This is a list of Confederate monuments and memorials that were established as public displays and symbols of the Confederate States of America (CSA), Confederate leaders, or Confederate soldiers of the American Civil War. Part of the commemoration of the American Civil War, these symbols include monuments and statues, flags, holidays and other observances, and the names of schools, roads, parks, bridges, counties, cities, lakes, dams, military bases, and other public works. In a December 2018 special report, Smithsonian Magazine stated, "over the past ten years, taxpayers have directed at least $40 million to Confederate monuments—statues, homes, parks, museums, libraries and cemeteries—and to Confederate heritage organizations."
Memorials have been erected on public spaces (including on courthouse grounds) either at public expense or funded by private organizations and donors. Numerous private memorials have also been erected.
According to Smithsonian Magazine, "Confederate monuments aren't just heirlooms, the artifacts of a bygone era. Instead, American taxpayers are still heavily investing in these tributes today." The report also concluded that the monuments were constructed and are regularly maintained in promotion of Lost Cause, white supremacist mythology, and over the many decades of their establishment, African American leaders regularly protested these memorials and what they represented.
A small number of memorializations were made during the war, mainly as ship and place names. After the war, Robert E. Lee said on several occasions that he was opposed to any monuments, as they would, in his opinion, "keep open the sores of war". Nevertheless, monuments and memorials continued to be dedicated shortly after the American Civil War.[better source needed] Many more monuments were dedicated in the years after 1890, when Congress established the first National Military Park at Chickamauga and Chattanooga, and by the turn of the twentieth century, five battlefields from the Civil War had been preserved: Chickamauga-Chattanooga,
Antietam, Gettysburg, Shiloh, and Vicksburg. At Vicksburg National Military Park, more than 95 percent of the park's monuments were erected in the first eighteen years after the park was established in 1899.
Jim Crow and white supremacy
Confederate monument-building has often been part of widespread campaigns to promote and justify Jim Crow laws in the South, and assert white supremacy. According to the American Historical Association (AHA), the erection of Confederate monuments during the early twentieth century was "part and parcel of the initiation of legally mandated segregation and widespread disenfranchisement across the South." According to the AHA, memorials to the Confederacy erected during this period "were intended, in part, to obscure the terrorism required to overthrow Reconstruction, and to intimidate African Americans politically and isolate them from the mainstream of public life." A later wave of monument building coincided with the civil rights movement, and according to the AHA "these symbols of white supremacy are still being invoked for similar purposes." According to Smithsonian Magazine, "far from simply being markers of historic events and people, as proponents argue, these memorials were created and funded by Jim Crow governments to pay homage to a slave-owning society and to serve as blunt assertions of dominance over African-Americans."
According to historian Jane Dailey from the University of Chicago, in many cases, the purpose of the monuments was not to celebrate the past but rather to promote a "white supremacist future". Another historian, Karen Cox, from the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, has written that the monuments are "a legacy of the brutally racist Jim Crow era", and that "the whole point of Confederate monuments is to celebrate white supremacy". Another historian from UNC, James Leloudis, stated that "The funders and backers of these monuments are very explicit that they are requiring a political education and a legitimacy for the Jim Crow era and the right of white men to rule." They were erected without the consent or even input of Southern African Americans, who remembered the Civil War far differently, and who had no interest in honoring those who fought to keep them enslaved. According to Civil War historian Judith Giesberg, professor of history at Villanova University, "White supremacy is really what these statues represent." Some monuments were also meant to beautify cities as part of the City Beautiful movement, although this was secondary.
In the late nineteenth century, technological innovations in the granite and bronze industries helped reduce costs and made monuments more affordable for small towns. Companies looking to capitalize on this opportunity often sold nearly identical copies of monuments to both the North and South.
Scholarly studies of the monuments began in the 1980s. In 1983 John J. Winberry published a study which was based on data from the work of R.W. Widener. He estimated that the main building period for monuments was from 1889 to 1929 and that of the monuments erected in courthouse squares over half were built between 1902 and 1912. He determined four main locations for monuments; battlefields, cemeteries, county courthouse grounds, and state capitol grounds. Over a third of the courthouse monuments were dedicated to the dead. The majority of the cemetery monuments in his study were built in the pre-1900 period, while most of the courthouse monuments were erected after 1900. Of the 666 monuments in his study 55% were of Confederate soldiers, while 28% were obelisks. Soldiers dominated courthouse grounds, while obelisks account for nearly half of cemetery monuments. The idea that the soldier statues always faced north was found to be untrue and that the soldiers usually faced the same direction as the courthouse. He noted that the monuments were "remarkably diverse" with "only a few instances of repetition of inscriptions".
He categorized the monuments into four types. Type 1 was a Confederate soldier on a column with his weapon at parade rest, or weaponless and gazing into the distance. These accounted for approximately half the monuments studied. They are, however, the most popular among the courthouse monuments. Type 2 was a Confederate soldier on a column with rifle ready, or carrying a flag or bugle. Type 3 was an obelisk, often covered with drapery and bearing cannon balls or an urn. This type was 28% of the monuments studied, but 48% of the monuments in cemeteries and 18% of courthouse monuments. Type 4 was a miscellaneous group, including arches, standing stones, plaques, fountains, etc. These account for 17% of the monuments studied.
Over a third of the courthouse monuments were specifically dedicated to the Confederate dead. The first courthouse monument was erected in Bolivar, Tennessee, in 1867. By 1880 nine courthouse monuments had been erected. Winberry noted two centers of courthouse monuments: the Potomac counties of Virginia, from which the tradition spread to North Carolina, and a larger area covering Georgia, South Carolina and northern Florida. The diffusion of courthouse monuments was aided by organizations such as the United Confederate Veterans and their publications, though other factors may also have been effective.
Winberry listed four reasons for the shift from cemeteries to courthouses. First was the need to preserve the memory of the Confederate dead and also recognize the veterans who returned. Second was to celebrate the rebuilding of the South after the war. Third was the romanticizing of the Lost Cause, and the fourth was to unify the white population in a common heritage against the interests of African-American Southerners. He concluded: "No one of these four possible explanations for the Confederate monument is adequate or complete in itself. The monument is a symbol, but whether it was a memory of the past, a celebration of the present, or a portent of the future remains a difficult question to answer; monuments and symbols can be complicated and sometimes indecipherable."
The Confederate Monument to Robert E. Lee is removed from its perch on May 17, 2017
As of April 2017, at least 60 symbols of the Confederacy had been removed or renamed since 2015, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC). At the same time, laws in various Southern states place restrictions on, or prohibit altogether, the removal of statutes and memorials and the renaming of parks, roads, and schools.
A 2017 Reuters poll found that 54% of adults stated that the monuments should remain in all public spaces, and 27% said they should be removed, while 19% said they were unsure. The results were split along racial and political lines, with Republicans and whites preferring to keep the monuments in place, while Democrats and minorities preferring their removal. A similar 2017 poll by HuffPost/YouGov found that one-third of respondents favored removal, while 49% were opposed.
Confederate monuments are widely distributed across the southern United States. The distribution pattern follows the general political boundaries of the Confederacy. Of the more than 1503 public monuments and memorials to the Confederacy, more than 718 are monuments and statues. Nearly 300 monuments and statues are in Georgia, Virginia, or North Carolina. According to one researcher, "the absence of monuments in eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina indicates those regions' Union sentiment, and the few monuments in Maryland, West Virginia, and Kentucky reflect those states' ambivalent war-time politics." The Northern States that remained part of the Union, as well as the Western States that were largely settled after the Civil War, have few or no memorials to the Confederacy.
Peace Monument, also known as the Naval Monument or Civil War Sailors Monument, stands on the grounds of the United States Capitol in Peace Circle at First Street, N.W., and Pennsylvania Avenue. Erected in 1877–1878 to commemorate the naval deaths at sea during the Civil War.
The NPS describes the property as "the nation's memorial to Robert E. Lee. It honors him for specific reasons, including his role in promoting peace and reunion after the Civil War. In a larger sense it exists as a place of study and contemplation of the meaning of some of the most difficult aspects of American History: military service; sacrifice; citizenship; duty; loyalty; slavery and freedom."
Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson were portrayed by the US Mint on the 1925 Commemorative silver US half dollar, along with the words "Stone Mountain". The coin was a fundraiser for the Stone Mountain monument, which honors the Confederate Generals. The authorized issue was 5 million coins, to be sold at $1 each, but that proved overly optimistic and only 1.3 million coins were released, many of which ended up in circulation after being spent for face value. The caption on the reverse reads "Memorial to the valor of the soldier of the South".
Robert E. Lee has been commemorated on at least five US postage stamps. One 1936–37 stamp featured Generals Lee and Stonewall Jackson with Lee's home Stratford Hall.
There are 10 major U.S. military bases named in honor of Confederate military leaders, all in former Confederate States. In 2015 the Pentagon declared it would not be renaming these facilities, and declined to make further comment in 2017.
Fort Lee, Virginia (1917) named for CSA Gen. Robert E. Lee
Buchanan House, the Naval Academy superintendent's home, named for CSA naval officer Franklin Buchanan. A road near the house is also memorialized in Buchanan's name.
Maury Hall, home to the academy's division of Weapons and Systems Engineering, named for US naval officer in charge of the Depot of Charts and Instruments at Washington and later CSA naval officer Matthew Fontaine Maury.
Yukon–Koyukuk Census Area: "Confederate Gulch" and "Union Gulch" both drain the side of a mineralized mountain mass northeast of Wiseman. Gold was discovered in both gulches in the early 20th century, though only Union Gulch was mined.
There are at least six public spaces with Confederate monuments in Arizona.
A commemorative sign and a plaque commemorates the Battle of Picacho Pass, the westernmost Confederate engagement of the war. The sign is "dedicated to Capt. Sherod Hunter's 'Arizona Rangers, Arizona Volunteers' C.S.A.", while the plaque states three Union soldiers buried on battlefield and includes both US Union and CSA flags.
Confederate Memorial, Historical Soldiers Memorial Cemetery area of the state-owned Southern Arizona Veterans' Cemetery. The monument was erected in to honor the 21 soldiers interred in that cemetery who served in the Confederate Army during the Civil War and later fought in Indian wars in Arizona as members of the U.S. Army.
Newport: Jackson Guards Memorial, built in 1914. Monument consists of a statue of a single Confederate soldier and a roster of the men who served in the Jackson Guards and the slaves who supported them. The only Confederate monument in Arkansas built entirely with funds raised by private subscription, although it was built on a prominent piece of land donated by the city of Hot Springs.
Star City: Star City Confederate Memorial (1926) Erected on the courthouse grounds, moved in 1943 and moved again to its original position, now the town square, in the 1990s. Consists of a statue of a Confederate soldier.
Springdale: Robert E. Lee Elementary School (1951)
Flag of Arkansas since 1913
Flag of Arkansas The blue star above "ARKANSAS" represents the Confederate States of America and is placed above the three other stars for the countries (Spain, France and the US) to which the State belonged before statehood. The diamond represents the nations only diamond mine with bordering 25 stars symbolizing 25th state to join. The design of the border around the white diamond evokes the saltire found on the Confederate battle flag.
Santa Ana: CSA monument with the inscription "to honor the sacred memory of the pioneers who built Orange County after their valiant efforts to defend the Cause of Southern Independence" in Santa Ana Cemetery. Installed in 2004.
Anaheim: Savanna High School (1961) mascot has always been Johnny Rebel and a fiberglass statue of a Confederate soldier stood in the courtyard from 1964 until 2009 when it was removed due to deterioration. The school colors are red and grey and the school fields the Savanna Mighty Marching Rebel Band and Color Guard.
Keenesburg: Weld Central Senior High School and Weld Central Middle School share the Weld Central Rebel, a Civil-war-era-soldier which used to appear with depictions of Confederate flags. School teams are named Rebels.
The current flag of Florida, adopted by popular referendum in 1900, with minor changes in 1985, contains the St. Andrew's Cross. It is believed that the Cross was added in memory of, and showing support for, the Confederacy. The addition of the Cross was proposed by Governor Francis P. Fleming, a former Confederate soldier, who was strongly committed to racial segregation.
In Florida, Robert E. Lee's birthday (January 19), Confederate Memorial Day (April 26), and Jefferson Davis's birthday (June 3) are legal holidays.
Ocala: Confederate monument, erected on the grounds of the Marion County Courthouse (1908, moved to Veterans Memorial Park and rededicated 2011).:37 The Confederate flag that flew in front of the Marion County Courthouse was to be moved to "elsewhere on the campus".
Confederate Park. It opened in 1907 as Dignan Park, named for a former chairman of the city's Board of Public Works. In 1914, the park was chosen as the location of the annual reunion of the United Confederate Veterans. The UCV chose the park as the location for a new monument to honor the Women of the Southland, and five months after the reunion the city renamed the park "Confederate Park."
Confederate monument, downtown Hemming Park (1898):34 "The president of Jacksonville City Council, Anna Lopez Brosche, called for all Confederate monuments to be moved from city property to a museum. The most prominent Confederate memorial in Jacksonville is a statue of a Confederate soldier that sits atop a towering pillar in Hemming Park."
Leon County: A plaque commemorating Robert E. Lee and the Dixie Highway on Thomasville Road (U.S. Highway 319), one mile from the Georgia state line. Erected 1926 by the Anna Jackson Chapter of Daughters of the Confederacy.
Madison: Confederate monument, Four Freedoms Park (1909). Lists names of men who died from county. Nearby sits a monument to former slaves in the county.:35
Miami: Confederate monument, Confederate Circle in City Cemetery (1914 at the Dade County Courthouse, was moved to cemetery in 1927):36
Battlefield monument, Olustee Battlefield Historic State Park (1912). Inscription: Here was fought on February 20, 1864 the Battle of Ocean Pond under the immediate command of General Alfred Holt Colquitt, "Hero of Olustee." This decisive engagement prevented a Sherman-like invasion of Georgia from the south. Erected April 20, 1936, by the Alfred Holt Colquitt Chapter, United Daughters of the Confederacy Ga. Div.
CSA Brigadier GeneralJoseph Finnegan Monument, Olustee Battlefield Historic State Park (1912). "Placed by The United Daughters of the Confederacy Florida Division In Memory of Brig. Gen. Joseph Finegan Commander of the District of Middle and East Florida So well did he perform his part that a signal victory over the Federals was won in the Battle of Olustee Feb. 20, 1864"
Florida Square was renamed Lee Square in 1889.
A 50-foot monument to Our Confederate Dead, erected in 1891, is in Lee Square. It commemorates Jefferson Davis, Pensacolian Confederate veterans Stephen R. Mallory (Secretary of the Confederate Navy) and Edward Aylesworth Perry (Confederate General and Governor of Florida 1885-1889), and "the Uncrowned Heroes of the Southern Confederacy." The mayor of Pensacola has called for its removal.
Quincy: Confederate memorial, Soldiers Cemetery within Eastern Cemetery, part of the town's National Register Historic District (2010). The memorial also notes the restoration of the historic fence.
Confederate monument, on the Plaza de la Constitución (1879). "The Confederate Memorial Contextualization Advisory Committee, a seven-member task force comprised mostly of historians", in 2018 recommended to the City Commission that the monument be kept, with the addition of "some necessary context".
Holly Hill: The American, South Carolina, and Confederate flags were erected in 2017 on private land along Florida Highway 176 west of town, along with a sign with the Sons of Confederate Veterans name. It has been vandalized. On July 9, 2018, residents protested to the City Commission what they called the "blatant racism" of the display. The city and the Ministerial Alliance of Eastern Orangeburg County had asked the SCV not to erect the flag.
Last Confederate War Widow, Oaklawn Cemetery, erected after her death in 1985. The memorial and the cemetery are along the Florida Civil War Heritage Trail.
Our Confederate Dead, Oaklawn Cemetery (1901, rededicated 1996). A tall obelisk in memory of the unnamed soldiers who died at the nearby Battle of Olustee or in the town's Confederate hospital. The cemetery is the focal point of the opening of Lake City's annual Olustee Battle Festival.
Seffner: Confederate Memorial Park, large flag visible at the intersection of Interstates 4 and 75 near Tampa (2009). At the time it was built the flag was the largest Confederate flag ever made. Its owner, Marion Lambert, descendant of three Confederate soldiers, said the origin of his project was when then-governor Jeb Bush took down the Confederate flag that flew over a door at the Florida State Capitol. He sued his home county, Hillsborough, for taking the flag out of the county seal, and lost. Granite markers there were splashed with red paint and defaced with graffiti in August 2017.
Levy County (1845), named for David Levy Yulee, a Florida businessman, senator, and strong supporter of slavery, who withdrew from the U.S. Senate in 1861 and served nine months in prison after the Civil War for supporting the Confederacy.
Pasco County (1887), named for Samuel Pasco, who fought for the CSA but spent much of the war as a prisoner of war. Pasco later became a state representative and US Senator from Florida.
Miami: Robert E. Lee Park, the athletic field of Jose de Diego Middle School which replaced Robert E. Lee Middle School (1924–1989) in the Wynwood neighborhood in 1999. A school district spokesman has said the name is not official and requested agencies with incorrect listings update them.
Kirby-Smith Center (1939), Alachua County Public Schools administrative offices. Constructed in 1900, the building was initially the all white Gainesville Graded & High School. In August 2017, the school board announced plans to rename the center.
Sidney Lanier School. Lanier was a Confederate soldier and poet.
Hillsborough County: Robert E. Lee Elementary School aka Lee Elementary Magnet School of World Studies and Technology was built 1906 and named for Lee in 1943. A school board member pushing for a rename in 2017 noted that had Lee's army won the war "a majority of our students would be slaves."
Orlando: Robert E. Lee Middle School, renamed College Park Middle School in 2017.
Pensacola: Escambia High School's Rebel mascot riots, 1972–1977. Before a noncontroversial name was chosen, protests and violence occurred at the school and in the community, crosses were burned on school district members' lawns, lawsuits were filed, and the Ku Klux Klan held a rally and petitioned the school board.
There are several places named for the Confederacy in Idaho. The settlement of Idaho coincided with the Civil War and settlers from Southern states memorialized the Confederacy with the names of several towns and natural features.
Atlanta: unincorporated, and its Atlanta Airport. The area was named by Southerners after reports of a Confederate victory over Gen. Sherman in the Battle of Atlanta, which turned to be wholly false, but the name stuck.
Confederate Gulch: unincorporated former mining community
Grayback Gulch: unincorporated former mining community, settled by Confederate soldiers and named for the color of their uniforms. Now a government campground
Leesburg: an unincorporated former goldmining town settled by southerners and named for Robert E. Lee.
Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument, Garfield Park, erected, according to its inscription, "to mark the burial place of 1616 Confederate soldiers and sailors who died here as prisoners of war and whose graves cannot now be identified." Plans to remove it have been announced. As of August, 2018, it is still in place; "Parks Department spokeswoman Ronnetta Spalding says that finding a new spot to move it to has proven difficult." The plans to move it have not been abandoned.
There is one public space dedicated to the Confederacy in Kansas.
Humboldt: Confederate Soldier Shot Historical Marker. The marker sits at the site of where the Union Flag was flying in Humboldt, Kansas, when a Confederate Soldier attempted to chop down the Union flag pole. The Confederate Soldier was shot as he tried to remove the flag. The marker is less of a monument to the Confederacy, and more of a historical marker describing the events when Humboldt was raided by Confederate Captains John Mathews and his friend Tom Livingston; they led other white Confederate proslavers, Southern-sympathizing Indians, and Missouri bushwhackers seeking fugitive slaves from Missouri who were hiding in Humboldt.
There are at least 56 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Kentucky.
Jefferson Davis Statue, Kentucky Capitol Rotunda, 1936. (Jefferson Davis was born in Kentucky.) In 2015, the all-white state Historic Properties Advisory Commission voted against removing the statue. In 2017 several prominent Republicans called for its removal.
Graves County: Camp Beauregard Memorial (1909), Camp Beauregard Cemetery. UDC memorial to Confederate soldiers who died at Camp Beauregard "for the Confederate State of America and were denied the glory of heroic service in a battle".
John B. Castleman Monument, Cherokee Triangle, 1882. On the night of August 12–13, 2017, the statue and the historical marker near it were disfigured with red paint. The mayor of Louisville, Greg Fischer, on the recommendation of a Public Art and Monuments Advisory Committee that he appointed in late 2017, has said the goal is to have it removed by the end of 2018.
"Silent Sentinel" Monument, officially the Confederate Soldiers of East and West Baton Rouge Parishes Memorial. Plinth erected 1886 and statue in 1890. Dedicated by Gov. John McEnery. Original granite and marble plinth cracked; replaced in the 1960s with a small brick plinth that was aesthetically unappealing. Formerly at North Boulevard and 3rd Street, near City Hall. In 2012, to make room for Town Square construction, it was moved to the nearby Old Louisiana State Capitol, now a museum. Plaque reads: "Erected by the men and women of East and West Baton Rouge to perpetuate the heroism and patriotic devotion of the noble soldiers from the two parishes who wore the gray and crossed the river with their immortal leaders to rest under the shade of the trees. Original monument erected 1886 A.D."
Shreveport: Confederate Monument, on grounds of the Caddo Parish courthouse, dedicated in 1906 by UDC, NRHP-listed. The Caddo Parish Commission voted to remove it; a legal challenge by the UDC is still pending.
St. Francisville: Confederate Monument (1903). Has Confederate flag above the inscription: "In memory of West Feliciana's Confederate dead, wherever at rest. Co. C 1st Regt. La. Cavalry".
Army of Tennessee Tomb (1886) at Metairie Cemetery, consisting of a Gothic chapel tomb containing 48 vaults, surmounted by an equestrian statue of Albert Sidney Johnston. A marble statue near the tomb's entrance shows a Confederate sergeant calling the roll. Johnston, P. G. T. Beauregard, and other Confederate soldiers are entombed there.
Gayarre Place, named for Charles Gayarré, white supremacist and financial supporter of the Confederacy. Clio, muse or goddess of history, is on a monument. (Gayarré was a historian.) The monument was paid for by George Hacker Dunbar, an artilleryman during the Civil War, married to a niece of General Beauregard. The original statue was replaced in 1938, after vandals damaged it.
Governor Nicholls Street
Jefferson Davis Parkway. Originally named Hagan Avenue; name changed in 1911 to coincide with the unveiling of the Jefferson Davis Monument.
Flag of Maryland (1904). The state flag of Maryland features the red-and-white Crossland Banner, the unofficial state flag of Maryland used by secessionists and Confederates during the American Civil War. The current state flag started appearing after the Civil War as a form of reconciliation. The flag became official in 1904.
Memorial Hall, Harvard University. Stained-glass windows to commemorate various figures, among them:
Honor and Peace Window (1900). There is no inscription, but a Harvard University page () explaining the windows says: "This window commemorates those who surrendered their lives in the War of the Rebellion." Portrays two warriors, one with sword high in triumph, one kneeling in defeat, who from the ribbons can be seen to be from different but related countries.
Student and Soldier Window (1889). Soldier wears gray uniform.
Centralia: Boone County Confederate Memorial (1935)
Dexter: Frenchman's Spring Monument (1996). A natural gathering place for soldiers. In July, 1861, 2,000 soldiers from 15 southeast Missouri counties met to organize as the First Division, Missouri State Guard — the pro-Confederate state militia, known as the Swamp Fox Brigade.
There are at least four public spaces with Confederate monuments in New York.
Brooklyn: A tree at St. John's Episcopal Church bears a plaque, installed by UDC in 1912, reading "This tree was planted by CSA Gen. Robert Edward Lee, while stationed at Fort Hamilton." The plaque was removed in 2017.
Columbus: Camp Chase Cemetery's Confederate Soldier Memorial. Dedicated in 1902. Statue on top was toppled and decapitated by vandals in August 2017. The vandals took the head. The Veterans Administration stated that the statue will be repaired. As of October, 2018, it is one of 7 cemeteries with Confederate monuments that the Veterans Administration has under 24-hour guard. The statue was repaired by McKay Lodge Art Conservation Laboratory in Oberlin and reinstalled on March 30, 2019.
Sandusky Bay: Four UDC monuments are located at Confederate Stockade Cemetery on Johnson's Island, the first facility built by the Union Army solely for imprisoning Confederate soldiers As of October, 2018, it is one of 7 cemeteries with Confederate monuments that the Veterans Administration has under 24-hour guard.
Willoughby: Willoughby South High School dropped its Confederate uniformed mascot and removed all remaining Confederate imagery from the school while retaining the Rebels team name and school colors grey and blue. In 1993 the school dropped Stars and Bars as the school song and removed Confederate imagery from school uniforms.
There are at least 13 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Oklahoma.
Ardmore: Oklahoma Confederate Home, operated as OK Confederate Home from 1911 to 1942. Renamed Oklahoma Veterans Center after last residing confederate veteran passed.
Albany: South Albany High School. After splitting from "Albany Union" school in 1971, the new "south" school embraced a Confederate theme. The mascot is the "Rebel", athletic teams are nicknamed "the Rebels", the school colors are red and gray, and a Confederate flag hung in the gymnasium until it was removed during the 1989–1990 school year.
There are at least three public spaces with Confederate monuments in Pennsylvania.
Culp Brothers Memorial (2013), Gary Casteel, sculptor, near entrance Gettysburg Heritage Center. Honors brothers who fought on opposite sides: Confederate Private Wesley Culp and Union Lieutenant William Culp ("Brother against Brother").
Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell's Headquarters Marker (1920)
Nathan Bedford Forrest Bust. On display in the Capital rotunda since 1978. Former governor Bill Haslam wished to remove it, but he was not supported by the Legislature or the Capitol Commission. "In 2010, the state moved the Forrest bust from outside the doors of the House of Representatives' chamber to its current location between the legislature's two chambers. It was relocated in order to make room for a bust of Sampson Keeble, Tennessee's first black legislator." In January 2019 a group of students demonstrated at the capital, calling for its removal.
Murfreesboro: Forrest Hall at Middle Tennessee State University. The Tennessee Board of Regents has unanimously recommended the name change, on the recommendation of a campus task force, and the university president, but it has yet to pass the Tennessee Historical Commission, which plans "public hearings."
Dover: Fort Donelson. The Confederate fort was named for CSA General Daniel Smith Donelson but captured by Union General Grant in 1862, who retained the Fort's name saying "Fort Donelson will hereafter be marked in Capitals on the maps of our United Country..." Also contains Confederate Monument donated by United Daughters of the Confederacy in 1933.
Civil War Memorial in memory of the three thousand Confederate soldiers of Lincoln County (1906)
Women's Monument to those who kept up the responsibilities of farms and businesses during the Civil War (1904)
Franklin: "Our Confederate Soldiers" Monument (1899), UDC monument known locally as "Chip" memorializes soldiers who died in the Battle of Franklin. Since by state law it cannot be removed, the city of Franklin, with "broad support", wants to install historic markers "depicting the experience of the African-Americans before, during, and after the Civil War." The UDC opposes this, claiming ownership of the Public Square. As of December 2018, the issue is in litigatioN.
Trenton: Oakland Cemetery: Confederate Monument commissioned by the United Daughters of the Confederacy in 1900 and Confederate marker commissioned by the Sons of Confederate Veterans in 1990. Listed on the NRHP.
Nathan Bedford Forrest Statue, made of fiberglass over foam, 25 feet high, on private land near Interstate 65, installed in 1998, built with private money. It is surrounded by Confederate battle flags, constituting what the owner calls "Confederate Flag Park." (No government recognizes it as a park, and the entrance is chained shut with a "No Trespassing" sign.) The giant statue is visible from the highway to anyone entering the city from the south. It has been called "hideous" and "ridiculous." There have been numerous calls for its removal. Tennessee Governor Bill Haslam said: "It's not a statue that I like and [ sic ] that most Tennesseans are proud of in any way." Former Nashville Mayor Megan Barry called the statue "an offensive display of hatred." In 2015, Nashville's Metro Council voted to petition the Tennessee Department of Transportation to plant obscuring vegetation; the Department declined, because it is private land. ("Never mind that the T.D.O.T. itself removed the obscuring vegetation back in 1998, when the statue was first erected.") There has been occasional vandalism; in December 2017 it was covered in "pussy-hat pink" paint, which Bill Dorris, current owner of the land, says he intends to leave. He also said that if trees are planted to block the view from I-65, he "would make the statue taller." It was sculpted, at no charge, by notorious racist Jack Kershaw, an attorney for Martin Luther King's murderer, famous for having said "Somebody needs to say a good word for slavery."
Sewanee: The University of the South: "Nowhere is the issue of Confederate remembrance more nettlesome than at Sewanee, whose origin[s] are entwined with the antebellum South and the Confederacy." Confederate flags are in stained glass windows of the chapel, as is the Seal of the Confederacy. It benefited greatly at its founding by a large gift from John Armfield, at one time co-owner of Franklin and Armfield, the largest and most prosperous slave trading enterprise in the country. Students as late as 1871 were required to wear uniforms of "cadet gray cloth". Confederate flags hung in the chapel from its dedication in 1909 until the mid-1990s when they were removed "reportedly to improve acoustics". There is an official portrait hanging at the University of Bishop Leonidas Polk, "an ardent defender of slavery," who was in charge of the celebration of the cornerstone laying in 1857, and said the new university will "materially aid the South to resist and repel a fanatical domination which seeks to rule over us." He resigned his ecclesiastical position to become a major general in the Confederate army (called "Sewanee's Fighting Bishop"), and died in battle in 1864. His official portrait at the University depicts him dressed as a bishop with his army uniform hanging nearby. However, his portrait was moved from Convocation Hall to Archives and Special Collections in 2015. The Confederate flag was also emblazoned on the university mace that led processions marking the beginning and ending of the term from 1965 until 1997. At a special chapel service to celebrate Jefferson Davis' birthday, the Ceremonial Mace was consecrated to the memory of Nathan Bedford Forrest, the first Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan, by Bishop Charles C. J. Carpenter of Alabama – one of the clergy who opposed Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s activities in Birmingham in 1963 (see A Call for Unity), prompting King to write his "Letter from a Birmingham Jail" in response.
The Vice Chancellor is the chief academic officer at the university; the chancellor is a bishop of the Episcopal church. Jefferson Davis and Robert E. Lee both turned down offers of the position. (Sewanee has a portrait of Davis.) The first vice chancellor was Rt. Rev. Charles Todd Quintard, called "chaplain of the Confederacy". He compiled the Confederate Soldiers' Pocket Manual of Devotions (Charleston, 1863).
Pigeon Forge: "Rebel Railroad" was a small theme park built in 1961, its main attraction being a simulated Confederate steam train which afforded "'good Confederate citizens' the opportunity to ride a five mile train route through 'hostile' territory and to help repel a Yankee assault on the train". Rebel Railroad was purchased in 1970 by Art Modell, owner of the Cleveland Browns. In 2018 it is operating under the name Dollywood.
There are at least 178 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Texas. "Nowhere has the national re-examination of Confederate emblems been more riven with controversy than the Lone Star State."
Confederate Soldiers Monument (1903) features four bronze figures representing the Confederate artillery, cavalry, infantry, and navy. A bronze statue of Jefferson Davis stands above them. The inscription reads: "Died for state rights guaranteed under the constitution. The people of the South, animated by the spirit of 1776, to preserve their rights, withdrew from the federal compact in 1861. The North resorted to coercion. The South, against overwhelming numbers and resources, fought until exhausted."
Hood's Texas Brigade, a monument "to memorialize those [who] fought for the Confederacy". "The monument includes a depiction of a Confederate soldier, quotes by Confederate leaders, a flag of the Confederacy and the Confederate battle flag." These are the only Confederate flags currently (2017) visible in the Capitol. Representative Eric Johnson has called for its removal.
The reverse side of the Seal of Texas (1992) includes "the unfurled flags of the Kingdom of France, the Kingdom of Spain, the United Mexican States, the Republic of Texas, the Confederate States of America, and the United States of America". The Confederate flag is rendered as the Stars and Bars.
Comanche: Confederate Soldiers' Monument (2002), Comanche County Courthouse
Corsicana: Call to Arms (Confederate Soldiers' Monument), by Louis Amateis (1907), Navarro County Courthouse. A Civil War bugler stands in uniform holding a bugle to his mouth with his proper right hand. He holds a sword in his proper left hand at his side. He wears a hat with a feather in it and knee-high boots. A bedroll is slung over his proper left shoulder and strapped across his chest and proper right hip. The sculpture is mounted on a rectangular base. "Isaac O'Haver was a member of Co K of the 17th VA Cavalry. He was a 17 year-old bugler for his unit. He was born Sep. 20, 1844 and died at the age of 27 on March 30, 1872. He is buried at the Ladoga Cemetery." The plaques on the monument read:
South side: The Call to Arms Erected 1907 by Navarro chapter United Daughters of the Confederacy To commemorate the valor and heroism of our Confederate Soldiers It is not in the power of mortals to command success The Confederate Soldier did more - he deserved it. "But their fame on brightest pages penned by poets and by pages Shall go sounding down the ages"
West side: "Nor shall your glory be fought while fame her record keeps or honor points the hollowed spot where valor proudly sleeps" "Tell it as you may It never can be told Sing it as you Will It never can be sung The Story of the Glory of the men who wore the gray"
East side: "It is a duty we owe the dead who died for us: - But where memories can never die - It is a duty we owe to posterity to see that our children shall know the virtues And rise worthy of their sires".
North side: The soldiers of the Southern Confederacy fought valiantly for The liberty of state bequeathed them By their forefathers of 1776 "Who Glorified Their righteous cause and they who made The sacrifice supreme in That they died To keep their country free"
Clarksville: Confederate Soldiers' Monument, Red River County County Courthouse
Denton: Denton Confederate Soldier Monument, Denton County Courthouse. Cost $2,000; a project of the Denton Chapter, UDC. Dedicated June 3, 1918, Jefferson Davis's birthday. It had "whites only" drinking fountains on each side. In 2015 it was defaced with the words "THIS IS RACIST" in red paint. The twenty-year campaign of a Denton resident, Willie Hudspeth, to have the monument removed was the subject of a Vice news video in 2018. After the wave of Confederate monument removals that followed the 2017 Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, and in large part as a result of Hudspeth's campaign, a county 15-person Confederate Memorial Committee met for three months in 2017–18 and recommended "adding context" — two video kiosks and a large plaque, "with interviews about local veterans and the history of slavery" — to the monument rather than removing it, a suggestion accepted unanimously by the county commissioners. Once the nature of the historical context has been determined, approval of the Texas Historical Commission will be required. As of September, 2018, "the county still does not have a timeline for completing the project and...there were no updates to report". The video caught the attention of Kali Holloway, director of the Make It Right Project, which is working to remove Confederate monuments. She added the Denton monument to the group's "top 10 list" of monuments they consider priorities.
Fort Worth: Monument to "Confederate Soldiers and their Descendents" (1953), Tarrant County Courthouse
Galveston: Dignified Resignation (1909) by Louis Amateis at the Galveston County Courthouse. With his back turned to the US flag while carrying a Confederate flag, it is the only memorial in Texas to feature a Confederate sailor. It was "erected to the soldiers and sailors of the Confederate States of America." An inscription on the plaque reads, "there has never been an armed force which in purity of motives intensity of courage and heroism has equaled the army and navy of the Confederate States of America."
Anderson: Confederate Memorial Plaza (2010). The plaza beside the Grimes County courthouse flies a Confederate flag behind a gate with metal lettering reading "Confederate Memorial Plaza." A metal statue depicts one of several Grimes County residents who fought with the 4th Texas volunteer infantry brigade in Virginia.
Athens: Henderson County Confederate Monument (1964)
Littlefield Fountain, University of Texas, commemorates George W. Littlefield, a university regent and CSA officer. An inscription reads, "To the men and women of the Confederacy who fought with valor and suffered with fortitude that states [sic] rights be maintained."
Texas Confederate Women's and Men's Historical Markers, at 3710 Cedar St. and 1600 W. Sixth, commemorate campgrounds built to house and care for widows, wives, and veterans of the Confederacy.
Corpus Christi: Queen of the Sea (1914; restored 1990), bas-relief by Pompeo Coppini; UDC-sponsored Confederate memorial featuring an allegorical female figure – representing Corpus Christie – holding keys of success while receiving blessings from Mother Earth and Father Neptune, who are standing next to her. "Coppini was abhorrent of war", and in Queen of the Sea "he crafted a sculpture that symbolized peace and captured the spirit of Corpus Christi".
Dick Dowling (sculpture), located at the entrance to Hermann Park. Erected in 1905, the monument was in front of City Hall until 1958, when it was moved to its present location. In August 2017 Andrew Schneck was arrested at the statue with bomb materials.
Sabine Pass: Sabine Pass Battleground. Where the Sabine River enters the Gulf of Mexico, 47 Confederate men held off a large Union attack, destroying two Union boats and capturing hundreds of prisoners. Today the site is managed by the Texas Historical Commission, and it hosts battle reenactments in honor of the Confederate soldiers.
Belton: Monument to Confederate Sargeant Jacob Hemphill. Erected 2016 by Sons of Confederate Veterans.
Crowley: "Confederate Veterans Memorial Monument honoring The Confederate Veterans of Crowley and the surrounding area interred at the Crowley Cemetery." Erected 2011 by the Sons of Confederate Veterans.
Hempstead: The Liendo Plantation was a center for Confederate recruiting efforts and held Union prisoners during the war. Now it holds battle reenactments and demonstrations of Civil War era Confederate life at its annual Civil War Weekend.
Orange: The Confederate Memorial of the Wind, located on Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, but visible from I-10, has been under construction since 2013, and will be the largest Confederate monument built since 1916, according to the Sons of Confederate Veterans. A center stone ring is held aloft by 13 pillars, one for each state that seceded. There are twenty commemorative flagpoles.
Palestine: Confederate Veterans Memorial Plaza (2013), funded by the Sons of the Confederate Veterans
Donley County (1882) named for Stockton P. Donley, a lawyer who enlisted in the Confederate Army. Just after the war in 1866, he was elected to the Supreme Court of Texas, but was removed by the Reconstruction military government.
Foard County (1891) named for Robert L. Foard, an attorney and Confederate Major.
Gray County (1902) named for Peter W. Gray, a lawyer and legislator who attended the 1861 Texas State Secession Convention, and voted to leave the union. Shortly after, Gray was elected to the Confederate House of Representatives.
Roberts County (1889) named for Oran Milo Roberts, who was unanimously elected president of the 1861 Secession Convention, a meeting that he had been influential in calling. In 1862 he resigned the Supreme Court seat and was elected colonel of the Eleventh Texas infantry in the Confederate Army. He was Governor of Texas from 1879 to 1883.
Lakeside, Tarrant County: Confederate Park. The two Confederate flags displayed on each side of the park's marker were removed by the Texas Department of Public Transportation in 2017. Marker text:
Site of Confederate Park // Local businessman Khleber M. Van Zandt organized the Robert E. Lee Camp of the United Confederate Veterans in 1889. By 1900 it boasted more than 700 members. The Club received a 25-year charter to create the Confederate Park Association in 1901, then purchased 373 acres (151 ha) near this site for the “recreation, refuge and relief of Confederate soldiers" and their families. Opening events included a picnic for veterans and families on June 20, 1902, and a statewide reunion September 8–12, 1902, with 3,500 attendees. The park thrived as a center for the civil and social activities on Texas Confederate organizations. By 1924 the numbers [ sic ] of surviving veterans had greatly diminished, and the Confederate Park Association dissolved when its charter expired in 1926.
Note: "There are similarly named streets in towns and cities across east Texas, notably Port Arthur and Beaumont, as well as memorials to Dowling and the Davis Guards, not least at Sabine Pass, where the battleground is now preserved as a state park"
Tascosa High School. Confederacy iconography was dropped in 1974. The school dropped its mascot, Johnny Reb, and stopped playing "Dixie" as their fight song. The Dixieland Singers became the Freedom Singers. Miss Southern Belle became Tascosa Belle. The "Rebel" nickname remained, but other ties to the Civil War disappeared.
Buda: Jack C. Hays High School. The school uses the "Rebel" nickname for its athletic teams. Mascot "Colonel Jack" no longer has a Confederate flag belt buckle but still dresses in grey. The school dropped the Confederate flag as an official symbol in 2010 and the school district banned it from all district property in 2012. In 2015 it replaced the school song "Dixie".
San Antonio: Robert E. Lee High School (1958). After voting against a name change in 2015, the school board voted in August 2017 to change the name of the school. In October, district trustees voted 5-2 to name the school Legacy of Educational Excellence, or LEE High School. Its mascot is currently the Volunteer and the school colors are red and grey. Its pep squad, currently called the Southern Belles, were once called the Confederates. Its varsity dance team and junior varsity drill team are respectively named the Rebel Rousers and Dixie Drillers.
Robert E. Lee High School (1958). Called "the city's most radioactive Confederate symbol," the possible renaming of the school was the subject of active discussion at meetings in August and September, 2017. In 1970, as a result of a statewide federal desegregation order, the school had to get rid of "its Confederate-themed mascot (the Rebels), fight song ("Dixie"), and prized Confederate flag (so large that it required twenty boys to carry). Its beloved Rebel Guard, a squadron of boys handpicked by an American-history teacher to dress in replica Confederate uniforms at football games and fire a cannon named Ole Spirit after touchdowns, had to find a new name. Same for the Rebelettes drill team."
Dixie, a region of Washington County, Utah; The first President of the Washington Stake was Robert Dockery Covington, a slave owner from North Carolina and Mississippi. There were other Southern settlers; crops such as tobacco and cotton would grow there.
There are at least 223 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Virginia, more than in any other state. Virginia also has numerous schools, highways, roads and other public infrastructure named for Confederates. Lee-Jackson Day is a State holiday.
The monument has been vandalized repeatedly. In 2005, "the flag insignia, bayonets, and a plaque with Robert E. Lee on it were stolen, but then restored". Following the Charleston church shooting of 2015, "Fuck White Supremacy" was painted on it. On July 5, 2018, "several parts of the 10-ton piece of granite [were] smashed, including a portion of the monument's inscription, insignia, and relief of Robert E. Lee."
Also in 2015, a petition was started to have it removed. In 2017 Seattle Mayor Ed Murray called for it to be taken down, saying it represents "historic injustices" and is a symbol of hate, racism, and violence. After the Mayor's statement, the Cemetery closed for several days because of threats related to the monument.
In October, 2018, the Make It Right Project put up a billboard in Seattle, saying: "Hey Seattle, there's a Confederate Memorial in your backyard".
Hinton: Confederate Soldier Monument, Summers County Courthouse (dedicated May 1914) The base of the monument carries the inscription: "(North base:) This monument erected in honor of American valor as displayed by the Confederate soldiers from 1861 to 1865, and to perpetuate to remotest ages the patriotism and fidelity to principles of the heroes who fought and died for a lost cause. (East base:) sacred to the memory of the noble women of the Confederacy, who suffered more and lost as much, with less glory, than the Confederate soldier. (South base:) erected in the year 1914 by Camp Allen Woodrm Confederate veterans and Camp Bob Christian sons of Confederacy veterans and their friends. (West base:) This monument is dedicated to the Confederate soldiers of Greenbrier and New River valleys who followed Lee and Jackson.
Lewisburg: Confederate Monument (1906) The Confederate "monument was erected by the United Daughters of the Confederacy at a cost of $2,800. The monument was originally located on the campus of the Greenbrier College, but moved to its present location when U.S. Route 60 was relocated." It is now located on the lawn of the old public library in Lewisburg. Some residents have suggested interpretive signage for the statue. The inscription on the base reads, "In memory of our Confederate dead."
Mingo: Confederate Soldier Monument (1913/2013) The inscription reads in part, "TO THE MEMORY OF THE CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS OF RANDOLPH COUNTY AND VICINITY THIS INCLUDES ALL SOLDIERS WHO DIED IN VALLEY MOUNTAIN"
Parkersburg: Confederate Soldier Monument, (1908) The monument was created by Leon Hermant and the inscription reads in part, " IN MEMORY OF OUR CONFEDERATE DEAD ERECTED BY PARKERSBURG CHAPTER UNITED DAUGHTERS OF CONFEDERACY"
Romney: First Confederate Memorial (1867) Carved on the main facade are the words, "The daughters of Old Hampshire erect this tribute of affection to her heroic sons who fell in defense of Southern Rights."
Union: Monroe County Confederate Soldier Monument (1901); marble statue inscribed "There is a true glory and a true honor. The glory of duty done, the honor of integrity of principle. R. E. Lee"
Bartow, initially an 1861 Confederate encampment, Camp Bartow, named for the late Confederate Colonel Francis Bartow.:97
Prairie du Chien: United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC) monument to Jefferson Davis at Fort Crawford Cemetery Soldiers' Lot. Davis served briefly at Fort Crawford. The text on the plaque reads, "JEFFERSON DAVIS, 1808 - 1889, Lieutenant United States Army, Assigned Fort Crawford 1831, Served here with distinction during Black Hawk War, Hero in Mexican War 1846-1848, United States Congressman, Senator, Secretary of War, President Confederate States of America, 1861-1865, Erected by The United Daughters of the Confederacy"
Wisconsin Dells: The Confederate spy Belle Boyd (1844-1900) is buried in Spring Grove Cemetery in Wisconsin Dells. She would go on tour in the United States and speak about being a spy for the Confederacy. Boyd also wrote a book about her career. Belle Boyd was to speak at a Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) post in Kilbourn City, Wisconsin (now Wisconsin Dells) when she died from a heart attack. Members of the local GAR post served as pallbearers at her funeral and was buried at the cemetery. Her grave is marked with a Confederate flag.
Yellowstone National Park: The Lamar River (named 1884–85) is named for L.Q.C. Lamar, a secessionist who drafted the instrument of Mississippi's secession and raised a regiment for the Confederates with his own money. He served as a Confederate ambassador to Russia. The river was named while he served as the United States Secretary of the Interior after the war. The Lamar Valley and other park features or administrative names which contain Lamar are derived from this original naming.
In 1865, at the end of the American Civil War, a substantial number of Southerners left the South; many moved to other parts of the United States, such as the American West, but a few left the country entirely. The most popular country of Southerners emigration was Brazil, which still allowed slavery and wanted to encourage cotton production. These emigrants were known as Confederados. A Confederate monument was erected in the city of Americana, São Paulo state, Brazil.
Kitchener, Ontario: Eastwood Collegiate Institute (1956), a public high school, replaced its Johnny Rebel mascot and Confederate imagery, perceived as associated with white bigotry, with Rebel Lion in 1999. The school retains the Rebel name for its teams.
Montreal, Quebec: A plaque on a Hudson's Bay Company store commemorating Jefferson Davis' brief stay in the city was installed by UDC in 1957; it was removed in 2017 following the attack against counter protesters committed by a white supremacist in Charlottesville.
Tuam: Ireland commemorated CSA Major Richard W. Dowling, who was born in the Tuam, with a bronze memorial plaque on the Town Hall bearing his image and life story. Text of plaque: "Major Richard W. (Dick) Dowling C.S.A., 1837–1867 Born Knock, Tuam; Settled Houston Texas, 1857; Outstanding business and civic leader; Joined Irish Davis Guards in American Civil War; With 47 men foiled Invasion of Texas by 5000 federal troops at Sabine Pass, 8 Sept 1863, a feat of superb gunnery; formed first oil company in Texas; Died aged 30 of yellow fever. This plaque was unveiled by Col. J.B. Collerain 31 May 1998"
^This chart is based on data from an SPLC survey which identified "1,503 publicly sponsored symbols honoring Confederate leaders, soldiers or the Confederate States of America in general." The survey excluded "nearly 2,600 markers, battlefields, museums, cemeteries and other places or symbols that SPLC deemed largely historical in nature"
^ abGunter, Booth; Kizzire, Jamie (April 21, 2016). Gunter, Booth (ed.). "Whose heritage? Public Symbols of the Confederacy". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved October 6, 2017. In an effort to assist the efforts of local communities to re-examine these symbols, the SPLC launched a study to catalog them. For the final tally [of 1,503], the researchers excluded nearly 2,600 markers, battlefields, museums, cemeteries and other places or symbols that are largely historical in nature.
^Leib, Jonathan I.; Webster, Gerald R.; Webster, Roberta H. (2000-12-01). "Rebel with a cause? Iconography and public memory in the Southern United States". GeoJournal. 52 (2): 303–310. doi:10.1023/A:1014358204037. ISSN0343-2521.
^"Whose Heritage? Public Symbols of the Confederacy". Southern Poverty Law Center. April 21, 2016. Retrieved September 15, 2017. The second spike began in the early 1950s and lasted through the 1960s, as the civil rights movement led to a backlash among segregationists. These two periods also coincided with the 50th and 100th anniversaries of the Civil War
^Goode, James M. (November 1974). The Outdoor Sculpture of Washington, D.C.: A Comprehensive Historical Guide (1st Edition/ 2nd Printing ed.). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Inst Press. p. 228. ISBN9780874741490.
^Jacob, Kathryn Allamong; Remsberg, Edwin H. (1998-09-01). Testament to Union: Civil War Monuments in Washington, D.C. Baltimore, Md.; London: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 62. ISBN9780801858611.
^Quintard, C. T. (Charles Todd); Boles, J. Durelle; Evans & Cogswell, printer; J. Durelle Boles Collection of Southern Imprints. GEU (October 6, 1863). "The Confederate soldiers' pocket manual of devotions". Charleston [S.C.] : Printed by Evans & Cogswell. Retrieved October 6, 2017 – via Internet Archive.