Kwangali language

Kwangali
Rukwangali
Native toNamibia, Angola
RegionOkavango River
Native speakers
152,000 (2018)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3kwn
Glottologkwan1273[2]
K.33[3]

Kwangali, or RuKwangali, is a Bantu language spoken by 85,000 people along the Okavango River in Namibia, where it is a national language, and in Angola. It is one of several Bantu languages of the Okavango which have click consonants; these are the dental clicks c and gc, along with prenasalization and aspiration.

Maho (2009) includes Mbundza as a dialect, but excludes Sambyu, which he includes in Manyo.

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Bilabial Labio-
dental
Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive voiceless p t k
aspirated
voiced b d ɡ
prenasal vl. ᵐpʰ ⁿtʰ ᵑkʰ
prenasal vd. ᵐb ⁿd ⁿdʒ ᵑɡ
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ h
voiced β v z
prenasal vl. ᶬf ⁿs
prenasal vd. ᶬv ⁿz
Nasal m n ɲ
Trill r
Lateral l
Approximant j w

A dental click type [ǀ] may also be heard,[how many consonants is this?] being adopted from the neighboring Khoisan languages. The clicks may also tend to be heard as alveolar [!].[4]

Vowels[]

Front Central Back
High i iː u uː
Mid e eː o oː
Low a aː

Short vowels of /i e o u/ may also be pronounced as [ɪ ɛ ɔ ʊ].[5]

References[]

  1. ^ "Kwangali". Ethnologue. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kwangali". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online
  4. ^ Dammann (1957)
  5. ^ Sommer, Gabi (2003). Western Savanna. Nurse, Derek and Philippson, Gérard (eds.), The Bantu languages: London & New York: Routledge. pp. 566–580.

Books[]