List of Italian inventions and discoveries

Leonardo wrote aerodynamic studies in a notebook eventually titled ''Codex on the Flight of Birds''[1]
The Barsanti-Matteucci engine, the first proper internal combustion engine.
Alessandro Cruto, creator of the first practical long-lasting incandescent light bulb.[2]

Italian inventions and discoveries are objects, processes or techniques invented, innovated or discovered, partially or entirely, by Italians. Italian means by definition a native or inhabitant of Italy or a person of Italian descent.[3]

Italian people – living in the Italic peninsula or abroad – have been throughout history[4] the source of important inventions and innovations in the fields of writing,[5][6] calendar,[7] mechanical[8] and civil engineering,[9][10][11][12] musical notation,[13] celestial observation,[14] perspective,[15] warfare,[16][17][18][19] long distance communication,[20][21][22] storage[23] and production[24][25] of energy, modern medicine,[26] polymerization[27][28] and information technology.[29][30]

Italians also contributed in theorizing civil law,[31][32] scientific method (particularly in the fields of physics and astronomy),[33] double-entry bookkeeping,[34] mathematical algebra[35] and analysis,[36][37] classical and celestial mechanics.[38][39] Often, things discovered for the first time are also called inventions and in many cases, there is no clear line between the two.

The following is a list of inventions, innovations or discoveries known or generally recognized to be Italian.


Alphabetical list of Italian Inventions[]

A[]

B[]

C[]

D[]

E[]

F[]

G[]

H[]

I[]

J[]

L[]

M[]

N[]

O[]

P[]

Q[]

R[]

S[]

T[]

U[]

V[]

W[]

Z[]

Medical Discoveries and Techniques[]

Law, Philosophy and Humanities[]

Math and Physical Sciences[]

Theories, Methods and Models[]

Particles[]

Astronomical Discoveries[]

Military Innovations[]

Strategies, methods and operations[]

Troops[]

Contributions to Music[]

Notation and performance[]

Contemporary Styles[]

Contributions to Sport[]

Geographical Discoveries[]

The following is an extract of the most noteworthy geographical discoveries, partially or totally Italian:

See also[]

External links[]

References[]

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  187. ^ "NFCNEARFIELDCOMMUNICATION.ORG - The Invention of RFID and the Contributions of CHARLES WALTON". www.nfcnearfieldcommunication.org. Retrieved 16 December 2019. In 1973 Mario Cardullo was the first person to patent a RFID tag with the ability to have specific information written on it that was actually rewritable.
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  452. ^ "CORRADO GINI L' Uomo coefficiente - la Repubblica.it". Archivio - la Repubblica.it (in Italian). Retrieved 12 January 2020. Translation The Gini much loved by Barack Obama is Corrado, [...] The US president relies on the "Gini coefficient" whenever he wants to attract the focus on social inequalities.
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  478. ^ Inaf, Redazione Media (10 December 2018). "Addio al premio Nobel Riccardo Giacconi". MEDIA INAF (in Italian). Retrieved 28 November 2019. quando abbiamo lanciato Uhuru venivano giù i dati tutti i giorni, era come… Prima di tutto c’è un rumore di fondo dappertutto, che viene da distanze cosmiche. Si vede il cielo tutto illuminato in X [...] questa stella [Scorpius-X1][...] la luminosità in raggi X era mille volte quella della luce visibile" Translation "when we launched Uhuru the data came down every day, it was like ... First of all there is a background noise everywhere, coming from cosmic distances. We see the sky all illuminated in X [...] this star [Scorpius-X1] [...] the brightness in X rays was a thousand times that of visible light
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  487. ^ "Un posto d'onore tra Les Hénokiens il club delle aziende bicentenarie - Corriere.it". www.corriere.it. Retrieved 9 December 2019. Translation Les Hénokiens is an international club reserved for thirty-eight major industrial dynasties with at least two hundred years of history. Like the Bortolo Nardini. Italy boasts fourteen names, against the eleven French and the three Germans. Standing out are the Amarelli di Cosenza, founded in 1731, the Fratelli Piacenza (1733), the Fabbrica d’Armi Pietro Beretta (1526).
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