Lee Hsien Loong


Lee Hsien Loong

李显龙
Lee Hsien-Loong - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2012 cropped.jpg
Lee Hsien Loong in 2012
3rd Prime Minister of Singapore
Assumed office
12 August 2004
PresidentS. R. Nathan (2004–2011)
Tony Tan (2011–2017)
Halimah Yacob (2017–present)
DeputyTony Tan (2004–2005)
S. Jayakumar (2004–2009)
Wong Kan Seng (2005–2011)
Teo Chee Hean (2009–2019)
Tharman Shanmugaratnam (2011–2019)
Heng Swee Keat
(2019–Present)
Preceded byGoh Chok Tong
3rd Secretary-General of the People's Action Party
Assumed office
3 December 2004
Chairman
Assistant
Preceded byGoh Chok Tong
Minister for Finance
In office
10 November 2001 – 1 December 2007
Prime MinisterGoh Chok Tong
Himself
DeputyTony Tan
Preceded byRichard Hu
Succeeded byTharman Shanmugaratnam
Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore
In office
28 November 1990 – 12 August 2004
Prime MinisterGoh Chok Tong
Preceded byGoh Chok Tong
Succeeded byS. Jayakumar
Member of the Singapore Parliament
for Ang Mo Kio GRC
Assumed office
31 August 1991
Preceded byConstituency established
Majority62,826 (38.7%)
Member of the Singapore Parliament
for Teck Ghee SMC
In office
22 December 1984 – 31 August 1991
Preceded byConstituency established
Succeeded byConstituency abolished
Personal details
Born (1952-02-10) 10 February 1952 (age 67)
Colony of Singapore
CitizenshipSingaporean
NationalitySingaporean
Political partyPeople's Action Party
Spouse(s)
Wong Ming Yang
(m. 1978; died 1982)

Ho Ching (m. 1985)
Children
  • Li Xiuqi (daughter)
  • Li Yipeng (son)
  • Li Hongyi (son)
  • Li Haoyi (son)
MotherKwa Geok Choo (mother)
FatherLee Kuan Yew (father)
RelativesLee Hsien Yang (brother)
Lee Wei Ling (sister)
Alma materTrinity College, Cambridge
Harvard University
United States Army Command and General Staff College
Signature
WebsiteLee Hsien Loong on Facebook
Military service
Allegiance Singapore
Branch/service Singapore Army
Years of service1971–1984
Rank08-RSA-OF06.svg Brigadier-General
Lee Hsien Loong
Lee Hsien Loong (Chinese characters).svg
Lee's name in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese李显龙
Traditional Chinese李顯龍

Lee Hsien Loong (Chinese: 李显龙; Tamil: லீ சியன் லூங்; born 10 February 1952) is a Singaporean politician. He is the current and third Prime Minister of Singapore since 2004. He took over the leadership of the People's Action Party (PAP) when former Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong stepped down from the position to become the new Senior Minister. Lee then led his party to victory in the 2006, 2011 and 2015 general elections. He began his current term on 15 January 2016 following the opening of Singapore's 13th Parliament. Lee is the eldest son of Singapore's first Prime Minister, Lee Kuan Yew.

Lee graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge University, as Senior Wrangler in 1974 (gaining a Diploma in Computer Science with distinction as well) and later earned a Master of Public Administration at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government. From 1971 to 1984, he served in the Singapore Armed Forces where he rose to the rank of brigadier general. He won his first election for Member of Parliament in 1984, contesting as a member of the People's Action Party. Under Singapore's second prime minister, Goh Chok Tong, Lee served as the Minister for Trade and Industry, Minister for Finance and Deputy Prime Minister.

Background[]

The eldest child of Singapore's first Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew and his wife Kwa Geok Choo, Lee Hsien Loong was born in Singapore on 10 February 1952. His paternal grandmother, Chua Jim Neo, was a Hokkien Hakka Nyonya, and his mother has ancestry from Tong'an District and Shantou in China.[2][3] According to Lee Kuan Yew's biography, the younger Lee had learnt the Jawi script from the age of five, and has always been interested in the affairs of Singapore, often following his father to the rally grounds since 1963.

Education[]

Lee studied at Nanyang Primary School and received his secondary education at Catholic High School, before going on to National Junior College (where he learned the clarinet under the tutelage of Adjunct Associate Professor Ho Hwee Long). In 1971, he was awarded a President's Scholarship and Singapore Armed Forces Overseas Scholarship by the Public Service Commission to study mathematics at Trinity College, University of Cambridge. He was Senior Wrangler in 1973,[4][5] and graduated in 1974 with first-class honours on a Bachelor of Arts in Mathematics and a Diploma in Computer Science (equivalent to an MSc in Computer Science) with distinction. In 1980, he completed a Master of Public Administration at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.

Military career[]

Lee joined the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) in 1971, and served as an officer from 1974 to 1984. In 1978, he attended the United States Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, and held various staff and command posts, including the Director of the Joint Operations and Plans Directorate (Director, JOPD), and Chief of Staff of the General Staff (COS, GS). Lee rose quickly through the ranks in the Singapore Army, becoming the youngest brigadier-general in Singaporean history after his promotion in July 1983. Notably, he was put in command of the rescue operations following the Sentosa Cable Car Disaster. Lee served as commanding officer (CO) of 23rd Singapore Artillery (23SA) in the Singapore Army before he left the SAF in 1984 to pursue civilian politics.[6][7]

Early political career[]

In the 1980s, Lee was regarded as the core member of the next batch of new leaders in the People's Action Party (PAP) leadership transition that was taking place in the mid-1980s, as Lee Kuan Yew had declared that he would step down as prime minister in 1984. Following the 1984 general election, all of the old Central Executive Committee members resigned on 1 January 1985, except for Lee Kuan Yew himself.[8]

Lee was first elected Member of Parliament (MP) for the Teck Ghee Single Member Constituency in 1984, at the age of thirty-two. Following his first election, he was appointed as a Minister of State in the Ministry of Trade and Industry and the Ministry of Defence by his father Lee Kuan Yew who was the prime minister at that time.

In 1985, Lee chaired the government's economic committee, which recommended changes to established government policies to reduce business costs, foster longer-term growth and revive the Singapore economy, which was experiencing a recession at the time. The committee's recommendations included reductions in corporate and personal taxes and the introduction of a consumption tax.

In 1986, Lee was appointed the acting minister for Trade and Industry. In 1987, he became a full member of the Cabinet as the minister for trade and Industry and second minister for defence.

Lee was the chairman of the PAP Youth Committee, the predecessor to the Young PAP, when it was established in 1986. Lee said that the youth wing would be a channel to communicate dissent, in which otherwise they might be "tempted" to vote for the opposition political parties and bring the PAP government down.[9]

Deputy Prime Minister[]

On 28 November 1990, Goh Chok Tong took over from Lee Kuan Yew as Singapore's Prime Minister, and Lee Hsien Loong was made one of two Deputy Prime Ministers (along with Ong Teng Cheong). He also continued to serve as the Minister for Trade and Industry until 1992.

In 1992, Lee was diagnosed with lymphoma and underwent a three-month period of chemotherapy. When his treatment began, he relinquished his position as the Minister for Trade and Industry, though he continued to be a Deputy Prime Minister. His chemotherapy was successful, and his cancer has since gone into remission.

Lee was appointed Chairman of the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) in 1998, and in 2001 he was made the Minister for Finance.

To ease the growing budget deficit due to falling tax revenues from cuts in corporate and personal income taxes and other factors such as the Iraq War and SARS outbreak, Lee proposed on 29 August 2003 to raise the GST from three percent to five percent, a change which took place in January 2004.

Lee initiated several amendments to render requirements for Singapore citizenship less restrictive; notably for foreign-born children of Singaporean women.[10] The changes were made after repeated pleas from MPs and the Remaking Singapore Committee.

Prime Minister[]

Ascension[]

On 12 August 2004, Lee succeeded Goh Chok Tong as Prime Minister and relinquished his chairmanship of the Monetary Authority of Singapore to Goh Chok Tong. Lee was sworn in by Chief Justice Yong Pung How at the Istana.

Socio-economic policies[]

In his maiden National Day Rally on 22 August 2004, Lee initiated the policy of the "Five-day work week", a plan that would remove a half-working day on Saturday.[citation needed] The plan took effect on 1 January 2005.

Lee proposed a two-month paid maternity leave for mothers of newborn children and financial incentives to mothers who give birth to a fourth child.[citation needed] These policies were in response to Singapore's declining birth rate.

In November 2004, Lee sparked a national debate when he proposed to build two Integrated Resorts (IRs), or hotel-casinos. In April 2005, despite some public opposition, Lee announced the decision to approve the proposal.[11] The two IRs were built in Marina Bay and Sentosa. To limit the negative social impact of casino gambling, Lee suggested safeguards such as prohibiting minors from the casinos and charging an entrance fee for Singaporeans of S$100 (or S$2000 for a yearly pass).

Three months prior to the general election held on 6 May 2006, Lee announced a S$2.6 billion Progress Package.[12][13] to distribute budget surpluses in the form of cash, top-ups to the CPF, rental and utilities rebates, and educational funds. The cash bonuses were distributed in early May 2006. Critics, especially members of the opposition, labelled the Progress Package as a "vote-buying exercise".

Effective 1 June 2011, Lee was named chairman of the Government of Singapore Investment Corporation (GIC) which manages more than S$100 billion of assets. He succeeded his father, Lee Kuan Yew, who remained as senior advisor to the fund until his death.[14]

Speaking at his party convention on 19 November 2017, Lee suggested to raise taxes to fund future government expenses.[15] News report carried by state media such as The Straits Times and Today all suggested that taxes raised will be in the form of GST.[16][17]

Political reforms[]

In May 2010, Lee instituted electoral reforms to the current electoral system by reducing the number of group representation constituencies (GRC), increased the number of Non-constituency Members of Parliament (NCMPs) to a maximum of nine (inclusive of the number of elected opposition members of Parliament), and the number of Nominated Members of Parliament (NMPs) permanent also to nine. Also part of the reforms was the legalization of internet campaigning and mandating a "cooling-off" day where campaigning is prohibited except for party political broadcasts.

11th Cabinet[]

In that election, the PAP won 82 of the 84 seats, including 37 walkovers. The Ang Mo Kio Group Representation Constituency (GRC) was contested for the first time in 15 years. The Workers' Party (WP) claimed that they wanted to give Ang Mo Kio residents a chance to exercise their vote. Lee and his six-member GRC team won 60.42% of the votes against WP's inexperienced team.

12th Cabinet[]

In the general election of 7 May 2011, the PAP saw a 6.46% swing downwards to 60.14%, its lowest since independence.[18] While the PAP swept into power winning 81 out of 87 seats, it lost Aljunied Group Representation Constituency to the Workers' Party (WP), a historic win by an opposition party. Foreign Minister George Yeo and Minister in the Prime Minister's Office Lim Hwee Hua of the GRC were defeated.[19]

Following the election, Minister Mentor Lee Kuan Yew and Senior Minister Goh Chok Tong resigned as part of a rejuvenation process in the government.[20] Lee and Goh were appointed as senior advisers to the Government of Singapore Investment Corporation (GIC) and the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) respectively.[21][22]

Lee was sworn-in into a second term on 21 May 2011. His new cabinet included three newly appointed ministers: S. Iswaran as Minister in the Prime Minister's Office, and Second Minister for Home Affairs and for Trade and Industry; Heng Swee Keat as Minister for Education; and Chan Chun Sing as Acting Minister for Community Development, Youth and Sports and Minister of State for the Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts.[23][24] Heng became the first newly elected MP to be directly appointed as a full minister since 1984.[25][26]

13th Cabinet[]

In the 2015 Singaporean general election, held on 11 September, the PAP won 83 out of 89 seats in Parliament. Lee has since been re-elected seven times; most recently as an MP for the Ang Mo Kio Group Representation Constituency in 2015.

When the new 13th Cabinet line-up was formed on 1 October 2015 it was announced that it would have 3 coordinating ministers who are Deputy Prime Ministers Teo Chee Hean (National Security) and Tharman Shanmugaratnam (Economics and Social Policies), together with newly elected Transport Minister Khaw Boon Wan (Infrastructure) and 2 ministries MOE and MTI with 2 ministers each. MOE was henceforth led by 2 newcomer ministers Mr Ong Ye Kung and Mr Ng Chee Meng who are respectively in charge of Higher Learning/Skills and Schools. The MTI was separated for ministers S Iswaran (Industry) and Lim Hng Kiang (Trade) who both co-anchor West Coast GRC.

The Community Culture and Youth Ministry portfolio was given to Grace Fu, who became the first woman in Singapore to serve in a full ministerial position. She currently is the first female Leader of the House in Parliament.

On the 20th of July, 2018, it was announced that his health data was hacked along with that of 1.5 million residents. The hack was targetted, with the intent of accessing his health data in particular.[27]

On 23 April 2019, Prime Minister Office announced the promotion of Heng Swee Keat to become the 12th Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore effective from 1 May 2019. As part of the party's leadership succession, it is widely interpreted as a prelude to Heng replacing Lee as Singapore's fourth Prime Minister, sometime after the next general elections.[28]

Foreign relations[]

Lee and U.S. President Donald Trump, 8 July 2017

China[]

During his meeting with vice-premier Wu Yi in September 2005, Lee proposed the establishment of a China-ASEAN Free Trade Zone, which would achieve the goal of realizing US$50 billion in trade volume before 2010.[citation needed]

United States[]

Lee with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry and U.S. Vice President Joe Biden, August 2016

On 12 July 2005, Lee signed the Strategic Framework Agreement with then President George W. Bush in his inaugural visit to the United States as Singapore's Prime Minister to foster a closer cooperation in defence and security, and to address common threats such as terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.[citation needed]

In 2016, Lee made his first official visit to the White House upon invitation of then President Barack Obama to commemorate 50 years of diplomatic ties with the United States.[29][30]

Lee was one of the early drafters and a strong advocate of the Trans-Pacific Partnership, and had on many occasions urged the U.S. Congress to ratify the trade deal as soon as possible. He added that not doing so would "affect U.S. standing and credibility" in the world.[31] The plan ultimately fell through after Donald Trump assumed the presidency in 2017 and pulled the country out of the pact.[32]

In June 2018, Lee congratulated President Trump and North Korean leader Kim Jong-un in separate letters sent to them on the successful outcome of the 2018 North Korea–United States summit in Singapore and wished both countries success in implementing the agreement signed.[33]

Taiwan[]

On 10 July 2004, Lee visited Taiwan to the displeasure of China. On 28 August 2004 in his first National Day Rally speech, Lee criticized the Taiwanese leadership and populace over their pro-independence stance. He reiterated his support for the One-China policy and clarified that his visit was to gather enough intelligence before taking over as Prime Minister. In September 2004, Foreign Minister George Yeo cautioned the United Nations General Assembly that actions by Taiwan's independence groups could lead to war with China. An enraged Taiwanese Foreign Minister, Mark Chen, called Singapore a "nose-shit" country for interfering.[34][35] Chen later made a formal apology.[36]

Controversies[]

Allegation of nepotism[]

As the eldest son of Singapore's first Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew, Lee's career has been shadowed by allegations of nepotism.[37][38][39][40] He was widely tipped to be Lee Kuan Yew's successor as Prime Minister with several critics viewing Goh Chok Tong as a seat-warmer. Responding to the issue of nepotism Lee challenged his critics to prove it or put the matter to rest.[37][38]

Legal action had been taken in the Singapore courts for defamation against the Financial Times (2007)[40] and the New York Times Company.[41] In a 2008 report, the International Bar Association Human Rights Institute cast doubts over the independence of the judiciary in cases involving PAP litigants or interests. However, WP immigrants have noted high levels of stability in recognition.[42]

New York Times libel suit[]

In 2010, Lee, together with his predecessors Lee Kuan Yew and Goh Chok Tong, threatened legal action against The New York Times Company which owns the International Herald Tribune regarding an op-ed piece titled "All in the Family" of 15 February 2010 by Philip Bowring, a freelance columnist and former or of the Far Eastern Economic Review. The International Herald Tribune apologised in March that readers of the article may "infer that the younger Lee did not achieve his position through merit". The New York Times Company and Bowring agreed to pay S$60,000 to Lee, S$50,000 to Lee Kuan Yew and S$50,000 to Goh (total amounted to about US$114,000 at the time), in addition to legal costs. The case stemmed from a 1994 settlement between the three Singaporean leaders and the paper about an article also by Bowring that referred to 'dynastic politics' in East Asian countries, including Singapore. In that settlement, Bowring agreed not to say or imply that the younger Lee had attained his position through nepotism by his father, Lee Kuan Yew. In response, media rights watchdog Reporters Without Borders wrote an open letter to urge Lee and other top officials of the Singapore government to stop taking 'libel actions' against journalists.[41][43][44][45]

Salary[]

From 2008 to 2012, Lee earned an annual salary of S$3,870,000 (US$2,856,930),[46] an increase of 25% from the previous S$3,091,200 (US$2,037,168).[47][48] In January 2012, in response to public unhappiness at the high salary,[49] Lee took a 28% pay cut, reducing his salary to S$2.2 million (US$1.7 million).[50][51][52] He remains the highest-paid head of government in the world.[53]

Lee Kuan Yew's Oxley Road house[]

In June 2017, Lee became embroiled in a dispute with his brother Lee Hsien Yang and sister Lee Wei Ling, over the fate of their father's house at 38 Oxley Road.[54][55][56][57] Lee Kuan Yew, Singapore's founding Prime Minister, was averse to a cult of personality.[58] As a result, he had inserted in his final Will a demolition clause. The first part of the clause stated that he wanted his house to be torn down when his daughter decides to move out. The second part of the clause stated that should demolition be impossible, his house should not be open to the public.[59]

Lee's siblings alleged that he was abusing his powers, using "organs of the state" as prime minister to preserve the house against their father's wishes. Lee and the Cabinet denied all their allegations and convened a special sitting of Parliament to debate the matter thoroughly.[60] In his closing speech, Lee stated: "After two days of debate, nobody has stood behind these [his siblings'] allegations or offered any evidence, not even opposition MPs … It shows that the Government and I have acted properly and with due process." He left open options to convene a select committee or Commission of Inquiry should substantive evidence be presented.[61][62][63][64] The siblings accepted Lee's offer to settle the dispute in private the following day.[65]

On September 5 2019, Lee sued journalist Terry Xu of The Online Citizen for repeating statements made by Lee's siblings.[66] By doing so, Lee attracted critics for using Prime Minister Office resources for personal matters.[66]

Personal life[]

Brigadier-General Lee Hsien Loong, chief of staff (General Staff) of the Singapore Armed Forces, 1984

Lee married his first wife, Wong Ming Yang, a Malaysian-born physician, on 20 May 1978. Their daughter, Li Xiuqi, was born in 1980. Three weeks after giving birth to their first son, Li Yipeng, Wong died at the age of 31 on 28 October 1982 of a heart attack.[67] In 1985, when Lee was 33, he married Ho Ching, a fast-rising civil servant who subsequently became the executive director and chief executive officer of Temasek Holdings.

Lee has a daughter – Xiuqi[68] – and three sons – Yipeng,[69] Hongyi and Haoyi[70] (including the daughter and eldest son from Lee's first marriage). Ho Ching's eldest son, Li Hongyi, was an officer in the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF),[71] and is currently the deputy director in the Government Technology Agency of Singapore, under the Prime Minister's Office.[72]

Lee was initially diagnosed with lymphoma for which he underwent chemotherapy[73] in the early 1990s[74] then subsequently also underwent a successful robot-assisted keyhole prostatectomy on 15 February 2015 after being diagnosed with prostate cancer.[75][76][77]

Lee is interested in computer programming and has written a Sudoku solver in C++ in his spare time.[78]

Honours[]

See also[]

References[]

Citations
  1. ^ a b Sim, Royston (23 November 2018). "Heng Swee Keat picked as PAP's first assistant secretary-general, indicating he will be next PM". The Straits Times. OCLC 8572659.
  2. ^ 新加坡內閣資政李光耀 Archived 31 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine Xinhua.com
  3. ^ 李光耀劝扁勿藉奥运搞台独 Zaobao.com
  4. ^ Kuan Yew, Lee (2000). From Third World to First: The Singapore Story: 1965–2000. Harper. pp. 750–751. ISBN 978-0-06019-776-6.
  5. ^ Neo Hui Min (12 August 2004). "Dennis Marrian, University Tutor". Straits Times. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
  6. ^ "'PM Lee, my army buddy': What it was like doing NS with the man who became Prime Minister".
  7. ^ "The Cabinet". Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  8. ^ Chan, Heng Chee (1986). "Singapre in 1985: Managing Political Transition and Economic Recession". Asian Survey. University of California Press. 26 (2): 158–167. doi:10.2307/2644451. JSTOR 2644451.
  9. ^ "Our History". Young PAP. Archived from the original on 20 March 2014. Retrieved 7 January 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  10. ^ Chuang Peck Ming (12 June 2003). "Push For Rights Of Singapore Women's Foreign-born". Yaleglobal.yale.edu. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
  11. ^ Singapore, National Library Board. "Casino Control Act - Infopedia". eresources.nlb.gov.sg.
  12. ^ "Progress Package Home Page". Ministry of Finance. Central Provident Fund Board. 2007. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
  13. ^ "聯合早報:新加坡經濟好轉 成果與民共享". 中國評論通訊社. 18 February 2006. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
  14. ^ Lee Hsien Loong Named Chairman of GIC, Succeeding His Father, Lars, Klemming, Bloomberg News, 31 May 2011
  15. ^ hermes (20 November 2017). "Singapore to raise taxes as govt spending increases".
  16. ^ "GST could be raised to 9% in Budget 2018: DBS report".
  17. ^ hermesauto (20 November 2017). "GST hike may be on the cards, say economists and tax specialists".
  18. ^ Brown, Kevin (8 May 2011). "Singapore opposition makes historic gains". Financial Times. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  19. ^ "81 out of 87 seats for PAP". AsiaOne. 8 May 2011. Archived from the original on 22 March 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  20. ^ "Singapore founding father Lee Kuan Yew resigns". BBC News. 14 May 2011.
  21. ^ Zakir Hussain (19 May 2011). "PM accepts MM, SM's offer to step down: They will be senior advisers to GIC, MAS respectively". The Straits Times. p. A3.
  22. ^ Leong Wee Keat, "MM Lee and SM Goh to become Senior Advisers to GIC, MAS respectively", Today, p. 4, archived from the original on 9 June 2012 Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  23. ^ Lydia Lim (19 May 2011), "Radical reshuffle", The Straits Times, pp. A1 & A4
  24. ^ Loh Chee Kong, "PM goes for a 'radical change': I wanted a fresh start, says Prime Minister", Today, pp. 1 & 3, archived from the original on 9 June 2012 Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  25. ^ Rachel Chang (19 May 2011), "First new MP named minister since 1984: But former MAS chief is heading Education, not Finance as some expected", The Straits Times, p. A7
  26. ^ Esther Ng (19 May 2011), "Immediate appointments not surprising", Today, p. 6, archived from the original on 22 May 2011 Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  27. ^ "News Highlights". Archived from the original on 20 July 2018. Retrieved 26 July 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  28. ^ "Heng Swee Keat to be promoted to DPM in Cabinet reshuffle". Channel NewsAsia. 23 April 2019. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  29. ^ https://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2016/08/02/after-30-years-president-obama-welcomes-singapore-white-house Follow Along: Welcoming Singapore to the White House
  30. ^ https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/elections/2016/08/01/united-states-50-year-relationship-singapore-white-house-state-dinner/87941940/ President Obama welcomes Singapore's Lee Hsien Loong to historic dinner
  31. ^ http://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/pm-lee-warns-of-harm-to-us-standing-if-tpp-isnt-ratified PM Lee Hsien Loong warns of harm to US' standing if TPP isn't ratified
  32. ^ http://www.straitstimes.com/asia/se-asia/singapore-disappointed-tpp-is-unlikely-to-be-passed-under-donald-trump-pm-lee Singapore disappointed TPP is unlikely to be passed under Donald Trump: PM Lee
  33. ^ "PM Lee congratulates Donald Trump, Kim Jong Un on successful conclusion of summit". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
  34. ^ Yang, Mengyu (28 September 2004). "台外長以"鼻屎"喻新加坡引發批評" [Taiwanese Foreign Minister calls Singapore "nose-shit", triggers criticism]. BBC Chinese. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  35. ^ Foreign minister slams Singapore, Taipei Times, September 28, 2004
  36. ^ Wang, Pingyu (29 September 2004). "鼻屎喻星 陳唐山道歉" [Mark Chen apologises for calling Singapore "nose shit"]. Liberty Times. Archived from the original on 24 November 2007. Retrieved 23 March 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  37. ^ a b "PM Lee discusses the issue of nepotism". Asiaone. 16 April 2010. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  38. ^ a b "Excerpts of Singapore PM Lee's interview by Charlie Rose – 14 Apr 2010". sporenewsalternative. YouTube. 16 April 2010. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  39. ^ "Singapore Answered Charge of Nepotism". The New York Times. 22 February 1996.
  40. ^ a b Brook, Stephen (18 October 2007). "Financial Times apologises to Singapore PM over nepotism claims". The Guardian. London.
  41. ^ a b Richard Perez-Pena (25 March 2010). "Times Co. Settles Claim in Singapore". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 March 2010.
  42. ^ International Bar Association (July 2008). "Prosperity versus individual rights? Human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Singapore" (PDF). Human Rights Institute Report. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 October 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  43. ^ Alex Kennedy. "NY Times pays damages to Singapore leaders". Associated Press. Retrieved 25 March 2010.
  44. ^ "New York Times to pay damages to Singapore leaders". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 25 March 2010.
  45. ^ "Stop suing journalists: RSF tells Singapore leaders". Bangkok Post. 26 March 2010. Retrieved 26 March 2010.
  46. ^ Lee, Lynn. "Ministers, top civil servants to get 4% to 21% pay rise in Jan". Archived from the original on 14 February 2008. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  47. ^ Seth, Mydans (9 April 2007). "Singapore announces 60 percent pay raise for ministers". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
  48. ^ "SPEECH BY MR LEE HSIEN LOONG,PRIME MINISTER, AT PARLIAMENTARY DEBATE ON CIVIL SERVICE SALARY REVISIONS, 11 APRIL 2007, 4.30 PM". www.nas.gov.sg. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
  49. ^ "Singapore's Prime Minister forced to take 36% pay cut – but at .7 million a year, he's still one of best paid leaders in world". Daily Mail. London.
  50. ^ "Salaries Cut, Singapore Leaders Are Still Well-Paid". The Wall Street Journal. 18 January 2012.
  51. ^ Mydans, Seth (23 January 2012). "Singapore Slashes Officials' Salaries". The New York Times.
  52. ^ "AFP: Singapore PM says Obama earns less but has perks". 17 January 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
  53. ^ "Singapore faces growing pains as setbacks pile up". Reuters. 6 February 2012.
  54. ^ CNN, Joshua Berlinger and Euan McKirdy. "Singapore PM apologizes for family feud". CNN. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
  55. ^ "Singapore PM hits back at siblings over abuse of power claims". amp.ft.com. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
  56. ^ Chandran, Nyshka (20 June 2017). "Singapore's PM opens himself up to debate amid abuse of power claims". CNBC. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
  57. ^ hermesauto (3 July 2017). "Oxley Road: PM Lee addresses allegations of abuse of power through Ministerial Committee". The Straits Times. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
  58. ^ "Singapore, the Nation That Lee Kuan Yew Built, Questions Its Direction - The New York Times". New York Times. 25 March 2015.
  59. ^ Sim, Royston (23 June 2017). "Oxley Road dispute: Lee Kuan Yew's final will 'accepts' Oxley house demolition may not take place, says Indranee Rajah". The Straits Times. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
  60. ^ "Singapore PM Lee Hsien Loong says wants to avoid legal action against siblings". CNBC. 3 July 2017.
  61. ^ "Lee Hsien Loong refutes siblings' charges of abuse of power over Oxley house". The Straits Times. 4 July 2017.
  62. ^ "Lee Kuan Yew's thinking on 38, Oxley Road". The Straits Times. 4 July 2017.
  63. ^ "Singapore's PM: I am fulfilling my father's dying wishes for 38 Oxley Road". South China Morning Post. 4 July 2017.
  64. ^ "Hsien Yang's objection to Oxley house plan a 'complete surprise'". Todayonline. 4 July 2017.
  65. ^ "Oxley Road: Lees' public feud takes conciliatory turn; Lee Hsien Yang and Wei Ling say they accept offer to settle dispute in private". The Straits Times. 6 July 2017.
  66. ^ a b Voices, Global (11 September 2019). "Singapore prime minister sues independent news website for defamation". Hong Kong Free Press HKFP. Retrieved 11 September 2019.
  67. ^ Bertha Henson (9 May 1993). "It was a bolt from the blue". The Sunday Times / Asiaone. Archived from the original on 19 May 2007. Retrieved 19 August 2008. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  68. ^ "Ministers make time for children's graduation". The Straits Times. 21 November 1987. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
  69. ^ Lee, Philip (1 November 1982). "I remember — by Col Lee". The Straits Times. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
  70. ^ Sudderuddin, Shuli (9 March 2009). "PM Lee attends OCC parade". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 9 March 2009. Retrieved 13 August 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  71. ^ Burton, John (13 July 2007). "E-mail by Singapore PM's son backfires". Financial Times. ISSN 0307-1766. Archived from the original on 3 June 2014. Retrieved 13 August 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  72. ^ Yuen-C, Tham (15 June 2017). "PM Lee Hsien Loong's son Li Hongyi says he is not interested in politics". The Straits Times. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
  73. ^ Lee, Hsien Loong. "Motivational Message Contributed By Mr Lee Hsien Loong, Prime Minister of Singapore". CancerStory. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
  74. ^ Henson, Bertha. "'It was a bolt from the blue. But that's life.'". Archived from the original on 19 May 2007. Retrieved 16 February 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  75. ^ "PM Lee Hsien Loong diagnosed with prostate cancer, to undergo surgery on Monday". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  76. ^ "PM Lee's operation 'successful', 'expected to recover fully'". Retrieved 16 February 2015.
  77. ^ "PM Lee Hsien Loong's prostate cancer operation a success". AsiaOne. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  78. ^ "Prime Minister of Singapore shares his C++ code for Sudoku solver". Ars Technica UK. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  79. ^ "Perú espera una mayor inversión de Singapur en puertos y tecnología – Perú 21" (in Spanish). Peru21.pe. 22 November 2008. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
  80. ^ "S'pore presented with special Olympic flag". Channel NewsAsia. 13 August 2010. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
Bibliography

External links[]

Speeches
Parliament of Singapore
New constituency Member of Parliament
for Teck Ghee SMC

1984–1991
Constituency abolished
Member of Parliament
for Ang Mo Kio GRC

1991–present
Incumbent
Political offices
Preceded by
Tony Tan
Minister for Trade and Industry
1986–1992
Succeeded by
Suppiah Dhanabalan
Preceded by
Goh Chok Tong
Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore
1990–2004
Served alongside: Goh Chok Tong, Shanmugam Jayakumar
Succeeded by
Tony Tan
Preceded by
Richard Hu
Minister for Finance
2001–2007
Succeeded by
Tharman Shanmugaratnam
Preceded by
Goh Chok Tong
Prime Minister of Singapore
2004–present
Incumbent
Party political offices
Preceded by
Goh Chok Tong
Secretary General of the People's Action Party
2004–present
Incumbent
Positions in intergovernmental organisations
Preceded by
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
Chair of the ASEAN
2007
Succeeded by
Abhisit Vejjajiva
Preceded by
Rodrigo Duterte
Chair of the ASEAN
2018
Succeeded by
Prayut Chan-o-cha
Preceded by
Alan García
Chair of the APEC
2009
Succeeded by
Naoto Kan