List of Confederate monuments and memorials

Statue in Statesboro, Georgia
Lewisburg WV Confederate Memorial.jpg

This is a list of Confederate monuments and memorials that were established as public displays and symbols of the Confederate States of America (CSA), Confederate leaders, or Confederate soldiers of the American Civil War. Part of the commemoration of the American Civil War, these symbols include monuments and statues, flags, holidays and other observances, and the names of schools, roads, parks, bridges, counties, cities, lakes, dams, military bases, and other public works.[1] In a December 2018 special report, Smithsonian Magazine stated, "over the past ten years, taxpayers have directed at least $40 million to Confederate monuments—statues, homes, parks, museums, libraries and cemeteries—and to Confederate heritage organizations."[2]

Monuments and memorials are listed below alphabetically by state, and by city within each state. States not listed have no known qualifying items for the list.[3] For monuments and memorials which have been removed, consult Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials.

This list does not include the removal of figures connected with the origins of the Civil War or white supremacy, but not with the Confederacy, including statues of Supreme Court Justice Roger B. Taney in Annapolis, Baltimore, and Frederick, Maryland, a controversial portrait of North Carolina Chief Justice Thomas Ruffin,[4] and numerous memorials to Southern politician John C. Calhoun (commemorated on the Confederacy's 1¢ stamp), although monuments to Calhoun "have been the most consistent targets" of vandals.[5] It also does not include post-Civil War white supremacists, such as North Carolina Governor Charles Aycock and Mississippi Governor James K. Vardaman, some of whose monuments are also being removed (see Charles Brantley Aycock#Legacy) and James K. Vardaman#Personal life, death and legacy).

Contents

History[]

Monument building and dedications[]

Chart of public symbols of the Confederacy and its leaders as surveyed by the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), by year of establishment. Most of these were put up either during the Jim Crow era or during the Civil Rights Movement, times of increased racial tension.[note 1] These two periods also coincided with the 50th and 100th anniversaries of the Civil War.[7][8]

Memorials have been erected on public spaces (including on courthouse grounds) either at public expense or funded by private organizations and donors. Numerous private memorials have also been erected.

According to Smithsonian Magazine, "Confederate monuments aren't just heirlooms, the artifacts of a bygone era. Instead, American taxpayers are still heavily investing in these tributes today."[2] The report also concluded that the monuments were constructed and are regularly maintained in promotion of Lost Cause, white supremacist mythology, and over the many decades of their establishment, African American leaders regularly protested these memorials and what they represented.[2]

Union, WV Confederate Memorial.jpg

A small number of memorializations were made during the war, mainly as ship and place names. After the war, Robert E. Lee said on several occasions that he was opposed to any monuments, as they would, in his opinion, "keep open the sores of war".[9] Nevertheless, monuments and memorials continued to be dedicated shortly after the American Civil War.[10][better source needed] Many more monuments were dedicated in the years after 1890, when Congress established the first National Military Park at Chickamauga and Chattanooga, and by the turn of the twentieth century, five battlefields from the Civil War had been preserved: Chickamauga-Chattanooga, Antietam, Gettysburg, Shiloh, and Vicksburg. At Vicksburg National Military Park, more than 95 percent of the park's monuments were erected in the first eighteen years after the park was established in 1899.[11]

Jim Crow and white supremacy[]

Confederate monument-building has often been part of widespread campaigns to promote and justify Jim Crow laws in the South, and assert white supremacy.[12][6][13] According to the American Historical Association (AHA), the erection of Confederate monuments during the early twentieth century was "part and parcel of the initiation of legally mandated segregation and widespread disenfranchisement across the South." According to the AHA, memorials to the Confederacy erected during this period "were intended, in part, to obscure the terrorism required to overthrow Reconstruction, and to intimidate African Americans politically and isolate them from the mainstream of public life." A later wave of monument building coincided with the civil rights movement, and according to the AHA "these symbols of white supremacy are still being invoked for similar purposes."[14] According to Smithsonian Magazine, "far from simply being markers of historic events and people, as proponents argue, these memorials were created and funded by Jim Crow governments to pay homage to a slave-owning society and to serve as blunt assertions of dominance over African-Americans."[2]

According to historian Jane Dailey from the University of Chicago, in many cases, the purpose of the monuments was not to celebrate the past but rather to promote a "white supremacist future".[15] Another historian, Karen Cox, from the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, has written that the monuments are "a legacy of the brutally racist Jim Crow era", and that "the whole point of Confederate monuments is to celebrate white supremacy".[13] Another historian from UNC, James Leloudis, stated that "The funders and backers of these monuments are very explicit that they are requiring a political education and a legitimacy for the Jim Crow era and the right of white men to rule."[16] They were erected without the consent or even input of Southern African Americans, who remembered the Civil War far differently, and who had no interest in honoring those who fought to keep them enslaved.[17] According to Civil War historian Judith Giesberg, professor of history at Villanova University, "White supremacy is really what these participation trophy represent."[18] Some monuments were also meant to beautify cities as part of the City Beautiful movement, although this was secondary.[19]

In a June 2018 speech, Civil War historian James I. Robertson Jr. of Virginia Tech University said the monuments were not a "Jim Crow signal of defiance" and referred to the current trend to dismantle or destroy them as an "age of idiocy" motivated by "elements hell-bent on tearing apart unity that generations of Americans have painfully constructed."[20] Katrina Dunn Johnson, Curator at South Carolina's Confederate Relic Room and Military Museum, states that "thousands of families throughout the country were unable to reclaim their soldier's remains--many never learned their loved ones' exact fate on the battlefield or within the prison camps. The psychological impact of such a devastating loss cannot be underestimated when attempting to understand the primary motivations behind Southern memorialization."[21]

Many Confederate monuments were dedicated in the former Confederate states and border states in the decades following the Civil War, in many instances by Ladies Memorial Associations, United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC), United Confederate Veterans (UCV), Sons of Confederate Veterans (SCV), the Heritage Preservation Association, and other memorial organizations.[22][23][24] Other Confederate monuments are located on Civil War battlefields. Many Confederate monuments are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, either separately or as contributing objects within listings of courthouses or historic districts. Art historians Cynthia Mills and Pamela Simpson argued, in Monuments to the Lost Cause, that the majority of Confederate monuments, of the type they define, were "commissioned by white women, in hope of preserving a positive vision of antebellum life."[25][26]

In the late nineteenth century, technological innovations in the granite and bronze industries helped reduce costs and made monuments more affordable for small towns. Companies looking to capitalize on this opportunity often sold nearly identical copies of monuments to both the North and South.[27]

Another wave of monument construction coincided with the Civil Rights Movement and the American Civil War Centennial.[28] At least thirty-two Confederate monuments were dedicated between 2000 and 2017, including at least 7 re-dedications.[29][30][31][32][33]

Scholarly study[]

Scholarly studies of the monuments began in the 1980s. In 1983 John J. Winberry published a study which was based on data from the work of R.W. Widener.[34][35] He estimated that the main building period for monuments was from 1889 to 1929 and that of the monuments erected in courthouse squares over half were built between 1902 and 1912. He determined four main locations for monuments; battlefields, cemeteries, county courthouse grounds, and state capitol grounds. Over a third of the courthouse monuments were dedicated to the dead. The majority of the cemetery monuments in his study were built in the pre-1900 period, while most of the courthouse monuments were erected after 1900. Of the 666 monuments in his study 55% were of Confederate soldiers, while 28% were obelisks. Soldiers dominated courthouse grounds, while obelisks account for nearly half of cemetery monuments. The idea that the soldier statues always faced north was found to be untrue and that the soldiers usually faced the same direction as the courthouse. He noted that the monuments were "remarkably diverse" with "only a few instances of repetition of inscriptions".[35]

He categorized the monuments into four types. Type 1 was a Confederate soldier on a column with his weapon at parade rest, or weaponless and gazing into the distance. These accounted for approximately half the monuments studied. They are, however, the most popular among the courthouse monuments. Type 2 was a Confederate soldier on a column with rifle ready, or carrying a flag or bugle. Type 3 was an obelisk, often covered with drapery and bearing cannon balls or an urn. This type was 28% of the monuments studied, but 48% of the monuments in cemeteries and 18% of courthouse monuments. Type 4 was a miscellaneous group, including arches, standing stones, plaques, fountains, etc. These account for 17% of the monuments studied.[35]

Over a third of the courthouse monuments were specifically dedicated to the Confederate dead. The first courthouse monument was erected in Bolivar, Tennessee, in 1867. By 1880 nine courthouse monuments had been erected. Winberry noted two centers of courthouse monuments: the Potomac counties of Virginia, from which the tradition spread to North Carolina, and a larger area covering Georgia, South Carolina and northern Florida. The diffusion of courthouse monuments was aided by organizations such as the United Confederate Veterans and their publications, though other factors may also have been effective.[35]

Winberry listed four reasons for the shift from cemeteries to courthouses. First was the need to preserve the memory of the Confederate dead and also recognize the veterans who returned. Second was to celebrate the rebuilding of the South after the war. Third was the romanticizing of the Lost Cause, and the fourth was to unify the white population in a common heritage against the interests of African-American Southerners. He concluded: "No one of these four possible explanations for the Confederate monument is adequate or complete in itself. The monument is a symbol, but whether it was a memory of the past, a celebration of the present, or a portent of the future remains a difficult question to answer; monuments and symbols can be complicated and sometimes indecipherable."[35]

Vandalism[]

As of June 19, over 12 Confederate monuments had been vandalized in 2019, usually with paint.[36][37]

Removal[]

The Confederate Monument to Robert E. Lee is removed from its perch on May 17, 2017

As of April 2017, at least 60 symbols of the Confederacy had been removed or renamed since 2015, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC).[38] At the same time, laws in various Southern states place restrictions on, or prohibit altogether, the removal of statutes and memorials and the renaming of parks, roads, and schools.[39][40][41][42][43][42]

A 2017 Reuters poll found that 54% of adults stated that the monuments should remain in all public spaces, and 27% said they should be removed, while 19% said they were unsure. The results were split along racial and political lines, with Republicans and whites preferring to keep the monuments in place, while Democrats and minorities preferring their removal.[44][45] A similar 2017 poll by HuffPost/YouGov found that one-third of respondents favored removal, while 49% were opposed.[46][47]

Geographic distribution[]

Confederate monuments are widely distributed across the southern United States.[35] The distribution pattern follows the general political boundaries of the Confederacy.[35] Of the more than 1503 public monuments and memorials to the Confederacy, more than 718 are monuments and statues. Nearly 300 monuments and statues are in Georgia, Virginia, or North Carolina. According to one researcher, "the absence of monuments in eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina indicates those regions' Union sentiment, and the few monuments in Maryland, West Virginia, and Kentucky reflect those states' ambivalent war-time politics." The Northern States that remained part of the Union, as well as the Western States that were largely settled after the Civil War, have few or no memorials to the Confederacy.

National[]

United States Capitol[]

There are eight Confederate figures in the National Statuary Hall Collection, in the United States Capitol.

Arlington National Cemetery[]

Confederate Memorial, Arlington National Cemetery
The NPS describes the property as "the nation's memorial to Robert E. Lee. It honors him for specific reasons, including his role in promoting peace and reunion after the Civil War. In a larger sense it exists as a place of study and contemplation of the meaning of some of the most difficult aspects of American History: military service; sacrifice; citizenship; duty; loyalty; slavery and freedom."[62]

Coins and stamps[]

US military[]

Bases[]

There are 10 major U.S. military bases named in honor of Confederate military leaders, all in former Confederate States.[6] In 2015 the Pentagon declared it would not be renaming these facilities,[67] and declined to make further comment in 2017.[68]

Facilities[]

Current ships[]

Former ships[]

Several ships named for Confederate leaders fell into Union hands during the Civil War. The Union Navy retained the names of these ships while turning their guns against the Confederacy:

Multi-state highways[]

On October 16, 2018, the Board of Commissioners of Orange County, North Carolina (location of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, see Silent Sam), voted unanimously to repeal the county's 1959 resolution naming for Davis the portion of U.S. 15 running through the county.[76]

Alabama[]

See List of Confederate monuments and memorials in Alabama.

There are at least 107 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Alabama.[6][dead link]

Alaska[]

Arizona[]

There are at least six public spaces with Confederate monuments in Arizona.[79]

Type of monument Date Location Details Image
Public 1961 Phoenix Memorial to Arizona Confederate Troops, in Wesley Bolin Park, next to the Arizona State Capitol; UDC memorial.[80] CSA monument, Phoenix AZ, USA.jpg
Public Picacho Peak State Park A commemorative sign and a plaque commemorates the Battle of Picacho Pass, the westernmost Confederate engagement of the war. The sign is "dedicated to Capt. Sherod Hunter's 'Arizona Rangers, Arizona Volunteers' C.S.A.", while the plaque states three Union soldiers buried on battlefield and includes both US Union and CSA flags.[80][81][82] Picacho-Battle of Picacho Marker.jpg
Public 2010 Sierra Vista Confederate Memorial, Historical Soldiers Memorial Cemetery area of the state-owned Southern Arizona Veterans' Cemetery. The monument was erected in to honor the 21 soldiers interred in that cemetery who served in the Confederate Army during the Civil War and later fought in Indian wars in Arizona as members of the U.S. Army.[80][83]
Private 1999 Phoenix Arizona Confederate Veterans Monument, at Greenwood Memory Lawn Cemetery; erected by SCV.[80] CSA cemetery marker, Phoenix AZ, USA.jpg
Road 1943 Jefferson Davis Memorial Highway marker 50 mi (80 km) east of Phoenix; erected by UDC. Tarred and feathered in August 2017.[80][84]

Arkansas[]

There are at least 57 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Arkansas.[6]

State capitol[]

Monuments[]

Van Buren Confederate Monument at Crawford County Courthouse in Van Buren, Arkansas

Courthouse monuments[]

Other public monuments[]

Confederate Soldiers Monument, Little Rock National Cemetery
Little Rock Confederate Memorial, Little Rock National Cemetery

Inhabited places[]

Parks[]

Roads[]

Schools[]

State symbols[]

Flag of Arkansas since 1913

California[]

There are at least eight public spaces with Confederate monuments in California.[6]

Monuments[]

Roads[]

Schools[]

Mountains and recreation[]

Mine[]

Stonewall Jackson Mine, San Diego County, circa 1872

Colorado[]

Robert E. Lee Mine in Leadville. Photo by William Henry Jackson.

Schools[]

Monument[]

Mine[]

Delaware[]

There are no public spaces with Confederate monuments in Delaware.[6]

District of Columbia[]

Florida[]

There are at least 61 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Florida.[6]

An August 2017 meeting of the Florida League of Mayors was devoted to the topic of what to do with Civil War monuments.[132]

State capitol[]

State symbol[]

Flag of Florida since 1900

State holiday[]

Monuments[]

Courthouse monuments[]

Unveiling of Confederate Monument, Ocala, 1908

Other public monuments[]

Yellow Bluff Fort Monument
United Daughters of the Confederacy members seated around a Confederate monument in Lakeland, 1915
Olustee Battlefield Historic State Park

Private monuments[]

Inhabited places[]

Counties[]

Municipalities[]

Parks[]

Roads[]

Schools and libraries[]

City symbols[]

City holiday[]

County holiday[]

Georgia[]

Hawaii[]

Idaho[]

There are several places named for the Confederacy in Idaho.[6] The settlement of Idaho coincided with the Civil War and settlers from Southern states memorialized the Confederacy with the names of several towns and natural features.[216][217][218]

Inhabited places[]

Natural features and recreation[]

Illinois[]

Confederate Monument at Oak Woods Cemetery in Chicago

The four memorials in Illinois are in Federal cemeteries and connected with prisoners of war.

Federal cemeteries[]

Federal plot within private cemetery[]

Indiana[]

Confederate monument, Crown Hill National Cemetery, Indianapolis

Iowa[]

There are at least two public spaces with Confederate monuments in Iowa.[6]

Kansas[]

There is one public space dedicated to the Confederacy in Kansas.[6]

Places[]

Kentucky[]

There are at least 56 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Kentucky.[6]

State capitol[]

Monuments[]

Confederate Monument, Georgetown
Confederate Monument, Spring Hill Cemetery, Harrodsburg
John B. Castleman Monument, Louisville
Lloyd Tilghman Statue, Paducah

Bridge[]

House[]

Inhabited places[]

Parks[]

Roads[]

Highways[]

Schools[]

Louisiana[]

There are at least 91 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Louisiana.[6]

State capitol[]

Buildings[]

Confederate Memorial Hall in New Orleans

Monuments[]

Courthouse monuments[]

Other public monuments[]

Greenwood Cemetery, New Orleans
Army of Tennessee Tomb, Metairie Cemetery, New Orleans
Charles Didier Dreux statue in New Orleans

Inhabited places[]

Parks[]

Roads[]

  • Baton Rouge:
    • Confederate Avenue
    • Jeff Davis Street
    • Lee Drive[6]
  • Bell City: Jeff Davis Road
  • Bogalusa: Jefferson Davis Drive
  • Bossier City:
    • General Bragg Drive
    • General Ewell Drive
    • General Polk Drive
    • General Sterling Price Drive
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Kirby Smith Drive
    • Longstreet Place
    • Robert E. Lee Boulevard
    • Robert E. Lee Street
  • Chalmette: Beauregard Street
  • Gretna: Beauregard Drive
  • Houma: Jefferson Davis Street
  • Lafayette: Jeff Davis Drive
  • Lake Charles:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Beauregard Avenue
    • Beauregard Street
  • Merryville: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Monroe: Jefferson Davis Drive
  • New Orleans:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Dreux Avenue, named for Confederate General Charles Didier Dreux
    • Gayarre Place, named for Charles Gayarré, white supremacist and financial supporter of the Confederacy. Clio, muse or goddess of history, is on a monument. (Gayarré was a historian.) The monument was paid for by George Hacker Dunbar, an artilleryman during the Civil War, married to a niece of General Beauregard. The original statue was replaced in 1938, after vandals damaged it.[281]
    • Governor Nicholls Street
    • Jefferson Davis Parkway. Originally named Hagan Avenue; name changed in 1911 to coincide with the unveiling of the Jefferson Davis Monument.[279]
    • Lee Circle[6]
    • Polk Street
    • Robert E. Lee Boulevard
    • Slidell Street
  • Pineville:
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
    • Longstreet Drive
  • Rayne: Jeff Davis Avenue

Schools[]

Confederate flag display[]

Maryland[]

The Confederate Soldier, Loudon Park National Cemetery, Baltimore

State symbols[]

Monuments[]

Public monuments[]

Talbot Boys, Easton

Private monuments[]

Monument to the Unknown Confederate Soldiers, Frederick, Maryland

Inhabited places[]

Roads[]

Ferry[]

Gen. Jubal A. Early

Gallery[]

Massachusetts[]

There are no public spaces dedicated to the Confederacy in Massachusetts.[6]

Private memorials[]

Michigan[]

Mississippi[]

Missouri[]

There are at least 20 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Missouri.[6]

Monuments[]

Courthouse monuments[]

Statue of David Rice Atchison in front of the Clinton County Courthouse, Plattsburg, Missouri

Other public monuments[]

UDC monument at Forest Hill and Calvary Cemetery, Kansas City, MI
Union Confederate Monument, Kansas City, Missouri

Inhabited places[]

Parks[]

Roads[]

Schools[]

Montana[]

There is at least one public space[clarification needed] dedicated to the Confederacy in Montana.[6][dead link]

New Jersey[]

Confederate Monument (1910), Finn's Point National Cemetery.

There is at least one public space dedicated to the Confederacy in New Jersey.[6]

New Mexico[]

New York[]

Confederate Monument, Woodlawn National Cemetery, Elmira, New York

There are at least four public spaces with Confederate monuments in New York.[6][326]

Monuments[]

Private monuments[]

Roads[]

Governor Andrew Cuomo has twice requested the Army, unsuccessfully, to have these streets renamed.[331]

North Carolina[]

There are at least 140 public spaces with Confederate monuments in North Carolina.[6]

Ohio[]

Historical marker[]

Monuments[]

Confederate Soldier Memorial, Camp Chase, Columbus
The Lookout (1910), Johnson's Island, Ottawa County[335]

Roads[]

Schools[]

Oklahoma[]

There are at least 13 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Oklahoma.[6]

Buildings[]

Monuments[]

Stand Watie Monument, Polson Cemetery, Delaware County
Confederate Monument at Cherokee National Capitol

Schools[]

Robert E. Lee School in Durant, Oklahoma

Inhabited places[]

Roads[]

Oregon[]

Schools[]

Pennsylvania[]

There are at least three public spaces with Confederate monuments in Pennsylvania.[6]

Monuments[]

Virginia State Monument (1917), Gettysburg Battlefield.
Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument (1911), Philadelphia National Cemetery.

Roads[]

Rhode Island[]

South Carolina[]

There are at least 112 public spaces with Confederate monuments in South Carolina.[6]

Tennessee[]

There are at least 80 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Tennessee.[6] The Tennessee Heritage Protection Act (2016) and a 2013 law restrict the removal of statues and memorials.[39]

The Tennessee legislature designated Confederate Decoration Day, the origin of Memorial Day, as June 3, and in 1969[355] designated January 19 and July 13, their birthdays, as Robert E. Lee Day and Nathan Bedford Forrest day respectively.

State capitol[]

Buildings[]

Monuments[]

Courthouse monuments[]

Tipton County Courthouse, Covington
Confederate Monument "Chip", Franklin
Confederate Women monument, Nashville

Other public monuments[]

Pyramid of cannonballs commemorate Patrick Cleburne in Franklin, Tennessee

Private monuments[]

Inhabited place[]

Parks[]

Roads[]

  • Brentwood
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
    • Robert E. Lee Lane
  • Culleoka: General Lee Road
  • Dandridge
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Stonewall Jackson Drive
  • Elizabethton: Stonewall Jackson Drive
  • Eva: Jeff Davis Drive
  • Forest Hills: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Franklin:
    • General J.B. Hood Drive
    • General Nathan Bedford Forrest Drive
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
  • Gallatin: Robert Lee Drive
  • Nashville:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
    • Confederate Drive
    • General Forrest Court
    • Robert E. Lee Court
    • Robert E. Lee Drives (two different streets with the same name)
  • Newport
    • Robert E. Lee Drive
    • Stonewall Jackson Driv
  • Oak Hill: Stonewall Jackson Court
  • Pulaski
    • Sam Davis Avenue
    • Sam Davis Trail
  • Sardis: Jeff Davis Lane
  • Smyrna
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Lee Lane[6]
    • Longstreet Drive
    • Robert E. Lee Lane
    • Sam Davis Road
    • Stonewall Drive

Schools[]

Calhoun Hall, named for slave owner and Confederate supporter W. H. Calhoun.

Theme park[]

Texas[]

There are at least 178 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Texas.[402][6] "Nowhere has the national re-examination of Confederate emblems been more riven with controversy than the Lone Star State."[403]

State capitol[]

State symbols[]

State holiday[]

Buildings[]

Monuments[]

Many monuments were donated by pro-Confederacy groups like Daughters of the Confederacy. County governments at the time voted to accept the gifts and take ownership of the statues.[410][411]

Courthouse monuments[]

Dignified Resignation in Galveston, Texas

Other public monuments[]

Confederate Memorial Plaza in Anderson, Texas
Confederate Monument, Beaumont
John H. Reagan Memorial in Palestine, Texas. The allegorical figure seated beneath Reagan represents the Lost Cause of the Confederacy.[434]

Private monuments[]

Confederate Veterans Memorial Plaza, Palestine, Texas

Inhabited places[]

Counties[]

8 Hood County (1866) named for CSA General John Bell Hood

Municipalities[]

Museums[]

Parks[]

Roads[]

  • Austin:
    • In July, 2018, at approximately the same time that Robert E. Lee Road and Jeff Davis Avenue were renamed, the city's Equity Office recommended changing the names of seven more streets:
  • Conroe:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Jubal Early Lane
    • Stonewall Jackson Drive
  • El Paso: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Hamilton: Stonewall Jackson Road
  • Hillsboro: Confederate Drive
  • Hemphill:
    • Confederate Street
    • Stonewall Street
  • Holliday: Stonewall Road
  • Houston:
    • Robert E. Lee Road
    • Robert Lee Road
    • Tuam Street, a major artery named for CSA Gen. Dowling's birthplace, Tuam, Irelamd.
  • Hunt: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Jacksonville: Jeff Davis Street
  • Kermit East Winkler Street
  • Lakeside Confederate Park Road
  • League City: Jeb Stuart Drive
  • Levelland: Robert Lee Street
  • Liberty: Confederate Street
  • Livingston: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Marshall:
    • Jeff Davis Street
    • Stonewall Drive
  • Missouri City
    • Beauregard Court
    • Bedford Forrest Drive
    • Breckinridge Court
    • Confederate Drive
    • Pickett Place
  • Richmond:
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Jeff Davis Drive
    • Stonewall Drive
  • Ridgley: Bedford Forrest Lane
  • Roma: Robert Lee Avenue
  • San Antonio:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Sterling City: Robert Lee Highway
  • Sweetwater: Robert Lee Street
  • Tyler:
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Jeff Davis Drive
  • Victoria: Robert E. Lee Road

Note: "There are similarly named streets in towns and cities across east Texas, notably Port Arthur and Beaumont, as well as memorials to Dowling and the Davis Guards, not least at Sabine Pass, where the battleground is now preserved as a state park"

Schools[]

Stonewall Jackson Elementary School, Dallas

Utah[]

Vermont[]

Virginia[]

There are at least 223 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Virginia,[6] more than in any other state.[501][502] Virginia also has numerous schools, highways, roads and other public infrastructure named for Confederates. Lee-Jackson Day is a State holiday.

Washington State[]

There is at least one building in Washington state named for an officer who served the Confederacy.[6]

3rd Flag of the Confederacy and the Bonny Blue Flag at the Jefferson Davis Park, 2018

At least two private properties contain a Confederate memorial or fly a CSA flag:

The monument has been vandalized repeatedly. In 2005, "the flag insignia, bayonets, and a plaque with Robert E. Lee on it were stolen, but then restored".[507] Following the Charleston church shooting of 2015, "Fuck White Supremacy" was painted on it. On July 5, 2018, "several parts of the 10-ton piece of granite [were] smashed, including a portion of the monument's inscription, insignia, and relief of Robert E. Lee."[508]
Also in 2015, a petition was started to have it removed.[509] In 2017 Seattle Mayor Ed Murray called for it to be taken down, saying it represents "historic injustices" and is a symbol of hate, racism, and violence. After the Mayor's statement, the Cemetery closed for several days because of threats related to the monument.[510]
In October, 2018, the Make It Right Project put up a billboard in Seattle, saying: "Hey Seattle, there's a Confederate Memorial in your backyard".[511]

West Virginia[]

There are at least 21 public spaces with Confederate monuments in West Virginia.[512]

State capitol[]

Monuments[]

First Confederate Memorial (1867), Romney, West Virginia

Inhabited places[]

Parks and water features[]

Roads[]

Schools[]

Wisconsin[]

Wyoming[]

Natural Features[]

International[]

Brazil[]

Canada[]

Ireland[]

Scotland[]

See also[]

Notes[]

  1. ^ This chart is based on data from an SPLC survey which identified "1,503 publicly sponsored symbols honoring Confederate leaders, soldiers or the Confederate States of America in general." The survey excluded "nearly 2,600 markers, battlefields, museums, cemeteries and other places or symbols that SPLC deemed largely historical in nature"[6]

References[]

  1. ^ Gunter, Booth; Kizzire, Jamie (April 21, 2016). Gunter, Booth (ed.). "Whose heritage? Public Symbols of the Confederacy". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved October 6, 2017. In an effort to assist the efforts of local communities to re-examine these symbols, the SPLC launched a study to catalog them. For the final tally [of 1,503], the researchers excluded nearly 2,600 markers, battlefields, museums, cemeteries and other places or symbols that are largely historical in nature.
  2. ^ a b c d Palmer, Brian; Wessler, Seth Freed (December 2018). "The Costs of the Confederacy". Smithsonian Magazine.
  3. ^ Criss, Doug; Elkin, Elizabeth (June 5, 2018). "The state leading the way in removing Confederate monuments? Texas". CNN.
  4. ^ Shaffer, Josh (October 25, 2018). "NC's highest court will review courtroom portraits amid complaint about pro-slavery judge". Island Packet.
  5. ^ Kytle, Ethan J.; Roberts, Blain (June 25, 2015). "Take Down the Confederate Flags, but Not the Monuments". The Atlantic. Retrieved December 5, 2018.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as Gunter, Booth; Kizzire, Jamie (April 21, 2016). Gunter, Booth (ed.). "Whose heritage? Public Symbols of the Confederacy" (PDF). Southern Poverty Law Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-08-16. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
  7. ^ "Whose Heritage? Public Symbols of the Confederacy". Southern Poverty Law Center. April 21, 2016. Retrieved September 15, 2017. The second spike began in the early 1950s and lasted through the 1960s, as the civil rights movement led to a backlash among segregationists. These two periods also coincided with the 50th and 100th anniversaries of the Civil War.
  8. ^ Cunningham, Anne, ed., The Confederate Flag, p.31 (quotes original text of SPLC report).
  9. ^ CNN (August 16, 2017). "Actually, Robert E. Lee was against erecting Confederate memorials". WPTV. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
  10. ^ Maxwell, Hu (1897). History of Hampshire County, West Virginia: from its earliest settlement to the present. Morgantown, W. Va: A.B. Boughner, printer.
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