Klingon grammar

The grammar of the Klingon language was created by Marc Okrand for the Star Trek franchise. He first described it in his book The Klingon Dictionary. It is a nominative–accusative, primarily suffixing agglutinative language, and has an object–verb–subject word order. The Klingon language has a number of unusual grammatical features, as it was designed to sound and seem alien, but it has an extremely regular morphology.

Word order[]

Klingon follows an object–verb–subject word order.[1] Adverbs usually go at the beginning of the sentence[2] and prepositional phrases go before the object.[3]

Doʼ DujDaq ghoqwIʼ Sam laʼ

Doʼ

fortunately

Duj

ship

-

+

Daq

LOC

ghoqwIʼ

spy

Sam

find

laʼ

commander

Doʼ Duj - Daq ghoqwIʼ Sam laʼ

fortunately ship + LOC spy find commander

Fortunately, the commander found the spy aboard the ship

Sentences can be treated as objects, and the word ʼeʼ is placed after the sentence. ʼeʼ is treated as the object of the next sentence.[4] The adverbs, indirect objects and locatives of the latter sentence go after the subject, but before the ʼeʼ[5]

bIpIv ʼeʼ vItuʼ

bI

you-Ø‍

-

+

pIv

be healthy

ʼeʼ

that

vI

I-it

-

+

tuʼ

observe

bI - pIv ʼeʼ vI - tuʼ

you-Ø‍ + {be healthy} that I-it + observe

I see that you're healthy (lit. I observe that you are healthy)

Nouns[]

Klingon has three noun classes. The first one is living beings with an innate capacity to use language. The second one is body parts (not the body itself) and the third is all other nouns.[6] Klingon has no articles, so the word raS table can mean a table or the table. The difference between the two is inferred from context.

Suffixes[]

There are five types of noun suffixes. A word cannot have two suffixes of the same type.[7] The suffixes are ordered based on type number; a type 2 suffix goes before a type 3 suffix, but after a type 1 suffix.[8] In the following example, all five suffix types are used in the correct order.

vengHommeyqoqchajDaq

veng

city

-

+

Hom

DIM

-

+

mey

PL

-

+

qoq

DUB

-

+

chaj

their

-

+

Daq

LOC

veng - Hom - mey - qoq - chaj - Daq

city + DIM + PL + DUB + their + LOC

in their so-called villages

Type 1 (size, affection)[]

This type has three suffixes:

ghom

group

 

ghomʼaʼ

crowd

ghom → ghomʼaʼ

group {} crowd

yuQ

planet

 

yuQHom

planetoid

yuQ → yuQHom

planet {} planetoid

vav

father

 

vavoy

daddy

vav → vavoy

father {} daddy

  • If the noun to which the endearment suffix is added ends with a vowel, a glottal stop is inserted between them:[9]

ghu

baby

 

ghuʼoy

dear baby

ghu → ghuʼoy

baby {} {dear baby}

Type 2 (plurals)[]

This type of suffix forms plurals. There are three suffixes, one for each noun class.

qetwIʼ

runner

 

qetwIʼpuʼ

runners

qetwIʼ → qetwIʼpuʼ

runner {} runners

ghop

hand

 

ghopDuʼ

hands

ghop → ghopDuʼ

hand {} hands

quS

chair

 

quSmey

chairs

quS → quSmey

chair {} chairs

  • When -mey is used for nouns that would normally take -puʼ or -Duʼ, it carries the connotation of being all over the place.

ghot

person

 

ghotmey

people all over the place

ghot → ghotmey

person {} {people all over the place}

A noun does not require a plural suffix if a pronoun, pronominal prefix, or context serves to indicate that it is plural,[10] or if it is being used in conjunction with a number.[11]

Duypuʼ chaH or Duy chaH
They are emissaries.
raSmey DIghor or raS DIghor
We broke the tables.

Type 3 (accuracy)[]

This type of suffix indicates the speaker's opinion of the applicability of the noun. There are three suffixes:

QaH

the help

 

QaHqoq

the so-called help

QaH → QaHqoq

{the help} {} {the so-called help}

choH

change

 

choHHey

apparent change

choH → choHHey

change {} {apparent change}

jup

friend

 

jupnaʼ

true friend

jup → jupnaʼ

friend {} {true friend}

Type 4 (possession, determiners)[]

This type of suffix indicates possession or specifies which object is referred to. It contains twelve suffixes.

There are ten possession suffixes, indicating who is the possessor of the object, which may be a person. For first- and second-person possessors, there are different forms depending on whether the "object" is a being capable of using language.

Possessives[13] 1st-person
singular
2nd-person
singular
3rd-person
singular
1st-person
plural
2nd-person
plural
3rd-person
plural
Not capable of using language -wIj -lIj -Daj -maj -raj -chaj
Capable of using language -wIʼ -lIʼ -maʼ -raʼ

There are also two determiner suffixes:[14]

Examples:

nav

paper

 

navwIj

my paper

nav → navwIj

paper {} {my paper}

qeSwIʼpuʼ

advisors

 

qeSwIʼpuʼlIʼ

your advisors

qeSwIʼpuʼ → qeSwIʼpuʼlIʼ

advisors {} {your advisors}

Soj

food

 

Sojvam

this food

Soj → Sojvam

food {} {this food}

Type 5 (syntactic role)[]

This type of suffix serves a syntactic role in the sentence. It contains five suffixes.

juHmaj

our home

 

juHmajDaq

in our home

juHmaj → juHmajDaq

{our home} {} {in our home}

qoj

cliff

 

qojvoʼ

away from the cliff

qoj → qojvoʼ

cliff {} {away from the cliff}

ghuʼ

situation

 

ghuʼmoʼ

because of the situation

ghuʼ → ghuʼmoʼ

situation {} {because of the situation}

jeʼwIʼ

buyer

 

jeʼwIʼvaD

to/for the buyer

jeʼwIʼ → jeʼwIʼvaD

buyer {} {to/for the buyer}

Verbs[]

Klingon verbs mark for aspect but not for tense, which is indicated where necessary by context and by time adverbs. Prefixes mark subject and object. There are ten types of suffix, and as with nouns, a verb can have no more than one suffix of any type. (The tenth type, called rovers, are an exception.) Again as with nouns, the types of suffix must appear in a strict order, indicated by their type number: a type 2 suffix goes before a type 3 suffix, but after a type 1 suffix. A rover suffix can go between any of them.[17]

Unlike English, there is no infinitive.[18] The presentation of the verb stem as an infinitive in this article's example sentences is just to show the individual morphemes.

Prefixes[]

Klingon verb prefixes mark both the subject and the object.

Verb prefixes[18]
Object
No object 1st person
singular
2nd person
singular
3rd person
singular
1st person
plural
2nd person
plural
3rd person
plural
Subject 1st person singular jI- qa- vI- Sa- vI-
2nd person singular bI- cho- Da- ju- Da-
3rd person singular Ø- mu- Du- Ø- nu- lI- Ø-
1st person plural ma- pI- wI- re- DI-
2nd person plural Su- tu- bo- che- bo-
3rd person plural Ø- mu- nI- lu- nu- lI- Ø-
unspecified* Ø- vI- Da- Ø- wI- bo- lu-

* Expressed with the type-5 verb suffix -luʼ

Legend Meaning
Not represented
Ø- Null prefix
Imperative-mood prefixes[18]
Object
No object 1st person
singular
3rd person
singular
1st person
plural
3rd person
plural
Subject 2nd person singular yI- HI- yI- gho- tI-
2nd person plural pe-

Prefixes must be present even if the nouns or pronouns they reference are declared explicitly.[19] In certain cases with a third person object, a first or second person indirect object can be omitted by using the first and second person object prefixes instead. This is known as the prefix trick.[20]

Examples:

Qong

sleep

 

jIQong

I sleep

Qong → jIQong

sleep {} {I sleep}

nob

give

 

Dunob

It gives (to) you

nob → Dunob

give {} {It gives (to) you}

laD

read

 

yIlaD

Read it

laD → yIlaD

read {} {Read it}

Suffixes[]

Type 1 (reflexive/reciprocal)[]

This type of suffix forms reflexive verbs. There are two suffixes.

jIlegh

I see

 

jIleghʼegh

I see myself

jIlegh → jIleghʼegh

{I see} {} {I see myself}

maʼang

We reveal

 

maʼangʼegh

We reveal ourselves (individually)

maʼang → maʼangʼegh

{We reveal} {} {We reveal ourselves (individually)}

Sulegh

You(pl) see

 

Suleghchuq

You(pl) see each other

Sulegh → Suleghchuq

{You(pl) see} {} {You(pl) see each other}

Type 2 (volition/necessity)[]

This type of suffix deals with the subject's volition. There are five suffixes.

chojaʼ

You tell me

 

chojaʼnIS

You need to tell me

chojaʼ → chojaʼnIS

{You tell me} {} {You need to tell me}

lungev

They sell it

 

lungevqang

They are willing to sell it

lungev → lungevqang

{They sell it} {} {They are willing to sell it}

ghuʼ poj

He/She analyzes the situation

 

ghuʼ pojrup

He/She is ready to analyze the situation

{ghuʼ poj} → {ghuʼ pojrup}

{He/She analyzes the situation} {} {He/She is ready to analyze the situation}

ghoghlIj qon

It records your voice

 

ghoghlIj qonbeH

It is ready to record your voice

{ghoghlIj qon} → {ghoghlIj qonbeH}

{It records your voice} {} {It is ready to record your voice}

bImej

You leave

 

bImejvIp

You are afraid to leave

bImej → bImejvIp

{You leave} {} {You are afraid to leave}

Type 3 (inceptive/inchoative)[]

This type of suffix describes the action of the verb. There are two suffixes.

yIt

He/she/it walks

 

yItchoH

He/she/it starts walking

yIt → yItchoH

{He/she/it walks} {} {He/she/it starts walking}

Doq

It is red

 

DoqchoH

It becomes red

Doq → DoqchoH

{It is red} {} {It becomes red}

yIQong

Sleep!

 

yIQongqaʼ

Go back to sleep!

yIQong → yIQongqaʼ

Sleep! {} {Go back to sleep!}

Type 4 (causative)[]

There is only one suffix in this category, the causative suffix -moH. This suffix indicates that the subject is causing something to happen. If the verb to which it is added is transitive, the object becomes the indirect object. Many Klingon words are derived this way. For example, the verb clean (SayʼmoH) is derived from the verb be clean (Sayʼ).[24]

Intransitive verb:

poS lojmIt.

poS

be open

lojmIt

door

poS lojmIt

{be open} door

The door is open.

Causative form:
lojmIt poSmoH ghot.

lojmIt

door

poS

be open

-

+

moH

CAUS

ghot

person

lojmIt poS - moH ghot

door {be open} + CAUS person

The person opened the door. (lit. The person caused the door to be open.)

Transitive verb:

paq Danej.

paq

book

Da

you-it

-

+

nej

look for

paq Da - nej

book you-it + {look for}

You look/are looking for the book. (lit. You look for the book.)

Causative form:
paq qanejmoH

paq

book

qa

I-you

-

+

nej

look for

-

+

moH

CAUS

paq qa - nej - moH

book I-you + {look for} + CAUS

I made you look for the book. (lit. I caused you to look for the book.)

Type 5 (undefined subject; capability)[]

There are two unrelated suffixes in this group. The suffix -luʼ indicates an undefined subject.[24] The verb prefixes that are normally used for first or second person subject with third person singular object are used to indicate first or second person object. The suffix -laH indicates that the subject is capable of performing the action of the verb.[24]

Examples:

much bejluʼ

much

presentation

bej

watch

-

+

luʼ

INDF SBJ

much bej - luʼ

presentation watch + {INDF SBJ}

the presentation is watched, someone watches the presentation [Note 1]

much bej
He/she watches the presentation
vItlhaʼluʼ

vI

I-it

-

+

tlhaʼ

chase

-

+

luʼ

INDF SBJ

vI - tlhaʼ - luʼ

I-it + chase + {INDF SBJ}

I am chased, someone chases me

vItlhaʼ
I chase it
vIbomlaH

vI

I-it

-

+

bom

sing

-

+

laH

able to

vI - bom - laH

I-it + sing + {able to}

I can sing it

Type 6 (perfection; uncertainty)[]

This type indicates the speaker's opinion of the action of the verb. There are four suffixes.

pIQoy

we hear you

 

pIQoychuʼ

we hear you clearly

pIQoy → pIQoychuʼ

{we hear you} {} {we hear you clearly}

SuQeH

you (plural) are angry

 

SuQeHbej

you are definitely angry

SuQeH → SuQeHbej

{you (plural) are angry} {} {you are definitely angry}

luyaj

they understand it

 

luyajlawʼ

they seem to understand it

luyaj → luyajlawʼ

{they understand it} {} {they seem to understand it}

lupar

they dislike it

 

luparbaʼ

they obviously dislike it

lupar → luparbaʼ

{they dislike it} {} {they obviously dislike it}

Type 7 (aspect)[]

This type indicates the verb's aspect. There are four Type 7 suffixes.

Note that aspect is different from tense and independent of it. A "completed" event (perfective aspect, -puʼ or -taʼ) can just as easily be set before, during, or after the time of description (past, present, or future tense), or unspecified for tense. For simplicity, this section says "is completed", not "was, is, or will be completed." (Do not confusive perfective aspect with "perfectly done".)

qaS

It occurs

 

qaSpuʼ

It has occurred

qaS → qaSpuʼ

{It occurs} {} {It has occurred}

vIghor

I break it

 

vIghorpuʼ

I have broken it

vIghor → vIghorpuʼ

{I break it} {} {I have broken it}

Qu' QIj

She explains the mission

 

Qu' QIjtaʼ

She has explained the mission

{Qu' QIj} → {Qu' QIjtaʼ}

{She explains the mission} {} {She has explained the mission}

vIghor

I break it

 

vIghortaʼ

I have broken it (on purpose)

vIghor → vIghortaʼ

{I break it} {} {I have broken it (on purpose)}

jItlhuH

I breathe

 

jItlhuHtaH

I keep breathing

jItlhuH → jItlhuHtaH

{I breathe} {} {I keep breathing}

megh vIvut

I prepare lunch

 

megh vIvutlIʼ

I am preparing lunch

{megh vIvut} → {megh vIvutlIʼ}

{I prepare lunch} {} {I am preparing lunch}

The perfective aspect can also be indicated by the use of the verb form rIntaH after the main verb. This carries the connotation of irreversibility.[28]

ghorluʼ rIntaH It has been broken (and it cannot be mended)

Type 8 (honorific)[]

There is only one suffix in this group, the honorific suffix -neS. It is used when addressing any type of superior, be it social, political, or military, and only when being very polite or having high regard for that person. It is never required.[29]

-neS:

qaqIH

I meet you

 

qaqIHneS

I am honoured to meet you

qaqIH → qaqIHneS

{I meet you} {} {I am honoured to meet you}

Type 9 (syntactic)[]

Eleven suffixes specify syntactic roles in the sentence.

Nominalizers[]

Two suffixes form specific types of noun from a verb.

ʼIj

listen

 

ʼIjwIʼ

listener

ʼIj → ʼIjwIʼ

listen {} listener

woch

be tall

 

wochwIʼ

tall person or tall thing

woch → wochwIʼ

{be tall} {} {tall person or tall thing}

QallaH

be able to swim

 

QallaHghach

the ability to swim

QallaH → QallaHghach

{be able to swim} {} {the ability to swim}

pIvchoH

become healthy

 

pIvchoHghach

becoming healthy

pIvchoH → pIvchoHghach

{become healthy} {} {becoming healthy}

Modals[]

These two suffixes inflect the verb in specific grammatical moods.

DIboQnIS

We need to assist them

 

DIboQnISʼaʼ

Do we need to assist them?

DIboQnIS → DIboQnISʼaʼ

{We need to assist them} {} {Do we need to assist them?}

bIQap

You succeed

 

bIQapjaj

May you succeed

bIQap → bIQapjaj

{You succeed} {} {May you succeed}

Subordinators[]

The following seven suffixes are used to form subordinate clauses. A subordinate clause may go after or before the clause it modifies.[32]

Time

jItlheDpaʼ, HIboQ Before I depart, assist me
(jItlheD I depart, HIboQ assist me)
lumtaHvIS, pagh taʼ He accomplishes nothing while he procrastinates
(lum procrastinate, taʼ accomplish, pagh nothing)
jImej chocholDIʼ As soon as you approach me, I leave
(jImej I leave, chochol you approach me)

Cause and effect

DaSamlaHchugh, DaSuqlaH If you can find it, you can take it
(DaSamlaH you can find it, DaSuqlaH you can acquire (take) it)
bIʼIlmoʼ, qavoq Because you are sincere, I trust you
(bIʼIl you are sincere, qavoq I trust you)

(Relative and purpose clauses)

Rovers[]

This type of suffix is known as a lengwIʼ in Klingon, which is translated as rover (leng wander + wIʼ). There are four rovers. These suffixes have no defined position, and can go after the verb stem or after any suffix – even another rover – except after a type-9 suffix or where the result would be meaningless. They modify whatever directly precedes them.

wInaD

We praise it

 

wInaDbeʼ

We do not praise it

wInaD → wInaDbeʼ

{We praise it} {} {We do not praise it}

boʼollaH

You are able to verify it

 

boʼollaHbeʼ

You are not able to verify it

boʼollaH → boʼollaHbeʼ

{You are able to verify it} {} {You are not able to verify it}

yIQIp

Be stupid

 

yIQIpQoʼ

don't be stupid

yIQIp → yIQIpQoʼ

{Be stupid} {} {don't be stupid}

vIlon

I abandon it

 

vIlonQoʼ

I refuse to abandon it

vIlon → vIlonQoʼ

{I abandon it} {} {I refuse to abandon it}

narghqang

He is willing to escape

 

narghqangquʼ

He is really willing to escape

narghqang → narghqangquʼ

{He is willing to escape} {} {He is really willing to escape}

yIchuʼ

Activate it

 

yIchuʼHaʼ

De-activate it

yIchuʼ → yIchuʼHaʼ

{Activate it} {} {De-activate it}

boloʼ

you (plural) use it

 

boloʼHaʼ

you (pl.) misuse it

boloʼ → boloʼHaʼ

{you (plural) use it} {} {you (pl.) misuse it}

bIQuch

You are happy

 

bIQuchHaʼ

You are unhappy

bIQuch → bIQuchHaʼ

{You are happy} {} {You are unhappy}

The position of the rover suffixes affects the meaning of the word. Contrast

luSoplaH They are able to eat it
luSoplaHbeʼ They are not able to eat it
luSopbeʼlaH They are able to not eat it
(In context, possibly equivalent to They can refuse to eat it)
luSopbeʼlaHbeʼ They are not able to not eat it
(In context, possibly equivalent to They cannot refuse to eat it)

Pronouns and copula[]

Klingon has no verb that corresponds to the verb to be; the concept is expressed using a different grammatical construction. Pronouns can be used as verbs that act as the pronoun plus the verb to be. The pronoun can take verb suffixes, which then modify the pronoun like any other verb. A third-person subject that is not a pronoun must go after the pronoun-verb and carry the type-5 noun suffix -ʼeʼ[37]

Pronouns[38] 1st-person
singular
2nd-person
singular
3rd-person
singular
1st-person
plural
2nd-person
plural
3rd-person
plural
Capable of using language jIH SoH ghaH maH tlhIH chaH
Not capable of using language ʼoH bIH

Examples:

Adjectives[]

Klingon does not have adjectives as a distinct part of speech. Instead, many intransitive verbs can be used as adjectives, in which case they follow the noun they modify. Contrast (wep coat, and yIQ be wet)

wep yIQ
the wet coat

with

yIQ wep.
The coat is wet.

In this construction, the only verbal suffixes allowed are rover suffixes such as -quʼ and -Haʼ.[39] Type-5 noun suffixes that would normally be attached to the noun are instead attached to the adjectival verb:[40]

paʼDaq
in the room
paʼ tInDaq
in the big room (tIn big)

Adverbs[]

Adverbs are usually placed at the beginning of the sentence,[2] but time adverbs go before other adverbs.[41]

wa'leS ghaytan nujatlh.

wa'leS

tomorrow

ghaytan

likely

nu

they-us

-

+

jatlh

speak

wa'leS ghaytan nu - jatlh

tomorrow likely they-us + speak

They will probably speak to us tomorrow.

Adverbs can take the rover suffix -Haʼ to denote the opposite adverbial.[42]

Doʼ
fortunately
DoʼHaʼ
unfortunately

Conjunctions[]

Klingon has seven conjunctions, and they are different for nouns and for sentences. The noun conjunctions are je for a logical conjunction, joq for a logical disjunction and ghap for an exclusive disjunction. Noun conjunctions go after the nouns they connect. Sentence conjunctions are ʼej for a logical conjunction, qoj for a logical disjunction and pagh for an exclusive disjunction. ʼach (or ʼa) but is used to contrast sentences.[11]

Clauses[]

Relative clauses[]

In a relative clause, the verb has the type-9 verb suffix -bogh added to it.[43] The order of the words in relative clauses remains the same as in regular clauses, but the head noun may optionally get the type-5 suffix -ʼeʼ added.[44]

chuS Saj ngevbogh ghotʼeʼ.

chuS

to be noisy

Saj

pet

ngev

sell

-

+

bogh

REL

ghot

person

-

+

-ʼeʼ

FOC

chuS Saj ngev - bogh ghot - -ʼeʼ

{to be noisy} pet sell + REL person + FOC

The person who sells the pet is noisy

chuS Sajʼeʼ ngevbogh ghot.

chuS

be noisy

Saj

pet

+

+

-ʼeʼ

FOC

ngev

sell

-

 

bogh

REL

ghot

person

chuS Saj + -ʼeʼ ngev - bogh ghot

{be noisy} pet + FOC sell {} REL person

The pet which the person sells is noisy

Since there is already a type-5 noun suffix marking the head noun, nothing other than the subject or the object can be marked as head noun. Two sentences are formed instead to form the same idea. Relative clauses can have nouns with type 5 suffixes as modifiers, but it can be ambiguous as they can be misinterpreted as being part of the main sentence.[44]

Purpose clauses[]

A purpose clause expresses the reason or goal of the action of the main clause. If it is modifying a noun it states the purpose of the noun. A purpose clause always goes before the clause or noun it modifies.[43] This is the cause of some grammatical ambiguity in Klingon, as a -meH modifying a noun at the beginning of a sentence can be misinterpreted as modifying the entire sentence. This can be resolved in writing with punctuation.[44]

jumISmoHmeH, jutoj

ju

you-us

-

+

mIS

be confused

-

+

moH

CAUS

-

-

meH,

purpose

ju

you-us

-

+

toj

trick

ju - mIS - moH - meH, ju - toj

you-us + {be confused} + CAUS - purpose you-us + trick

You tricked us in order to confuse us.

QaQ vIDubmeH qechlIj

QaQ

be good

vI

I-it

-

+

Dub

improve

-

+

meH

purpose

qech

idea

-

+

lIj

your

QaQ vI - Dub - meH qech - lIj

{be good} I-it + improve + purpose idea + your

Your idea on how I should improve it is good/Your idea for improving it is good. (lit. Your idea [for I improve it] is good)

Comparatives[]

In this section, noun phrases are indicated by the abbreviation NP, and adjectives by A.

Klingon comparatives mainly rely on adjectives like lawʼ (to be many), puS (to be few), rap (to be the same), and rur (to resemble, to be like) to contrast the nouns. However, many (but not all) of the comparatives have unusual word orders that don't parse as regular Klingon sentences.

qachvam chuʼ lawʼ juHlIj chu' puS.

qachvam

this building

chuʼ

be new

lawʼ

 

juHlIj

your home

chu'

 

puS

 

qachvam chuʼ lawʼ juHlIj chu' puS

{this building} {be new} {} {your home} {} {}

This building is newer than your home. (lit. this-building new many – home-your new few)

qIDvetlh tlhaQ law' Hoch tlhaQ puS.

qIDvetlh

that joke

tlhaQ

be funny

law'

 

Hoch

 

tlhaQ

be funny

puS.

 

qIDvetlh tlhaQ law' Hoch tlhaQ puS.

{that joke} {be funny} {} {} {be funny} {}

That joke is the funniest. (lit. joke-that funny many – everything funny few)

Hoch quv lawʼ verengnan quv puS.

Hoch

 

quv

be honorable

lawʼ

 

verengnan

Ferengi

quv

 

puS.

 

Hoch quv lawʼ verengnan quv puS.

{} {be honorable} {} {Ferengi} {} {}

Ferengi are the least honorable. (lit. everyone honorable many – Ferengi honorable few)

ʼIQ rav rur.

ʼIQ

be sad

rav

floor

rur

to resemble

ʼIQ rav rur

{be sad} floor {to resemble}

He is as sad as a floor. (lit. he is sad; he is like a floor)[45]

Questions[]

A yes–no question in Klingon can be formed by adding the suffix -ʼaʼ to the regular form. The word for yes is HISlaH or HIjaʼ and the word for no is ghobeʼ.[37] Interrogative pronouns go where the answer would normally go, and don't reorder the sentence. Interrogative adverbs go at the beginning of the sentence.[46]

Numbers[]

Klingon uses a base-10 system to count numbers. To form a multiple of 10, 100, 1 000, 1 000 000, the word for the multiple of ten is suffixed to the digit. For example, chorghmaH eighty is a combination of the word chorgh eight and the number forming suffix -maH ten.

Larger powers go before smaller powers: chorghmaH Soch is eight-ten seven. The number suffix -DIch is used to form ordinal numbers, and the number suffix -logh indicates how many times an action has been repeated: loSDIch fourth, waʼmaH chaʼlogh twelve times.[47]

10 -maH
100 -vatlh
1 000 -SaD -SanID
10 000 -netlh
100 000 -bIp
1 000 000 -ʼuyʼ
0 pagh 5 vagh
1 waʼ 6 jav
2 chaʼ 7 Soch
3 wej 8 chorgh
4 loS 9 Hut

Notes[]

  1. ^ -luʼ is not the same thing as the passive voice. -luʼ makes the subject indefinite, and keeps the object where it would be if it had a subject. Unlike the passive voice, it does not make the subject the patient of the verb, except when using the verb prefixes

Sources[]

References[]

  1. ^ Okrand 1992, p.59
  2. ^ a b Okrand 1992, p.56. Note exception neH only, merely from p.56 and jayʼ (swear word) from p.177.
  3. ^ Okrand 1992, p.180
  4. ^ Okrand 1992, p.66. Note exception neH want
  5. ^ Okrand 2011
  6. ^ a b Okrand 1992, p.22
  7. ^ a b Okrand 1992, p.21
  8. ^ Okrand 1992, p.29
  9. ^ Okrand 1992, p.174
  10. ^ Okrand 1992, p.23
  11. ^ a b Okrand 1992, p.55
  12. ^ Okrand 1992, p.24
  13. ^ a b Okrand 1992, p.25
  14. ^ Okrand 1992, p.26
  15. ^ a b Okrand 1992, p.27
  16. ^ Okrand 1992, p.28
  17. ^ a b c d Okrand 1992, p.44
  18. ^ a b c Okrand 1992, p.33
  19. ^ Okrand 1992, p.52
  20. ^ Okrand, Marc; Schermerhorn, Neal (29 June 1997). "Re: Some quick questions..." Retrieved 5 July 2013.
  21. ^ Okrand 1992, p.35
  22. ^ a b Okrand 1992, p.36
  23. ^ a b Okrand 1992, p.37
  24. ^ a b c Okrand 1992, p.38
  25. ^ Okrand 1992, p.40
  26. ^ a b c Okrand 1992, p.175
  27. ^ Okrand 1992, p.41
  28. ^ a b Okrand 1992, p.42
  29. ^ a b Okrand 1992, p.43
  30. ^ Okrand, Marc; Schoen, Lawrence M. (September 1994). "Interview: Okrand on -ghach". HolQeD. Flourtown, Pennsylvania: Klingon Language Institute. 3 (3): 10–13.
  31. ^ Okrand 1992, p.176
  32. ^ Okrand 1992, p.62
  33. ^ Okrand 1992, p.46
  34. ^ a b Okrand 1992, p.47
  35. ^ Okrand 1992, p.48
  36. ^ Okrand 1992, p.49
  37. ^ a b Okrand 1992, p.68
  38. ^ Okrand 1992, p.51
  39. ^ Okrand 1992, p.49, says only -quʼ, but later canon examples expand the set, for example ngaDHaʼ in Okrand 1997, p.150
  40. ^ Okrand 1992, p.50
  41. ^ Okrand 1992, p.179
  42. ^ Okrand, Marc (December 1995). "More from Maltz". HolQeD. Flourtown, Pennsylvania: Klingon Language Institute. 4 (4): 11.
  43. ^ a b c Okrand 1992, p.64
  44. ^ a b c Okrand, Marc; Schoen, Lawrence M. (June 1995). "Interview: Okrand on -bogh and more". HolQeD. Flourtown, Pennsylvania: Klingon Language Institute. 4 (2): 5–6.
  45. ^ Native Klingon Simile from Okrand, Marc (September 1997). Klingon for the Galactic Traveller. Pocket Books. p. 134. ISBN 978-0671009953.
  46. ^ Okrand 1992, p.69
  47. ^ Okrand 1992, p.53-55