Kushiro, Hokkaido

Kushiro
釧路市
Top:Kushiro Wetland Park, 2nd left:Lake Akan, 2nd right Port of Kushiro, 3rd: Mount Akan-Fuji, Bottom left:Kushiro Ramen, Bottom right:Kushiro Fisherman's Wharf
Top:Kushiro Wetland Park, 2nd left:Lake Akan, 2nd right Port of Kushiro, 3rd: Mount Akan-Fuji, Bottom left:Kushiro Ramen, Bottom right:Kushiro Fisherman's Wharf
Flag of Kushiro
Official seal of Kushiro
Location of Kushiro in Hokkaido (Kushiro Subprefecture)
Location of Kushiro in Hokkaido (Kushiro Subprefecture)
Kushiro is located in Japan
Kushiro
Kushiro
Location in Japan
Coordinates: 42°59′N 144°23′E / 42.983°N 144.383°E / 42.983; 144.383Coordinates: 42°59′N 144°23′E / 42.983°N 144.383°E / 42.983; 144.383
CountryJapan
RegionHokkaido
PrefectureHokkaido (Kushiro Subprefecture)
Government
 • MayorEbina Hiroya
Area
 • Total1,362.75 km2 (526.16 sq mi)
Population
 (January 31, 2020)
 • Total167,875
 • Density123/km2 (320/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+09:00 (JST)
City hall address7-5 Kuroganechō, Kushiro-shi, Hokkaido
085-8505
Websitewww.city.kushiro.lg.jp
Symbols
FlowerNasturtium
TreeSyringa reticulata
MascotRin-chan (りんちゃん)

Kushiro (釧路市, Kushiro-shi) is a city in Kushiro Subprefecture on the island of Hokkaido, Japan. It serves as the subprefecture's capital and it is the most populated city in the eastern part of the island.

History[]

An Imperial decree in July 1899 established Kushiro as an open port for trading with the United States and the United Kingdom.[1]

Kushiro has been an important port because it is more reliably ice-free during winter than alternative Russian Far East warm-water ports such as Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky or other ports in Hokkaido such as Hakodate, which occasionally do freeze for short periods due to the lower salinity of the Sea of Japan. For this reason, Kushiro was considered a valuable target for the Tsars during the Russo-Japanese Wars, but it only became a really important port during the 1920s with the growth of commercial fishing, for which its reliable freedom from ice reduced costs.[2]

In addition to its port, Kushiro is serviced by Kushiro Airport with flights from Honshu and by the Ōzora limited express train service, which runs six times per day to the main population centres in the west of Hokkaido.

In July 1945 the city of Kushiro was bombed by American naval aircraft, hundreds of people, mostly civilians, were killed.[3] Following the Invasion of the Kuril Islands in August 1945, Kushiro was favoured by the Russians as the eastern cornerstone of a border between an American-occupied south and a Soviet-occupied north-coupled with Rumoi as the western cornerstone. However, these plans were cancelled after pressure by US President Harry S. Truman.[4][5][6][7]

On October 11, 2005, the town of Akan, from Akan District, and the town of Onbetsu, from Shiranuka District, was merged into Kushiro. The town of Shiranuka now lies between the two sections of Kushiro.

In 2008, the city had an estimated population of 189,539 and a total area of 1,362.75 km2 (526.16 sq mi), giving a population density of 140 persons per km2 (363 persons per sq. mi.).

Kushiro was one of the many Japanese cities to receive a Peace Pagoda. Built by the monks and nuns of the Buddhist order Nipponzan Myohoji, it was inaugurated in 1959.

Kushiro was accorded city status on 1 August 1922. It is the sister city of Burnaby, British Columbia; Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia; and Kholmsk, Russia.[8]

Geography[]

Train passing through Kushiro Wetlands, in Hokkaido, Japan
City central

Mountains[]

Rivers[]

Lakes[]

National Parks[]

Climate[]

Kushiro has a humid continental climate (Dfb) but its winter temperatures are less severe than those of inland East Asia at the same latitude. Its port is the most reliably ice-free throughout winter in all of Hokkaido, due to the lack of indentation in the coastline and absence of large inflows of cold fresh water nearby. It is also markedly sunnier than the extremely gloomy Kuril Islands to its north, being sheltered by Hokkaido's mountains from the heavy snowfalls produced on the Sea of Japan side by the Aleutian Low. It receives only a third as much snowfall as Sapporo and almost twice as much sunshine as the Kuril Islands are estimated to.

Climate data for Kushiro/Kenebetsu weather station, 14m amsl (WMO identifier: 47418) 1991−2020 normals, extremes 1910−present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 7.6
(45.7)
7.9
(46.2)
15.9
(60.6)
23.5
(74.3)
28.0
(82.4)
32.4
(90.3)
31.4
(88.5)
31.1
(88.0)
29.6
(85.3)
22.9
(73.2)
18.7
(65.7)
12.4
(54.3)
32.4
(90.3)
Average high °C (°F) −0.2
(31.6)
−0.1
(31.8)
3.3
(37.9)
8.0
(46.4)
12.6
(54.7)
15.8
(60.4)
19.6
(67.3)
21.5
(70.7)
20.1
(68.2)
15.1
(59.2)
8.9
(48.0)
2.5
(36.5)
10.6
(51.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) −4.8
(23.4)
−4.3
(24.3)
−0.4
(31.3)
4.0
(39.2)
8.6
(47.5)
12.2
(54.0)
16.1
(61.0)
18.2
(64.8)
16.5
(61.7)
11.0
(51.8)
4.7
(40.5)
−1.9
(28.6)
6.7
(44.1)
Average low °C (°F) −9.8
(14.4)
−9.4
(15.1)
−4.2
(24.4)
0.7
(33.3)
5.4
(41.7)
9.5
(49.1)
13.6
(56.5)
15.7
(60.3)
12.9
(55.2)
6.1
(43.0)
−0.3
(31.5)
−7.0
(19.4)
2.8
(37.0)
Record low °C (°F) −28.3
(−18.9)
−27.0
(−16.6)
−24.8
(−12.6)
−14.1
(6.6)
−4.6
(23.7)
−0.4
(31.3)
3.3
(37.9)
5.4
(41.7)
−2.2
(28.0)
−6.9
(19.6)
−15.2
(4.6)
−25.7
(−14.3)
−28.3
(−18.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 40.4
(1.59)
24.8
(0.98)
55.9
(2.20)
79.4
(3.13)
115.7
(4.56)
114.2
(4.50)
120.3
(4.74)
142.3
(5.60)
153.0
(6.02)
112.7
(4.44)
64.7
(2.55)
56.6
(2.23)
1,080.1
(42.52)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 32
(13)
27
(11)
31
(12)
7
(2.8)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
4
(1.6)
26
(10)
127
(50)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm) 6.4 5.6 8.1 9.8 11.3 10.2 11.5 11.8 11.8 8.7 8.0 7.7 110.8
Average relative humidity (%) 67 69 71 77 80 87 88 87 84 76 69 67 77
Mean monthly sunshine hours 186.7 183.1 200.8 182.2 177.5 126.8 118.9 117.6 143.9 177.0 167.6 175.6 1,957.6
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency[9]
Climate data for Kushiro Airport weather station, 94.8m amsl (WMO identifier: 47489) 1985−2015 dewpoints
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average dew point °C (°F) −11
(12)
−10
(14)
−6
(21)
−1
(30)
5
(41)
10
(50)
15
(59)
17
(63)
13
(55)
6
(43)
−2
(28)
−8
(18)
2
(36)
Source: Time and Date[10]

Education[]

Universities[]

National[]

Public[]

Colleges[]

National[]

Private[]

High schools[]

Public[]

Private[]

Transportation[]

Sports[]

Ice hockey is one of the most popular winter sports in Kushiro. In addition to several leagues devoted to amateur play of all ages, Kushiro is home to the Asia League Ice Hockey Nippon Paper Cranes, three time Asia League Champions.

Kushiro and many other cities are interested in hosting bandy teams.[11] On January 8, 2017, the township of Akan hosted the first national championship,[12] although the size of the field was a smaller version than the official rules for a bandy field. In January 2018, the first championship on a full-sized field took place in Shintoku, with participation from three teams, including FACEOFF Kushiro.[13] The national team for women is based in Kushiro and made its World Championship debut in 2020.[14]

Mascot[]

Rin-chan, the city's mascot

Kushiro's mascot is Rin-chan (りんちゃん). She is a gentiana triflora flower (though she represents all flowers) from Onbetsu. Her favourite drink is milk.[15]

Notable people[]

Sister cities[]

References[]

  1. ^ US Department of State. (1906). A digest of international law as embodied in diplomatic discussions, treaties and other international agreements (John Bassett Moore, ed.), Vol. 5, p. 759.
  2. ^ Port of Kushiro
  3. ^ The Asahi Shimbun. "朝日新聞デジタル:空襲の記憶 風化させぬ - 北海道 - 地域". www.asahi.com (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 14 April 2022. Retrieved 2022-04-13.
  4. ^ Holloway, David, ‘Jockeying for Position in the Postwar World: Soviet Entry into the War with Japan in August 1945’, in The End of the Pacific War: Reappraisals, ed. by Tsuyoshi Hasegawa (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007), pp. 145-188 (pp. 178-179).
  5. ^ Nimmo, William F (2001). Stars and Stripes Across the Pacific: The United States, Japan, and Asia page 237. ISBN 9780275964535. Retrieved December 18, 2017.
  6. ^ Clark, Gregory (August 22, 2014). "How WWII could have ended". Japan Times. Retrieved December 18, 2017.
  7. ^ Yumashev, Ivan (August 19, 1945). "REPORT BY IVAN YUMASHEV TO ALEKSANDR VASILEVSKY". Retrieved December 18, 2017.
  8. ^ Russian presence in Japan Archived August 17, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ 気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値). Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  10. ^ "Climate & Weather Averages at Kushiro Airport weather station". Time and Date. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  11. ^ Greetings from Yukiaki Okada President Japan Bandy Federation
  12. ^ "鈴木貴子『あの噂のスポーツが阿寒にやって来た!~私を五輪につれてって♥~』".
  13. ^ https://translate.google.co.uk/translate?hl=en&sl=ru&tl=sv&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.rusbandy.ru%2Fnews%2F9968%2F
  14. ^ "北海道ニュースリンク | 北海道の情報配信サイト".
  15. ^ "旧音別町の概要". Kushiro.
  16. ^ "Port Stephens Council: Port Stephens Sister Cities". 2007-09-27. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2018-01-17.

External links[]