molecolare]
"His great work, however, is the Dissertationi de fisica animale e vegetale (2 vols., 1780). Here he first interpreted the process of digestion, which he proved to be no mere mechanical process of trituration, but one of actual solution, taking place primarily in the stomach, by the action of the gastric juice."
^Peescott, F.; Spallanzani (1930). "Spallanzani on Spontaneous Generation and Digestion". Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine. 23 (4): 495–510. doi:10.1177/003591573002300445. ISSN0035-9157. Spallanzani's researches on digestion [...] proved in a decisive manner that digestion is not a simple mechanical process, but one of true solution, occurring mainly in the stomach under the influence of the gastric juice.
^Erspamer, V. (13 March 2009). "Active Substances in the Posterior Salivary Glands of Octopoda. II. Tyramine and Octopamine (Oxyoctopamine)". Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. 4 (3–4): 224–247. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0773.1948.tb03345.x.
^Rappuoli, R.; Pizza, M.; Covacci, A.; Bartoloni, A.; Nencioni, L.; Podda, A.; De Magistris, M. T. (1992). "Recombinant acellular pertussis vaccine--from the laboratory to the clinic: improving the quality of the immune response". FEMS Microbiology Immunology. 5 (4): 161–170. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.1992.tb05898.x. ISSN0920-8534. PMID1384602.
^Robbins, John B.; Schneerson, Rachel; Kubler-Kielb, Joanna; Keith, Jerry M.; Trollfors, Birger; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Shiloach, Joseph (4 March 2014). "Toward a new vaccine for pertussis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 111 (9): 3213–3216. Bibcode:2014PNAS..111.3213R. doi:10.1073/pnas.1324149111. ISSN0027-8424. PMC3948267. PMID24556987. it follows that improvement of the current pertussis vaccine can begin with two steps: (i) removal of the nonessential vaccine components; and (ii) improving the essential component PTx by using a nondenatured, genetically detoxified mutant, one of which has been shown to be a better immunogen
^"Ebola, l'Oms sceglie un vaccino italiano per contrastare il virus". Il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). 3 October 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2019. Translation The vaccine with which the World Health Organization has decided to fight the Ebola epidemic that hit Africa [...] will be Italian. [The virus] could be counteracted by the product studied by the Italian company Okairos. Much of the merit of the discovery goes to the founder of the pharmaceutical company, Riccardo Cortese [...]
^"Ebola, vaccino prodotto in Italia fa sperare. Il creatore: "Agisce sulle cellule killer"". Il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). 7 September 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2019. Translation For five years Professor Riccardo Cortese [...] was developing this vaccine which - he explains to IlFattoQuotidiano.it - "has an approach different from the others because, in addition to developing antibodies against the infectious agent, it acts on the "killer cells" [...] The Italian vaccine is different by nature from Zmapp [...]
^"Giordano Bruno: On the Infinite Universe and Worlds (Third Dialogue)". 27 April 2012. Archived from the original on 27 April 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2019. There are then innumerable suns, and an infinite number of earths revolve around those suns, just as the seven we can observe revolve around this sun which is close to us. [...] we discern only the largest suns, immense bodies. But we do not discern the earths because, being much smaller, they are invisible to us [...] We see that no part of the earth shineth by her own brightness, but that some parts shine by reflection from elsewhere, as for example her watery region and her vaporous atmosphere which receive heat and light from the sun and can transfer both to the surrounding regions.
^"Brief Review of Sociological Explanations for Crime". terrytube.net. Retrieved 12 December 2019. The person generally considered responsible for the school of classical theory on crime is the Italian Cesare Beccaria.[...] The positivist perspective was first embraced by the “holy three of criminology”: Cesare Lombroso (1835 – 1909), Raffaele Garofalo (1852 – 1934), and Enrico Ferri (1856 – 1929)...
^Andrew Roberts, Napoleon: A Life (2014), p. xxxiii.
Quote: "The ideas that underpin our modern world—meritocracy, equality before the law, property rights, religious toleration, modern secular education, sound finances, and so on—were championed, consolidated, codified and geographically extended by Napoleon. To them he added a rational and efficient local administration, an end to rural banditry, the encouragement of science and the arts, the abolition of feudalism and the greatest codification of laws since the fall of the Roman Empire"
^"Bonaparte Family | French history". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 1 December 2019. Bonaparte Family, Italian Buonaparte [...]. The French form Bonaparte was not commonly used, even by Napoleon, until [...] 1796.
^Newton, R. G. (2004). Galileo's Pendulum: From the Rhythm of Time to the Making of Matter. Harvard University Press. p. 51. ISBN978-0-674-01331-5.
^Torzo, Giacomo. "Foucault Pendulum in Palazzo della Ragione , Padova". I remember that in 1641 […] [Galilei] had the idea of coupling a pendulum to a mechanical clock, with the hope that the isochronical pendulum motion could compensate the clock defects. But he was blind, so he could not draw sketches for a prototype. One day his son Vincenzo came to Arcetri from Florence […]. Finally they agreed on how to start testing in practice what the theoretical model suggested. Viviani writes this text in a memory dated 1659, seventeen years after the Galileo’s death, and three years after the publication of the Christian Huygens’ patent on the pendulum clock.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
^"Segre Corrado in "Enciclopedia della Matematica"". www.treccani.it (in Italian). Retrieved 12 December 2019. Translation [S. Corrado] studies mainly concern the projective geometry of hyperspaces and the first phase of algebraic geometry [...][and] projective-differential geometry.
^https://amslaurea.unibo.it/13819/1/GiorgiaLari.pdf Lari, Giorgia (2016) "Storia del calcolo differenziale e la disputa tra Leibniz e Newton, Tesi di Laurea in Storia della Matematica" " Translation from source There are two origins of the derivative: geometrical (the tangent problem), with Descartes and Fermat, and mechanics (the determination of the velocity of a varied motion), with Galileo, Torricelli and Barrow."
^"Matematica - Articoli - Interventi di&Maristella Galeazzi;". matematica-old.unibocconi.it. Retrieved 2 December 2019. Translation (not lit.) [For uniformly accelerated motion] Considering the two diagrams of distance [1; s(t)] and speed [2; v(t)] as a function of time, Torricelli ascertained that the ordinates of the  (curve of) distances are proportional to the areas enclosed by  the (line of) speeds, while the ordinates of  the points of the velocity are the angular coefficients of the tangents of the  space curve. [...] Leibniz wrote of the most sublime geometry were initiators and promoters and they worked valiantly in it, Cavalieri and Torricelli; others then, ...
^Vittorini-Orgeas, Alessandra; Bianconi, Antonio (7 January 2009). "From Majorana Theory of Atomic Autoionization to Feshbach Resonances in High Temperature Superconductors". Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism. 22 (3): 215–221. arXiv:0812.1551. doi:10.1007/s10948-008-0433-x. ISSN1557-1939.
^" A. Bianconi Ugo Fano and shape resonances in X-ray and Inner Shell Processes" AIP Conference Proceedings (2002): (19th Int. Conference Roma June 24–28, 2002) A. Bianconi arXiv: cond-mat/0211452 21 November 2002
^ abGuerraggio, Angelo (5 April 2014). "Vito Volterra, storia di un matematico politico". Scienza in rete (in Italian). Retrieved 13 December 2019. Translation Volterra is considered the founder of Functional Analysis [...]. If by real function of a real variable we mean a correspondence that associates another real number to a real number, with the word functional we designate a correspondence that associates an element of any set [generalization of independent variable] with a real number.
^Gorroochurn, Prakash. "Some Laws and Problems of Classical Probability and How Cardano Anticipated Them"(PDF). [De Ludo Aleae, Cardano] So there is one general rule, namely, that we should consider the whole circuit, and the number of those casts which represents in how many ways the favorable result can occur, and compare that number to the rest of the circuit, and according to that proportion should the mutual wagers be laid so that one may contend on equal terms.
^J. John Lighton Synge; Alfred Schild (1978). Tensor Calculus. Courier Dover Publications. p. 142. ISBN978-0-486-14139-8.
^"Il primo libro interamente dedicato alla metallurgia - 1540 - ALAI". alai.it (in Italian). Retrieved 12 December 2019. Translation (not lit.) [the book features] techniques for the extraction, processing and smelting of metals (gold, silver, copper, lead, tin, iron, steel and brass). The author then classifies natural non-metallic substances, such as sulfur, antimony, manganese, saltpeter and cobalt blue (mentioned here for the first time) ...
^Marchant, Jo (2 October 2010). "Leonardo da Vinci: palaeontology's founding father". New Scientist. 208 (2780): 34–37. doi:10.1016/S0262-4079(10)62415-3. ISSN0262-4079. Forget the Mona Lisa. Da Vinci's biggest legacy could have been his studies of the fossil record
^Rovelli, C. (1996), "Relational quantum mechanics", International Journal of Theoretical Physics, 35: 1637–1678.
^Chiaberge, Riccardo (2011). "L'algoritmo di Viterbi". Il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). Retrieved 1 December 2019. Translation Born in Bergamo 65 years ago, Andrea Viterbi found himself [...] living in the United States, as his family had fled to escape anti-Semitic persecution. American by adoption, but profoundly Italian in spirit, Viterbi has tried to take the best from the two countries, [...] obtaining great successes: [...] he has developed an algorithm that is at the base of the main international standards of mobile telephony, including GSM. He is founder of Qualcomm ...
^"CORRADO GINI L' Uomo coefficiente - la Repubblica.it". Archivio - la Repubblica.it (in Italian). Retrieved 12 January 2020. Translation The Gini much loved by Barack Obama is Corrado, [...] The US president relies on the "Gini coefficient" whenever he wants to attract the focus on social inequalities.
^"Least Absolute Deviation Regression". The Concise Encyclopedia of Statistics. Springer. 2008. pp. 299–302. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-32833-1_225. ISBN9780387328331.
^"Boscovich, Ruggero Giuseppe in "Il Contributo italiano alla storia del Pensiero: Scienze"" [Boscovich, Ruggero Giuseppe in "The Italian Contribution to the History of Thought: Sciences"]. www.treccani.it (in Italian). Retrieved 12 January 2020. Translation (not lit.) Ruđer Josip Bošković [...]. His father Nicholas (Nikola) was a Serbian merchant. His mother Pavica Bettera (Betere) was of Italian origin. [...] For Hamilton The atomic theory of which I speak is roughly that of Boscovich and consists in the representation of all the phenomena of motion as produced by the action of local energies of attraction or repulsion, each of which centered in space: and this center […] is hypothesized as a mathematical point.
^"Domenico Pacini and the origin of cosmic rays". CERN Courier. 18 July 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2019. Pacini wrote: “Observations carried out on the sea during the year 1910 led me to conclude that a significant proportion of the pervasive radiation that is found in air had an origin that was independent of the direct action of active substances in the upper layers of the Earth’s surface. … [To prove this conclusion] the apparatus … was enclosed in a copper box so that it could be immersed at depth. … Observations were performed with the instrument at the surface, and with the instrument immersed in water, at a depth of 3 m”.
^Giglietto, N. (1 March 2011). "The contribution by Domenico Pacini to the Cosmic Ray Physics". Nuclear Physics B - Proceedings Supplements. Proceedings of the Cosmic Ray International Seminars (CRIS 2010). 212-213: 3–12. arXiv:1101.0398. Bibcode:2011NuPhS.212....3G. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2011.03.002. ISSN0920-5632. Domenico Pacini in particular may be considered the pioneer of the underground measurements on Cosmic Rays and Hess with his set of systematic measurements with balloon flights, originated the air-space studies on Cosmic Rays.
^Inaf, Redazione Media (10 December 2018). "Addio al premio Nobel Riccardo Giacconi". MEDIA INAF (in Italian). Retrieved 28 November 2019. quando abbiamo lanciato Uhuru venivano giù i dati tutti i giorni, era come… Prima di tutto c’è un rumore di fondo dappertutto, che viene da distanze cosmiche. Si vede il cielo tutto illuminato in X [...] questa stella [Scorpius-X1][...] la luminosità in raggi X era mille volte quella della luce visibile" Translation "when we launched Uhuru the data came down every day, it was like ... First of all there is a background noise everywhere, coming from cosmic distances. We see the sky all illuminated in X [...] this star [Scorpius-X1] [...] the brightness in X rays was a thousand times that of visible light
^ abDE' MARINIS, FABRIZIO (1987). "LA SANTABARBARA D' ITALIA - la Repubblica.it". Archivio - la Repubblica.it (in Italian). Retrieved 9 December 2019. Translation (not lit.) [Beretta] is considered the oldest industry in the world, given that it is the oldest of all the companies recognized by Les Hènokiens, the French association that groups [...] [companies with] proven continuity of family management. Translation from historical source, 1562 Through the Val Trompia runs the river Mella, as it has been said, which moves machinery and contrivances, and the valley has very few cultivated lands [...]. And there are eight ovens for iron distinctly placed, and around forty forges where it is done steel and iron of every sort, who one thing, who another. Rifles of every kind are made, muskets with all the supplies (all the parts that make a complete weapon), harquebuses, crossbows and bombards, bales of artillery, carabines, weapons of all kinds for use on the ground, on horses and ships, other fire weapons and various battle instruments. Every year about twenty-five-thousand rifles are taken from this valley, and exported by merchants to foreign states. This valley is abundant in iron, because all these mountains are full of it [...], so much that they furnish XV ovens.
^"Un posto d'onore tra Les Hénokiens il club delle aziende bicentenarie - Corriere.it". www.corriere.it. Retrieved 9 December 2019. Translation Les Hénokiens is an international club reserved for thirty-eight major industrial dynasties with at least two hundred years of history. Like the Bortolo Nardini. Italy boasts fourteen names, against the eleven French and the three Germans. Standing out are the Amarelli di Cosenza, founded in 1731, the Fratelli Piacenza (1733), the Fabbrica d’Armi Pietro Beretta (1526).
^ ab"History of the Symphony | Music Appreciation". courses.lumenlearning.com. Retrieved 9 December 2019. [Symphony] in the sense of “sounding together,” [...] begins [...] [with] 16th- and 17th-century composers including Giovanni Gabrieli’s Sacrae symphoniae [...]; Adriano Banchieri’s Eclesiastiche sinfonie [...]; Lodovico Grossi da Viadana’s Sinfonie musicali [...]; and Heinrich Schütz’s Symphoniae sacrae...
^See Encyclopædia Britannica Online "Amerigo Vespucci" and Room, Adrian (2004), Placenames of the world: origins and meanings of the names for over 5000 natural features, countries, capitals, territories, cities and historic sights; the Americas are believed to have derived their name from the feminized Latin version of his first name.