Kasur

Kasur
قصُور
Qasur
City
The shrine of the 17th century Sufi saint Bulleh Shah is located in central Kasur
The shrine of the 17th century Sufi saint Bulleh Shah is located in central Kasur
Kasur is located in Punjab, Pakistan
Kasur
Kasur
Kasur is located in Pakistan
Kasur
Kasur
Coordinates: 31°7′0″N 74°27′0″E / 31.11667°N 74.45000°E / 31.11667; 74.45000Coordinates: 31°7′0″N 74°27′0″E / 31.11667°N 74.45000°E / 31.11667; 74.45000
Country  Pakistan
Province Flag of Punjab.svg Punjab
District Kasur
Founded by Kheshgi tribe of Pashtuns
Area
 • Total 3,995 km2 (1,542 sq mi)
Elevation 218 m (715 ft)
Population (2007)
 • Total 288,181
 • Density 595/km2 (1,540/sq mi)
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
Calling code 049

Kasur or Qasur (Punjabi and Urdu: قصُور‎) is a city located to south of Lahore, in the Pakistani province of Punjab. The city serves as the headquarters of Kasur District, and is located near the border with neighbouring India. Founded by Pashtun migrants in 1525, Kasur is now the 20th most populous city of Pakistan,[1] and is renowned as the burial place of the legendary 17th century Sufi-poet Bulleh Shah.

Etymology[]

Kasur derives its name from the Arabic word qasur (قصور),[2][3] meaning “palaces,” or “forts.” Hindu traditions claim that Kasur was founded by, and named for, Prince Kusha of the Ramayana,[4] son of the Hindu deities Rama and Sita. Historical record rejects an ancient mythological founding for the city, and instead dates the city to around 1525 when the city was founded as a fortified settlement by the Kheshgi tribe of Pashtuns who had migrated from what is now Afghanistan.[5][6][7]

History[]

The hilltop shrine of Shah Kamal Chisti is a popular shrine in Kasur.

Early[]

Kasur region was an agricultural region with forests during the Indus Valley Civilization. The Kasur region was ruled variously by the Maurya Empire, Indo-Greek kingdom, Kushan Empire, Gupta Empire, White Huns, Kushano-Hephthalites and Hindu Shahi kingdoms.

Founding[]

Kasur was established as a city by Kheshgi tribe of Mohammadzai Pashtuns who had migrated to the region in 1525 from Afghanistan,[8] during the reign of Babur, and built several small forts in the area.[9][10] During this time, the Punjab region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints.

Mughal[]

Under Mughal rule, the city flourished and was notable for commerce and trade. It became the home of the legendary Sufi saint and celebrated poet, Bulleh Shah, who is buried in a large shrine in the city.

Sikh[]

After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Kasur region fell into a power vacuum. Kasur was captured by Ahmad Shah Durrani, though Sikhs sacked the city in 1747 under Jassa Singh Ahluwalia,[11] and again in 1763 after Durrani shifted to Afghanistan.[12] The Sikh Empire under Ranjit Singh then captured the city in 1807.[13] In 1825, it was conquered by Nawab Shariyaar Khan (Nawab of Sultanate-e-uzma of Khora Seyal).

British[]

During the British Raj, the irrigation canals were built that irrigated large areas of the Kasur District. Communal disturbances between Sikhs, Hindus, and Muslims erupted in 1908 over the issue of meat sales.[14] Riots erupted following the Jallianwala Bagh massacre on 12 April 1919, leading to the destruction of civic infrastructure, including the city’s railway station.[15] Martial law was imposed on 16 April 1919 in response to the riots.[16]

Modern[]

Refugees at Balloki, Kasur during the Partition of British India in 1947

After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs were to migrate to India while the Muslim Muhajir people, migrated from India and settled in Kasur. Kasur emerged as a major center of leather tanning after independence, and is home to 1/3rd of Pakistan’s tanning industry.[17] Kasur was attacked by Indian forces on 09 September 1965, but was successfully defended by Pakistani forces.[18]

In January 2018, two protestors were killed in rioting over the rape and murder of a seven-year-old girl. There had been 12 similar murders in the past two years, five of which have been linked to one suspect, leading to widespread anger at police failures.[19][20]

Geography[]

Kasur is bordered to the north by Lahore, by India to the south and east, the city is adjacent to the border of Ganda Singh Wala, a border with its own flag-lowering ceremony.

Notable people[]

Agriculture[]

The main crops in Kasur are wheat, corn, rice, potatoes, sugar cane and turmeric.

References[]

  1. ^ http://www.pbs.gov.pk/sites/default/files//tables/POPULATION%20SIZE%20AND%20GROWTH%20OF%20MAJOR%20CITIES.pdf
  2. ^ Singh, Maya; Clark, Henry Martyn (1895). The Panjábí Dictionary. Munshi Gulab Singh & sons. 
  3. ^ Chopra, Gulshan Lall (1940). Chiefs and Families of Note in the Punjab. Government Printing. 
  4. ^ Nadiem, Ihsan N (2005). Punjab: land, history, people. Al-Faisal Nashran. p. 111. Retrieved 2009-05-29. 
  5. ^ Sikand, Yoginder (2011-07-19). Beyond The Border: An Indian in Pakistan. Penguin UK. ISBN 9789352141326. 
  6. ^ Nadiem, Ihsan H. (2005). Punjab: land, history, people. al-Faisal Nashran. ISBN 9789695032831. 
  7. ^ Chopra, Gulshan Lall (1940). Chiefs and Families of Note in the Punjab. Government Printing. 
  8. ^ Chopra, Gulshan Lall (1940). Chiefs and Families of Note in the Punjab. Government Printing. 
  9. ^ Beyond The Border. 
  10. ^ Nadiem, Ihsan H. (2005). Punjab: land, history, people. al-Faisal Nashran. ISBN 9789695032831. 
  11. ^ Singha, Dr H. S. (2005). Sikh Studies. Hemkunt Press. ISBN 9788170102588. 
  12. ^ Lansford, Tom (2017-02-16). Afghanistan at War: From the 18th-Century Durrani Dynasty to the 21st Century. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781598847604. 
  13. ^ Lansford, Tom (2017-02-16). Afghanistan at War: From the 18th-Century Durrani Dynasty to the 21st Century. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781598847604. 
  14. ^ Khawaja, Sarfraz (1985). Sikhs of the Punjab, 1900-1925: a study of confrontation & political mobilization. Modern Book Depot. 
  15. ^ Chopra, Gulshan Lall (1940). Chiefs and Families of Note in the Punjab. Government Printing. 
  16. ^ Punjab Through the Ages. Sarup & Sons. 2007. ISBN 9788176257381. 
  17. ^ Heiden, Pete (2011-09-01). Pakistan. ABDO Publishing Company. ISBN 9781617878275. 
  18. ^ Nanda, K. K. (2013). War With No Gains. Prabhat Prakashan. ISBN 9788184302417. 
  19. ^ "Zainab murder: Riots in Pakistan's Kasur after child rape and killing". BBC News. 10 January 2018. 
  20. ^ "Pakistani anchor goes on air with daughter to protest minor's brutal rape and murder". The Times of India. 11 January 2018.